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TLC Working One to One: Authentically Student-Centred Learning Development Dr Helen Webster Newcastle University UK @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Explore the possibilities Who Are We? Who am I? Learning Developer Who are you? Common aim: how to have one to one conversations with students about their learning, to help them succeed.

@ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre How do we envisage these conversations? Whats the slogan on your T-Shirt? @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Shared Values Emancipat ory Collaborat Aspirational

Socialive justice PersonNoncentred judgemental Holistic Inclusive Empowering Situat Reflecti ve Non-directive Student-led

@ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Study Skills Conversations Avoid abbreviations and contractions. Write words out in full: dept. as department e.g. as for example didnt as did not theyre as they are isnt as is not Avoid personal pronouns such as I/we and you. Instead,

sentences begin in impersonal ways such as it can be seen that Linking ideas together: Introducing an alternative viewpoint: conversely; in comparison; on the contrary; in fact; though; although. (Cottrell, Study Skills Handbook) @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre The Study Skills Model The study skills model sees writing and literacy as primarily an individual and cognitive skill. This approach focusses on the surface features of language form and presumes that students can transfer their knowledge of writing and literacy unproblematically from one context to another. (Lea and Street, 2006).

Study Skills: [Remediation of] Student Deficit. Fix it, atomised [transferable] skills; surface language, grammar, spelling. Sources: behavioural and experimental psychology; programmed learning Student writing as technical and instrumental skill (Robinson-Pant and Street, 2012). @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Academic Socialisation Conversations Academic writing is clear, concise, focussed, structured and backed up by evidence. Its purpose is to aid the readers understanding. Characteristics of academic writing. Academic writing is: Planned and focused: answers the question and demonstrates an understanding of the subject. Structured: is coherent, written in a logical order, and brings together related

points and material. Evidenced: demonstrates knowledge of the subject area, supports opinions and arguments with evidence, and is referenced accurately. Formal in tone and style: uses appropriate language and tenses, and is clear, concise and balanced @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre The Academic Socialisation Model Academic socialization is concerned with students acculturation into disciplinary and subject-based discourses and genres. Students acquire the ways of talking, writing, thinking and using literacy that typified members of a disciplinary or subject area community. The academic socialization model presumes that disciplinary discourses are relatively stable and, once students have learned and understood the ground rules of a particular academic discourse, they are able to reproduce it unproblematically. (Lea and Street, 2006).

Academic socialisation: acculturation of students into academic discourse Inducting students into new culture; focus on orientation to learning and interpretation of learning task, e.g. deep, surface, strategic learning; homogeneous culture, lack of focus on institutional practices, change and power. Sources: social psychology, anthropology, constructivism. Student writing as transparent medium of representation. (Robinson-Pant and Street, 2012). @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Whats really going on: A contradiction? The Learning Developers role is to respond to this [student] expectation by identifying issues, offering suggestions or solutions whilst at the same time encouraging autonomy (Caldwell et al, 2018). One

(LDer) to One (Student) @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Translate: Learning Developer: Learning Developer: It might be better if you Do you think it might be worth trying?

Im not sure about I wonder if What do you think? This would be better. You should do this. This is wrong. I think this. Agree with me. @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Whats really going on: A lack of congruence? so maybe you, it might be better if you put it at the beginning. This is a conventionally indirect suggestion, using a

mitigator (maybe) and conditional (might) so that the LD appears not to be telling the student directly what to do, but instead makes a hypothetical suggestion. Furthermore, the LD changes the pronoun you to it to give the impression that the LD has no personal claim in the solution and so that the student can eventually own it. (Caldwell et al, 2018, highlighting mine) @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Whats really going on: A dilemma? To pretend that there is not a hierarchical relationship between tutor and student is a fallacy, and to engineer peer tutoring techniques that divest the tutor of power and authority is at

times foolish and can even be unethical. (Carino, 2003). So should we be oppressive or disingenuous? @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre What were left with Identify Hm, lets have a look at your essay Explain Examine

Diagnose Ah, I see the issue, look Advise Prescribe What you need to do is @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Disempowering the student The tutorial is therefore guided by the LD and the student adheres by providing continuers, agreements and minimal responses. Challenge is rare, yet accounts are often provided after LD evaluation to

defend, save face or explain (Caldwell, 2018). @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre The Academic Literacies Model Academic literacies is concerned with meaning-making, identity, power and authority, and foregrounds the institutional nature of what counts as knowledge in any particular academic context. It [] views the processes involved in acquiring appropriate and effective uses of literacy as more complex, dynamic, nuanced, situated and involving both epistemological issues and social processes, including power relations among people, institutions and social identities. (Lea and Street, 2006). Academic Literacies: Students negotiation of conflicting literary practices Literacies as social practices; at level of epistemologies and identities; institutions as sites of/constituted in discourses and power; variety of communicative repertoire, switching with regard to linguistic practices, social meanings and identities, Sources: New Literacy studies; critical discourse analysis, systemic functional

linguistics, cultural anthropology. Student Writing as constitutive and contested. (Robinson-Pant and Street, 2012). @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre What would that conversation look like? One that acknowledges: The place of identity and social context The multiplicity of perspectives and discourses Meaning-making and its contested nature The role of power and authority The need for negotiation @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Why look to Clinical Psychology?

