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2011 Annual APA Convention August 5th, 2011 SUBSTANCE USE TREATMENT WITH ETHNIC MINORITIES: LESSONS LEARNED IN THE CLINICAL TRIALS NETWORK OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON DRUG ABUSE Kathy Burlew, PhD (Chair) Carmen Rosa, MS Audrey Brooks, PhD Jerren Weekes, MA Alyssa Forcehimes, PhD Background on NIDA Clinical Trials Network Established in 1999

Improve substance abuse treatment by bridging the gap between practice and research National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Regional Research and Training Center (RRTC) State with Community Treatment Program (CTP) Appalachian Tri-State Node University of Pittsburgh Delaware Valley Node University of Pennsylvania Florida Node Alliance University of Miami

Greater New York Node New York State Psychiatric Institute New York University Mid-Atlantic Node The Johns Hopkins University Friends Research Institute, Inc. New England Consortium McLean Hospital Yale University Ohio Valley Node University of Cincinnati Pacific Northwest Node University of Washington Washington State University

Pacific Region Node University of California, Los Angeles Southern Consortium Node Medical University of South Carolina Duke University Medical Center Southwest Node University of New Mexico Texas Node Univ. of Texas, Southwestern Med Cen. Western States Node University of California, San Francisco Oregon Health & Science University Todays Presenters Carmen Rosa. Participation in Substance Abuse Clinical Trials: Comparing Gender, Racial/Ethnic, and Age Groups.

Audrey Brooks. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Rates and Correlates of HIV Risk Behaviors Among Drug Abusers. Jerren Weekes. The Relation of Racial/Ethnic Matching to the Engagement, Retention, and Treatment Outcomes of Adolescent Substance Users. Alyssa Forcehimes. The Relationship between Therapist and Patient Gender/Race-Matching and Substance Use Outcomes across Two Motivational Therapy Trials. Participation in Substance Abuse Clinical Trials: Comparing Gender, Racial/Ethnic and Age Groups Carmen Rosa NIH/NIDA Background REM/Women historically underrepresented in clinical trials

Much literature regarding recruitment, less on retention Greater vulnerability of these populations to adverse medical/social consequences of SUD Need to successfully retain in research studies Background (cont) Reported that REM have lower retention than NHW (both in treatment and research) Others have not seen differences in some SUD studies Similar reports regarding age and gender Most analyze retention based on study completion or attendance to F/ U sessions

Methods Analyzed 24 RCTs completed in the CTN CTN established several strategies for RR 9 Rx/combination and 15 psychosocial trials ~11,449 subjects across 190 CTP Retention was measured using 3 criteria: Availability of primary outcome Results: Demographic Characteristics Count Percent Male

6795 59.4% Female 4646 40.6% Non-Hispanic White 6099 53.3% Non-Hispanic African-American 2428

21.2% Hispanic 1966 17.2% Multi-Race 689 6.0% Non-Hispanic American-Indian/Alaska Native 124 1.1%

<18 729 6.4% 18 to <25 1623 14.2% 25 to <35 2990 26.1% 35 to <45

3200 28.0% 45 to <55 2415 21.1% 55 to <65 447 3.9% Age Groups Measures of participation based on 24 clinical

trials on drug abuse (in %) Demographic Category (APOM) 74.2 73.6 (TE) 75.2 76.6 (FU) 72.8 71.3 Non-Hispanic African-American Multi-Race Hispanic Non-Hispanic White

71.7 70.2 73.2 73.8 71.2 72.4 72.4 74.5 68.5 70.4 73.9 72.2 18 25 35 45

55 66.8 68.6 73.2 76.8 80.1 68.9 67.4 71.9 75.9 75.8 64.3 67.9 70.8 75.2 79.4

74.0 73.3 70.5 Female Male to to to to to <25 <35 <45 <55 <65

Overall* Discussion No statistically significant differences among gender or race/ethnic groups Difference for some indicators in some of the trials, showing that NHW and Hispanics remain in certain studies longer than NHAA Differences among age groups: retention was higher for older participants Recommendations Include more AIAN and AAPI participants in clinical trials CTN researching barriers to TX and expanding to include treatment

programs CBPR with AIAN populations Increase efforts in retention of younger and NHAA participants Investigate reasons for lower retention in younger populations Limitations Observational analysis Several factors may affect retention Primary drug use/patterns of drug use Trial specific definition of retention indicators Did not analyze data for specific reasons for attrition Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Rates and Correlates of

