WORKSHOP Reflective Teaching and its Application Andrew Pollard
WORKSHOP Reflective Teaching and its Application Andrew Pollard ELTDP Symposium, Kuching, 21st February, 2013 The essence of professionalism is the exercise of skills, knowledge and judgement for the public
good. Challenges in classroom life The practical demands of classroom teaching and the complicated nature of educational issues ensure that a teacher's work is never finished. The Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025
Aspirations for Malaysian education by 2020 Access 100% enrolment across all levels
Quality top third in PISA, TIMMS, etc Equity 50% reduction in achievement gaps Unity shared values, embracing diversity Efficiency maximising outcomes within budget (Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2013-2025, preliminary report) 11 Shifts Shift 1: Provide equal access to quality
education of an international standard Shift 2: Ensure every child is proficient in Bahasa Malaysia and English language Shift 3: Develop values-driven Malaysians Shift 4: Transform teaching into the profession of choice Shift 5: Ensure high-performing school leaders in every school 11 Shifts
Shift 6: Empower JPNs, PPDs, and schools to customise solutions based on need Shift 7: Leverage ICT to scale up quality learning across Malaysia Shift 8: Transform Ministry delivery capabilities and capacity Shift 9: Partner with parents, community, and private sector at scale Shift 10: Maximise student outcomes for every ringgit
Shift 11: Increase transparency for direct public accountability Transformation impacts for students Expectations Students will learn in an environment where the fundamental belief is that all students can learn and all students can succeed. Teachers will have high expectations of students regardless of their background or prior achievement, and will provide them with the necessary support to meet those expectations;
Engagement Students will have greater say in shaping their learning experience. Teachers will work with them and their parents to set their own learning targets. Teachers will also encourage them to be advocates for themselves so that teachers understand what learning styles work best for each of them. In return, students will be asked to try their best at all times and to work collaboratively with their teachers to reduce disruptive classroom behaviour. All students will have the collective responsibility to help make their school safe and conducive to learning.
Transformation impacts for students Curriculum Students will have a richer school experience, both academic and nonacademic. There will be more community-based projects and cross-school activities to foster interaction with individuals from all walks of life. There will be more opportunities for students to pursue their interests in academic, vocational or technical streams. Pedagogy Students will have a richer school experience, both academic and nonacademic. There will be more project and group-based work to develop students higher-order thinking skills and ability to work both independently and
collaboratively in groups. There will be more opportunities for students to learn at their own pace. Assessment Student progress will be recorded using continuous school-based assessment as part of routine classroom practice and in relation to six bands of achievement for each KSSR learning outcome. Each child should have their own portfolio of evidence, with an additional portfolio recording the best work from the class as a whole. (JW) Meta-cognition
and thinking skills Children have the capacity to reflect on their own thinking processes and to develop their learning strategies. Self-awareness Playfulness Self-regulation Tharp and Gallimore, 1988
Learning in domains Understanding about learning in particular subjects is rapidly growing. Effective sequencing Particular difficulties
Threshold concepts Conceptual frameworks Knowledge Pupils find it hard to apply school knowledge in everyday life, because it does not easily transfer into alternative frames of reference. Teachers find it hard to draw on the funds of knowledge which children develop and
use outside school. Pros and cons of direct instruction Direct instruction refers to a teaching strategy in which the teacher works with the whole-class in direct, active and purposive ways. It is very well established. Direct instruction does have its limitations. It is not effective with all pupils and is more suited to
teaching basic skills than to teaching higher order thinking skills. (Muijs and Reynolds, 2010) Visible learning Synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses shows: Almost all teachings strategies can be effective, but some are more effective than others. Active and guided instruction is much more
effective that unguided, facilitative methods. The methods that work best lead to a very active, direct involvement and high sense of agency in the learning and teaching process (Hattie, 2010, p244) Visible learning focus on: establishing clear learning intentions and success criteria students cognitive engagement with the
content of what is being taught monitoring student proficiency and understanding (with evidence) providing timely and appropriate feedback to students trying to see learning though the eyes of the students Visible learning There is no recipe, no new teaching method. It
is a way of thinking: my role, as teacher is to evaluate the effect I have on my students. This requires that teachers gather dependable evidence from many sources, and hold collaborative discussions with colleagues and students about this evidence, thus making the effect of their teaching visible to themselves and to others. (Hattie, 2012, p19)
Innovating and taking risks Imagining Experimenting Evaluating pupil learning Learning ourselves Creating again ....... expanding our repertoire of teaching strategies Discussion in a science lesson: UK
Discussion in a science lesson: Jamaica Routine action Routine action is guided by factors such as tradition, habit and authority and takenfor-granted assumptions. It is relatively static and unresponsive to changing priorities and circumstances. Reflective action
Reflective action involves a willingness to engage in constant selfappraisal and development. It implies flexibility, use of evidence, rigorous analysis and social awareness. Problem Issue Dilemmas Evidence
Judgement Possible topics for classroom enquiry Teaching Proportions of teacher/pupil talk (make a recording, ) Clarity of explanation (record, consult children, ) Open/closed questions (record, use observer, ) Use of teacher time (keep diary, video, use observer) Use of praise (analyse marking feedback, use observer,
ask children for examples, quantify, ) Learning Pupil engagement/time on task (focus on specific pupil) Pupil understanding (test, analyse errors by class, ) Learning disposition (questionnaire, record discussion, ..) Possible topics for classroom enquiry
Curriculum Continuity and progression (analyse documentation, track pupil experience, ) Variety and pace (analyse actual provision, consult children, ) Class management Management of transitions (compare incidents, ) With-it-ness (monitor awareness, user observer, ) Catch-em-being-good? (record action, analyse control) Relationships (diary, analyse incidents, consult children)
Opportunities and social consequences Inclusion/exclusion (search for patterns in rewards, status, achievement, etc, by gender, ethnicity, social class, etc) Activity 1: Sharing and discussing an example of successful practice Work in pairs. In turn or otherwise, identify one specific illustration of successful teaching and learning in which you have been involved.