At some level, it all makes sense (Butler, 1998) As no one else can know how we perceive, we are the best experts on ourselves (Gross, 1992) The single most damaging effect of psychiatric diagnosis is loss of meaning as peoples problems are divested of their personal and social situatedness and labelled as illness. (Johnstone, 2017). @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre What is Formulation? A core skill, although there is no universally agreed definition of formulation (DCP 2011) The tool [] the lynchpin that holds theory and practice together (Butler, 1998) A crucible (Dudley and Kuyken, 2013) A shared narrative or story (DCP, 2011) constructed rather than discovered (Harper and Spellman 2006)

The process of co-constructing a hypothesis (Johnstone, 2017) A process of ongoing collaborative sense-making (Harper and Moss, 2003) @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Characteristics of formulation: Person- not Problem-centred All formulations: summarise the service users core problems; suggest how the service users difficulties may relate to one another, by drawing on psychological theories and principles; aim to explain, on the basis of psychological theory, the development and maintenance of the service users difficulties, at this time and in these situations; indicate a plan of intervention which is based in the psychological processes and principles already identified;

are open to revision and re-formulation. (Johnstone and Dallos, 2006) @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Rethinking Authority The clinician brings knowledge derived from theory, research and clinical experience, while the service user brings expertise about their own life and the meaning and impact of their relationships and circumstances (Johnstone, 2017) 1 (LDer) 2

1 (Studen t) @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Whose learning? Lecture rs Learnin g Develo per Studen ts

Learnin g Outcom es @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Student Opening up our role Agency Mento r Listen er

Tutor Knowled ge Student Knowled ge Teach er Tutor Agency Coach @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre The Five Ps of LD

Percepti on of task Pertinen t factors Presenti ng Proble m Product Process @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre

The Five Ps of LD Percepti on of task Pertinen t factors Presenti ng Proble m Product Process @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre

Formulation in identifying the issue Do you hear voices that no one else can hear? Yes. @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Formulation and co-constructing meaning I have really good hearing I talk to myself in my head My flats walls are really thin I live with my grandmother whos deaf. I pray. I find it comforting. I listen to podcasts on headphones a lot

Its ok, I can hear that too, its not just you Sorry, I thought you were being metaphorical! No, not literally. @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Formulation in identifying the issue Im not very good at writing What does the problem mean to the student? Whose problem is it? Is it a problem? Is it THE problem? @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre The Five Ps of LD

Percepti on of task Pertinen t factors Presenti ng Proble m Product Process @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre

Learns well with video Broke up with boyfrien d Internatio nal student Youre bad at statistics Full of cold

today Changed degree @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre The Five Ps of LD Percepti on of task Pertinen t factors Presenti ng Proble m

Product Process @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Maybe we could learn a thing or two In these [study skills] approaches, the distance between tutors expectations and student-writers understanding of such expectations is problematized as a mismatch which can be resolved if tutors state clearly to student-writers, in written or spoken words, what is required (Lillis, 2001) The rat is always right (B. F. Skinner, cited in Lindsley, 1990)

@ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre The Five Ps of LD Percepti on of task Pertinen t factors Presenti ng Proble m Product

Process @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre The Writing Process (Coffin, 2002) @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre The Five Ps of LD Percepti on of task

Pertinen t factors Presenti ng Proble m Product Process @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Problematising writing Learning out come this [conduit] metaphor signals the following common sense notions about

language: [] that language is a transparent medium, reflecting rather than constructing meanings (Lillis, 2001) @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Strategies: constructing authorial identity Authority Authorship Who can you be? Who do you want

to be? Who do you need to be? What can you say? What do you want to say? What do you need to say? Authorial Presence How can you say

it? How do you want to say it? How do you need to say it? Heuristic adapted from Lillis, 2001 @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Formulation techniques Contracting and re-contracting explaining your role regarding them Congruent: genuinely open questions and non-directive language Consensual: explaining why youre asking or proposing and

what you hope it will achieve Juxtaposition: bringing elements together so the student can negotiate meaning and resolution in the interstices Two of the 5 Ps, Past and Present, two Perspectives, two Contexts Inviting the students comment, challenge, questions, conclusions, reflections, choices, interpretations, rejections, solutions, etc. @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Formulation techniques @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre

The difference between Diagnosis and Formulation in Learning Development @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Suggestions for Practice LD Formulation may not always be appropriate or necessary develops learning in its own right it is an intervention could be used alongside other LD activities e.g. coaching, teaching, advising (care should be taken in contracting) is an iterative, ongoing process open to revision is non-linear could be light-touch or in-depth could be used to underpin other LD activities e.g. workshop design

is a rich source of CPD for the Learning Developer @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Differences with Clinical Psychology Clinical Psychology Learning Development Distress and mental ill health are inherently problems Learning is by nature challenging and unsettling Alleviate distress and problematic behaviours

Not remedial Treatment More learning! Therapy Not therapy (possibly therapeutic?) Achievement and maintenance of wellbeing Exponential and ongoing learning Ongoing treatment process Often one-off or short term

Assessment*, Formulation, Treatment No linear or formally staged process mixed in Clinician - Service User University Learning Developer Student @ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre Contact: Dr Helen Webster Head of the Writing Development Centre, Newcastle University Email: [email protected] Twitter: @scholastic_rat Blog:

@ncl_wdc Writing Development Centre

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