Wheat - Grain Crops

Wheat - Grain Crops

Wheat Diseases (Fusarium Head Blight) Presentation by: Chad Lee, Grain Crops Extension Specialist University of Kentucky Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 1 Most of the information comes from: ID-125: A Comprehensive Guide to Wheat Management in Kentucky

Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 2 Objectives Fusarium Head Blight (Head Scab) Management Options Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 3 Three Critical Management Issues 1. Seeding: Date, Depth, Rate

2. N Rate and Timing 3. Fusarium Head Blight Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 4 Disease Management Choose disease-tolerant varieties. Rotate Crops Reduces Pythium root rot and take-all. Other disease are airborne Stagonospora, Septoria, Fusarium Rotation has less impact on these

diseases. Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 5 Fusarium Head Blight Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 6 Wheat Production Year Harvested

Acres Planted (x1,000) 2001 550 Acres Harvested (x1,000) Yield per Acre

Low Disease 360 66 Record High 2002 2003 2004 530 500 530

330 350 380 Moderate Disease 53 High Disease 59 High Disease

54 Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 7 Year Production Price Value

(x1000 bu) ($/Bu) (x $1000) 2001 23,760 2.50 59,400 2002 17,160

3.01 51,652 2003 21,700 3.25 66,495 2004

20,520 Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 8 Fusarium Head Blight Pathogen: Fusarium graminearum Host: Wheat Disease: Fusaorium Head Blight (head scab, FHB) Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky

9 Disease Management: FHB Fusarium Head Blight Symptoms visible in Feekes 11.111.5 Warm, moist conditions during Feekes 10.51-10.54 favor development of FHB. Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 10 Disease Management: FHB Fungicides: Folicur, Section 18 in KY

Moderate suppression of FHB. Effective for low levels of FHB, but not for high levels of FHB. Very difficult to overcome favorable weather timed with crop stage. Varying wheat varieties/planting dates may help avoid FHB in some fields. Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 11 Disease Management: FHB Probably single-most damaging

factor to wheat yields in Kentucky in 2003 and 2004. No apparent differences between conventional and no-till wheat. Airborne spores likely swamp most fields, regardless of tillage history. Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 12 Variety Development Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky

13 Variety Development Dr. Van Sanford has an active program looking for Type II resistance to FHB Type II: spread of FHB in the head of wheat is slowed Some developmental lines express Type II The goal: combine Type II with yield Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 14

Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 15 Variety Development Syngenta has reported to being close to developing a biotech wheat with resistance to FHB Would produce enzymes to fight off the pathogen Close: 2008? 2009? 2010? Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky

16 Disease Management Seed Fungicide Treatments Combination mixes such as RaxilThiram or Dividend Reduce soil-born pathogens such as Pythium, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Septoria, and Stagonospora Improves germination rates of infected seeds (i.e. Fusarium-infected seeds) by an average of 15% Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky

17 Weed Management Burndown Herbicides (no-till) Gramoxone Glyphosate Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 18 Chad Lee 2006 University of Kentucky 19

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