HIV Risk Behaviors Among Drug Abusers Audrey Brooks, University of Arizona Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Rates and Correlates of HIV Risk Behaviors Among Drug Abusers Audrey J. Brooks, Ph.D., University of Arizona Yuliya Lokhnygina, Ph.D., Duke Clinical Research Institute

Christina S. Meade, Ph.D., Duke University School of Medicine Jennifer Sharpe Potter, Ph.D., M.P.H, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Donald A. Calsyn, Ph.D., University of Washington Shelly F. Greenfield, M.D., M.P.H., Harvard Medical School This research was supported by NIDAs Clinical Trials Network NIDA Clinical Trials Network Background HIV infection disproportionately impacts minorities in the United States. HIV infection is estimated to be 7 times higher for African-Americans and 3 times higher in Hispanics than among Whites. Multiple risk factors for HIV risk

behaviors have been identified. Whether the relationship between risk Purpose This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the rates of HIV risk behaviors and whether the relationship between HIV risk factors and HIV risk behaviors varies by race/ethnicity in clients participating in NIDA Clinical Trials Network multisite trials. Methods Secondary data analysis of randomized participants from 7 CTN multi-site trials. Buprenorphine/Naloxone vs. Clonidine for Inpatient & Outpatient Opiate Detoxification Motivational Incentives for Stimulant

Users in Outpatient Clinics & Methadone Clinics Motivational Enhancement Treatment to Improve Treatment Engagement and Outcome English & Spanish-speaking Measures HIV Risk Behavior Scale - past 30 days Drug risk behaviors: frequency of injection drug use, receptive and distributive needle sharing, and needle cleaning Sex risk behaviors: number of partners, sex trading, anal sex and condom use Addiction Severity Index Lite Sociodemographic variables Alcohol & drug use, psychiatric, legal,

Sample Characteristics (N=2,063) 41% non-Hispanic White 32% non-Hispanic African-American 27% Hispanic American 35% Female Average Age 36.5 years, 18-73 range Average Education 11.8 years, 0-27 range 55% Employed Full-time 28% Stimulant; 14% Heroin/Opiate; 27% Both, 31% Other Racial/Ethnic Differences Demographics

Variable White N=838 (41%) African-American N=665 (32%) Hispanic N=560 (27%) Total Sample N=2063 *p<0.001 Age 34.39.8 42.17.7

33.19.1 36.59.8* Education 12.72.1 12.01.9 10.03.2 11.82.6* Female 379 (45.2%) 279 (42.0%)

75 (12.9%) 730 (35.4%)* Employed FT 463 (55.3%) 324 (48.7%) 355 (63.4%) 1142 (55.4%)* Employed PT 151 (18.0%) 76 (11.4%)

66 (11.8%) 293 (14.2%) Living w-Partner 322 (38.4%) 267 (40.2%) 48 (8.6%) 637 (30.9%)* Heroin/Opiates 162 (19.3%) 59 (8.9%)

67 (12.0%) 288 (14.0%)* Stimulants 196 (23.4%) 224 (33.7%) 152 (27.1%) 572 (27.7%) Opiates /Stimulants 226 (27.0%) 277 (41.7%)

59 (10.5%) 562 (27.2%) Other Drug 254 (30.3%) 105 (15.8%) 282 (50.4%) 641 (31.1%) Racial/Ethnic Differences Demographics Hispanics: Fewer females Less education Most likely to be

employed FT Least likely to live with a sexual partner Most likely to report other drug use African-Americans Older Most likely to report Stimulant/Opiate use Whites Most likely to report Heroin/Opiate use Racial/Ethnic Differences HIV Sex Risk Behaviors Variable

White Sexually Active 2+ Partners UPS - Partner UPS - Casual Sex No Trading Sex UPS - Trading Sex No Anal Sex UPS - Anal Sex Sex Risk Total UPS = Unprotected Sex African-American Hispanic Total Sample