What made this successful? What judgements did you make, and why? What evidence informed your judgement? What additional evidence might have helped? Seven elements of reflective practice 1. Consideration of aims and consequences 2. A cyclical enquiry process
3. Enquiry skills 4. Attitudes 5. Judgement 6. Learning with colleagues 7. Creative mediation 1. Aims and consequences Reflective teaching implies an active concern with aims and consequences as well as means and practical competence.
2. A cyclical enquiry process Reflective teaching is applied in a cyclical or spiralling process in which teachers monitor, evaluate and revise their own practice. Problem Issue Reflect
Reflective teaching requires competence in methods of evidence-based classroom enquiry. Which facet of classroom life should be investigated and why? What evidence to collect and how? How can findings be analysed, interpreted and applied? Questions for any enquiry Is design of your enquiry appropriate and
coherent? (sample) Does the evidence you have collected really indicate the nature of what is being investigated? (validity) Would the same sort of evidence be found again, or by someone else? (reliability) Are the conclusions you have drawn really justified? (analysis) 4. Attitudes
Reflective teaching requires particular attitudes: Openmindedness Responsibility Wholeheartedness 5. Judgement Reflective teaching is based on teacher judgement, informed by evidence-based enquiry and insights from other research.
Problem Issue How are findings to be interpreted? Reflect Dilemmas
principles to support professional judgement? 6. Learning with colleagues Reflective teaching, professional learning and personal fulfilment are enhanced through collaboration and dialogue with colleagues.
Problem Issue How are findings to be interpreted? Reflect Dilemmas Evidence
Judgement Collect evidence Understanding through a conceptual framework and language for discussion Analyse & evaluate CURRICULUM
Concepts representing professional expertise? Aims Contexts
Principle Alignment 2. Elements of learning Balance Repertoire
Validity 3. Community context Connection Warrant Dependability
4. Institutional context Coherence Culture Expectation 5. Processes for learners
social needs Personalisation Relationships Inclusion 6. Process for learners emotional needs
Relevance Engagement Authenticity 7. Processes for learners cognitive needs
Differentiation Dialogue Feed-back 8. Outcomes for continuous improvement in learning Progression
Reflection Development 9. Outcomes for certification and the lifecourse Effectiveness
Empowerment Consequence 7. Creative mediation Reflective teaching enables teachers to creatively mediate externally developed frameworks for teaching and learning. An example
Reflecting on displays of childrens work in school to celebrate their work, to set high expectations and encourage engagement With thanks to: Howe Park First School, Milton Keynes Problem Our display boards should reflect our culture and expectations but do they
engage the children? Issue the school environment conveys messages about what is valued Dilemmas How to affirm childrens work and emphasise teaching points? How to keep displays fresh and not spend too much time on them. Evidence Judgement - What to do next?
Welcome and induction to school Creative and physical development Creative and physical development
Lowry in Milton Keynes Lowry in Milton Keynes Harvest Harvest Seasides
Seasides Problem Our display boards should reflect our culture and expectations but do they engage the children? Issue the school environment conveys messages about what is valued Dilemmas How to affirm childrens work and emphasise teaching points? How to keep displays fresh and not spend too much
time on them. Evidence Judgement - What to do next? Questions for any enquiry Is design of your enquiry appropriate and coherent? (sample) Does the evidence you have collected really indicate the nature of what is being
investigated? (validity) Would the same sort of evidence be found again, or by someone else? (reliability) Are the conclusions you have drawn really justified? (analysis) Problem Issue Reflect
Dilemmas Evidence Collect evidence Judgement Analyse & evaluate Activity 1: Sharing and discussing an
example of a problem in classroom practice Work in pairs. In turn or otherwise, identify one specific illustration of a problem in teaching and learning in which you have been involved. What is the problem? What issues may underlie the problem? What actions are possible, and what are their advantages and disadvantages? What evidence might help to inform your judgement?
Reflective practice can: Develop professional judgement; Enhance childrens learning and attainment; Contribute to school improvement;
Be enjoyable and personally fulfilling; Strengthen teachers contribution to policy evaluation and development. The spiral of professional development Reflective action Active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief and supposed form of knowledge in the light of grounds that
support it and the further consequences to which it leads. (Dewey, 1933, p 9) Useful websites www.tlrp.org www.reflectiveteaching.co.uk www.reflectiveteaching.co.uk/deepeningexpertise/conceptual-framework/
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