ZOO115 Invertebrate Zoology Phylum Onychophora Onychophora (Talon bearer)General Characteristics Common name: Velvet worms Intermediate between annelids and arthropods ~110 species Fossil records from Early Cambrian period (~530 MYA) Terrestrial
Dark humid tropical regions http://www.mnhn.fr/assoc/myriapoda/IMAGES/OOPERIHI.JPG Onychophora - General Characteristics Soft-bodied Wormlike 5mm-15cm in length Segmented with serial repetition of organs http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/zo150/mozley/fall/Onychophora.jpg
Onychophora Support Body is covered by thin chitinous cuticle Similar to arthropods Highly permeable Flexible Accordion-like Circular/Diagonal muscle Longitudinal muscle
Longitudinal, circular, diagonal and surface oblique muscles Body wall, other than cuticle, similar to Annelids Hemocoel Slime glan Oblique muscle Attached to surface Onychophora - Locomotion Trunk bears 13-43 pairs of appendages
http://www.jcu.edu.au/school/tbiol/zoology/pictures/peripat5.jpg with claws Like parapodia of polychaetes Operated as part of the hemocoel http://www.jcu.edu.au/school/tbiol/zoology/pictures/peripat2.jpg Onychophora - Nutrition Carnivores - eat small arthropods
Secrete jets of slime up to 30 cm to entangle prey Lacerate prey with mandibles (jaws) Secrete saliva with hydrolytic enzymes Pharynx pumps liquid food into stomach http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/zo150/mozley/fall/ Onychophanat.jpg Onychophora - Digestion Chitin-lined foregut (pharynx and esophagus
midgut (intestine digestion and absorption Slime gland http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/zo150/mozley/fall/Onychophanat.jpg Onychophora - Excretion Anus for solid waste Nephridia - like arthropods http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/zo150/mozley/fall/Onychophanat.jpg Onychophora Circulation Open system similar to arthropods
Heart tubular heart with pericardial sinus large hemocoel Hemocoel Gas exchange small openings in each segment Spiracles
lead to tracheal tubes From Brusca and Brusca (2003) Nephridia Onychophora - Nervous system Ladderlike nervous system - like both annelids and arthropods Paired ventral nerve cord Sensory
Antennae Eyes at base of antennae Sensilla on sensory papillae http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/zo150/mozley/fall/Onychophanat.jpg Onychophora - Reproduction Separate sexes Sexually dimorphic Sperm transferred by spermatophore
Males smaller In Peripatopsis, spermataphores placed anywhere on female, her cuticle temporarily dissolves and takes up the sperm. Most bear live young
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