513 (61.2%) 393 (59.1%) 355 (63.4%) 1261 (61.1%) 86 (16.8%) 80 (20.4%) 36 (10.1%) 202 (16.0%)* 379 (73.9%) 276 (70.2%)

270 (76.1%) 925 (73.4%) 57 (11.2%) 28 (7.4%) 39 (11.0%) 124 (10.0%)** 472 (92.9%) 340 (89.9%) 330 (93.2%) 1142 (92.1%)

23 (4.5%) 18 (4.8%) 19 (5.4%) 60 (4.8%)*** 465 (91.5%) 368 (94.4%) 323 (91.2%) 1156 (92.3%) 33 (6.5%) 15 (3.9%)

22 (6.2%) 70 (5.6%) 5.92.8 5.72.7 5.93.1 5.92.8 *p<0.001; **p=0.009; ***p=0.036 Racial/Ethnic Differences HIV Sex Risk Behaviors Two-thirds sexually active African Americans most likely to report multiple partners & trading sex but least likely to report

unprotected sex with a casual partner Hispanics least likely to report trading sex but most likely to report unprotected sex when trading sex Racial/Ethnic Differences HIV Drug Risk Behaviors Variable White African-American Hispanic Total Sample Any IDU

232 (27.7%) 111 (16.7%) 69 (12.3%) 412 (20.0%)* Daily IDU Receptive Needle Sharing Distributive Needle Sharing Inconsistent Needle Cleaning Before Use Drug Risk Composite 163 (70.3%)

55 (49.5%) 52(75.4%) 270 (65.5%)* 42 (21.0%) 13 (12.7%) 16 (23.2%) 71 (19.1%) 52 (23.2%) 18 (16.4%) 25 (37.3%)

95 (23.7%)** 112 (54.4%) 60 (56.6%) 46 (66.7%) 218 (57.2%) 8.95.2 7.04.3 9.74.4 8.54.9* *p<0.001; **p=0.006

Racial/Ethnic Differences HIV Drug Risk Behaviors 20% reported IDU 66% daily users; 32% shared needles 57% inconsistently cleaned needles Hispanics least likely to report IDU but highest distributive needle sharing & overall drug risk behaviors African-Americans least likely to report daily IDU, distributive needle sharing & overall drug risk behaviors Correlates of HIV Risk Behavior Analysis Ordinal logistic regressions using partial proportional odds model were conducted to identify variables associated with sex risk.

Compared high vs. medium & low risk Compared high & medium vs. low risk Linear regressions were conducted to identify variables associated with drug risk. Predictors: Interaction between ASI composites & race/ethnicity Correlates of HIV Sex Risk Behavior (n=1261) African-Americans less likely to report high/moderate sexual risk behaviors compared to low risk than Whites (O.R. 0.60; 95% CI 0.44-0.83) African-Americans with greater alcohol severity more likely to report high vs. moderate & low risk (O.R. 1.16; 95% CI 1.06-1.28)

Correlates of HIV Sex Risk Behavior (n=1261) African-Americans with greater psychiatric severity more likely to report high vs. moderate & low risk (O.R. 1.15; 95% CI 1.04-1.28) Whites with greater psychiatric severity more likely to report high/moderate vs. low risk (O.R. 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.20) Stimulant use, drug use severity, abuse history, legal involvement severity associated with sex risk Correlates of HIV Drug Risk Behavior (n=412) Whites with greater drug use severity

had higher HIV drug risk behavior ( = 1.11) Hispanics with greater drug use severity had a more pronounced association with higher HIV drug risk behavior ( = 1.68) Greater psychiatric severity was possibly associated with higher drug risk behavior in Whites and lower *p=0.056 drug risk behavior in African Conclusions Racial/Ethnic differences in risk behaviors: African-Americans engaged in less HIV sexual risk behaviors overall than Whites African-Americans reported more specific high risk sexual encounters but

greater use of protection Whites were most likely to be IDUs Hispanics least likely to be IDUs but engaged in more high risk HIV drug risk behaviors Conclusions Relationship between certain HIV risk factors and HIV risk behaviors differed between ethnic groups: Alcohol use and psychiatric severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for African-Americans Psychiatric severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for Whites Drug use severity was associated with engaging in higher risk drug behaviors for Hispanics, and to a lesser degree,

