1st Semester Exam Review I. Credibility & Bias Credibility- Capable of being believed. Worthy of belief. Confidence. (Watch for Bias) Reliability-Proven accurate, a source you can trust that contains correct information CRAPP- Current, Reliable, Authority, Purpose, Point of View Backed by facts not opinions Is consistent with other information Primary v Secondary Source Primary- 1st person, was there Thesis- A position taken in an argument supported by a set of reasons- or main idea

Support- Back up with details Refute- Prove wrong using evidence -Is always credible, but can be biased- in their own words & point of view Secondary- Comment on or analysis of an original text Not always credible II. Enlightenment Ideas Scientific Revolution- Apply Reason to natural world/ Question everythingReplaces the Church as the answers to scientific questions Natural Rights/Laws- All people free, Life, Liberty & Pursuit of Happiness Government exists to protect your natural rights/People control Government/Change Bad Governments (Revolution) Enlightenment Impact on America Declaration of Independence= Failure of British to Protect our Natural Rights US Constitution: Social Contract; Division of Power; Protection of Rights

Thinkers John Locke- Natural Rights, Govt protect natural rights. Representative Democracy Thomas Hobbes- social contract, strong central govt, people evil. Absolute Monarchy Baron de MontesquieuSeparation of Powers, Representative Democracy Enlightenment (cont.) Divine Right of Kings -God picked the King/Queen God -To go against King is to go against Governments in the 1600s & 1700s dislike Enlightenment because: -Dont like their rule being questioned -Goes against tradition Mercantilism- -Against Divine Right -Government controls economy &

Trade -Has Colonies to make money -Goal: Positive balance of = more Gold/Silver trade -Enlightenment: People should decide what is to be produced & traded; no government interaction -People wield power/not the government -Calls for the overthrow of bad governments -Called for a separation of Church & State III. Revolutions Part I General Info Revolution: major change in an area- Political, Economical, Socially American Revolution Causes: 1. Stamp Act & Intolerable Acts 2. Pamphlets- Common Sense 3. Enlightenment 4. Boston Tea Party Political Revolutions & Enlightenment- our natural rights are not protected so replace that government 5. Boston Massacre

Be able to compare & contrast revolutions 2. Spread Democratic Ideas Effects 1. Influenced Other Revolutions Revolutions Part 2 Latin American French Revolution 1. Causes: Taxes on 3rd Estate- 98% of Population & Inequality amongst Estates 1. Causes: American Revolution Start: Storming of Bastille Successful Revolutions in USA & France Spain Weakened by Napoleon

Creoles & Mestizos Upset with Spanish 1. Effects 2. Effects: Middle Class (bourgeois) Gain Power Nationalism Spread of Revolutionary Ideas Revolution Spread of Nationalism Outlawing of slavery in many nations IV. Industrial Revolution Why does it start in England? Agrarian Revolution- more food, fewer farmers neededmore workers for factories Laissez-Faire: Hands-Off

Government does not get involved in economy: FreeMarket economy: Supply & Demand Industrialization: Go from handmade, highly skilled workers, to machine made- low skill workers Labor Unions- formed to address working conditionsgave a united front to factory owners/Factory Owners 1. Geography- Resources 2. Capital- Money 3. Population Growth 4. Technology Needs of Industrialism 1. Big Population (Workers) 2. Natural Resources 3. Transportation Effects of the Industrial Revolution Positive More & Cheaper Goods Rise of Middle Class Class Movement Importance of Education

Urbanization Negative Poor Working Conditions Unsanitary Conditions in Cities Lower class= no movement Imperialism (Search for New Markets & Resources) Child Labor -Kids as young as 8 in factories -Cheaper & Small -Abuse/ Low Pay -Dangerous Conditions -No Education -Physical Problems V.TheImperialism take over or control of Old Imperialism- Take colonies to set up extensions of mother country New Imperialism- take over for raw materials & markets for industrialism. Also as a symbol of power & prestige

Social Darwinism: Survival of the Fittest Western society superior- so force it upon the inferior countries. Also spread religion. Assimilation: Forcing a group of people to take on your customs & traditions. (Under Asia) Industrialism & Imperialism another nation or territory Nationalism & Imperialism: The Prestige & Honor of taking territories Gamesmanship Why European success? -Better Technology, Military and Medicine -Industrialism led to a need for more raw materials & new markets -Led to Imperialism- exploit areas (Raw Materials in Africa & New Markets in Asia) Imperialism in Africa & Asia Africa Asia

Was imperialized because of its wealth of natural resources Imperialized generally for its large population- access to markets White Mans Burden belief that it was the duty of Europeans to civilize & Christianize the inferior people Sphere of Influence: Areas of economic control carved out of China by the Europeans Great Game/Scramble for Africa: division of Africa by the European powers- take as much as land as possible -Positive Effects: Access to European Technology & Schooling. Better Health Care, Economic Expansion (Done for Europeans living there) Negative Effects: Loss of culture, loss of political control , exploitation of land, borders based on European conquest instead of tribal borders -Positive Effects Access to education & technology (railroads), hospitals. (All done for Europeans living there) -Negative Effects- Loss of political

control, economy tied to mother country- not needs of the citizens, exploitation. Collapse of governments. Culture hurt Test Strategies Be On Time 15% of grade- no floor Bring Pencil Answer correct question Short & Extended Response: Study Session- may stop in morning of exam- let me know day before. 1. Complete ideas 2. Answer all parts of question 3. Answer what is asked 4. I can only grade what is on the paper

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