Conclusions The findings from the present study suggest that there is a context (or culture) in which HIV high risk behaviors occur within racial/ethnic groups as well as differences in the presence of risk factors associated with engaging in HIV risk behaviors. This is consistent with calls to culturally adapt evidence based interventions. The TheRelation RelationofofRace/Ethnic-Matching Race/Ethnic-Matchingtoto the theEngagement, Engagement,Retention, Retention,and

andTreatment Treatment Outcomes OutcomesofofAdolescent AdolescentSubstance SubstanceUsers Users Jerren C. Weekes, University of Cincinnati Acknowledgments Dr. Kathy Burlew Dr. Dan Feaster

Ms. Natali Teszler Dr. Mike Robbins NIDA CTN University of Cincinnati Research Council (funding) Background Treatment Barriers Cultural dis/mistrust Racial/cultural dissimilarity Lack of cultural relevance of current treatments Informative purposes Inform about ethnic minority

preferences Translate findings Background Surface Modification (Resnicow et al., 2000): -Involves modifying superficial treatment components to increase treatment receptivity. Persons Dimension (Bernal & SaezSantiago, 2006): Consider the role of the existing client-therapist racial/ethnic similarity/dissimilarity Gaps in the Literature (1) Few Racial and Ethnic Matching (REM) studies have examined the relation of REM to engagement, retention, and treatment outcomes of substance using youth. (2) Lack of analysis for specific

racial/ethnic minority groups. (3) No study has examined family functioning as a moderator variable. The Current Study: A secondary analysis of existing data from a NIDA funded study evaluating Brief Strategic Family Therapy vs. Treatment as Usual . Aim of Current Study Aim 1: To conduct exploratory analyses to determine if the relation of REM to treatment outcomes varies with the initial functioning of the family. Hypothesis: Family functioning would moderate the relationship between REM and treatment outcomes.

Participants Adolescents enrolled in treatment at one of eight sites participating in the national study sponsored of BSFT vs. TAU by the NIDA Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN-0014). Inclusion criteria: (1) 12-17 years-old, (2) self-report use of some illicit substance in the 30 days prior to enrollment (3) family was willing to participate in Sample Characteristics Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of the Adolescent Participants % Matched Characteristic Race/Ethnicity, N (%)

African American 110 (23) 44% (n= 48) Hispanic/Latin 213 (44) 44% (n =94) White 148 (31) 76% (n = 112) Gender, N (%) Female

Male Age, M (SD) 103 (22) 377 (78) 16.01 (1.8) Study Variables Variable Measure Analysis Demographics Demographic Form Engagement/ Retention

E = 2+ sessions; R = 8+ sessions (therapists interviews) Logistic Regression Drug Use TLFB; Urine Screens Logistic Regression Externalizing Behaviors The National Youth Survey The Total Delinquency scale The Youth Self Report (YSR)

Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Multiple Regression Family Functioning Parenting Practices Questionnaire Scales Family Environments Scale [Conflict & Cohesion scales] Data Analysis Logistic Regression: Drug Use Engagement Retention REM, family functioning, and the interaction term were in each model.

Results Hypothesis: Family functioning would moderate the relationship between race/ethnic-matching and the outcome variables. This hypothesis was not supported for the Hispanic or White youth. Baseline family functioning did moderate the relationship between race/ethnic-matching and the engagement outcome for African American adolescents (OR= 1.53, 95%CI = .57-4.09, p .01) African Americans who had lower levels of family functioning were more likely to be engaged in treatment if they were racially Probability of Non-engagement by Family Functioning for Matched and Non-matched African Americans Figure 1. The moderation effects of family functioning on the relationship

between REM and treatment engagement for African American adolescents. Implications REM matters for various subgroups Deep structure rather than surface structure? Importance of family functioning Strengths & Limitations Strengths: This study addressed several existing gaps in the literature A diverse sample was used Appropriate statistical analyses were used Data was from a randomized controlled trial Limitations: Culture related measures were not

used The Hispanic participants were matched on ethnicity rather than country of origin. The Relationship between Therapist and Patient Gender/Race Matching and Substance Use Outcomes across Two Motivational Enhancement Therapy Trials A.A. Forcehimes 1 , M. Nakazawa. 1 , L. Montgomery 2 , K.A. Burlew 2 , A. Kosinski 3 , P. Kothari 4 1 University of New Mexico Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, & Addictions 2 University of Cincinnati 3 Duke Clinical Research Institute

4 Synergy Enterprises Alyssa Forcehimes, University of New Mexico Introduction One of the strongest determinants of addiction treatment outcome is the relationship between the provider and the patient (McLellan, Woody et al., 1998) Both motivational interviewing (MI) and motivational enhancement therapy (MET) are rooted in a belief that change is facilitated through a strengthening of a collaborative therapeutic relationship. The successful use of MI/MET may depend on the therapists ability to develop strong alliance (Miller & Rose, 2009) Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment outcome

A positive outcome was found in Project MATCH (Connors, Carroll et al. 1997), in which alliance was positively associated with percent days abstinent and negatively related to drinks per drinking day during both the treatment and follow-up periods Other studies have failed to find a significant relationship in alliance and treatment outcome for MI based interventions (Crits-Cristoph, et al. 2009) What might Influence Alliance: Looking at Potential Moderators Alliance may vary depending on ethnicity or gender matches (or mismatches) between the patient and therapist Some research supports patient/therapist similarity (matching) in developing alliance more successfully (Thompson, Worthington, et al., 1994), but findings are mixed (Fiorentine &

Hillhouse, 1999). Aim of this Study Examine the moderating effects of gender/race matching between therapists and patients on therapeutic alliance and substance use outcomes Method Identical measures were obtained in two CTN trials of MET: 3 sessions of individual MET vs. Treatment as Usual (TAU) (CTN 0004) 3 sessions of individual MET delivered in Spanish vs. TAU delivered in Spanish (CTN 0021) The two studies included 64 females and 281 males with a mean age of 33.7 (SD = 9.2). 43% of participants reported their race as white, 30% reported Latino, 26% reported

other, and 1% reported African American Method, continued Measures The Helping Alliance Questionnaire-II (HAQ-II) The Addiction Severity Index-Lite Posttreatment Attitudes and Expectations Questionnaire Procedure HAQ-II, administered at the end of 3 sessions of treatment Therapists also completed a parallel version of the HAQ ASI-Lite, administered at the 4 week follow-up Patients perception of their therapists race or gender was extracted from the Posttreatment Attitudes and Expectations Questionnaire Analytic Plan Relationship between variables examined using

ANCOVAs Primary outcome variable was self-reported days of alcohol and drug use at week 4 assessed with ASI possible range: 0-360; 30 days for each of the 12 drug categories; observed range 0-100. Covariates HAQ-II patient and therapist scores and baseline substance use days Fixed variable Race or gender match Both HAQ-II scores were centered so intercept would be at the means of these scores instead of 0. Log transformation was applied to the outcome variable to reduce its skewness Effect size indicated by Cohens d Hypotheses (1) Patients perception of their therapists race will affect the

amount of substance use, defined as self-reported days of substance use at the end of the active phase of treatment, and patients perception will moderate the relationship between therapeutic alliance, defined by patient as well as therapist scores on the HAQ-II at the end of the active phase of treatment, and substance use. (2) Patients perception of their therapists gender will affect the amount of substance use, defined as self-reported days of substance use at the end of the active phase of treatment, and patients perception will moderate the relationship between therapeutic alliance, defined by patient as well as therapist scores on the HAQ-II at the end of the active phase of treatment, and substance use. Results: Hypothesis 1 As hypothesized, racially matched patients reported significantly fewer days of drug use (t(341) = -2.40, p = 0.02, d = -0.26). This effect equals to a 26% reduction in days of substance use from 5.2 to 3.9. However, racial match was unrelated to patient perceived helping

alliance (t(341) = 0.65, p = 0.52, d = 0.07). When HAQ-II therapists scores were included in the model, racially matched patients again reported significantly fewer days of drug use (t(341) = -2.36, p = 0.02, d = -0.26). Race matching significantly moderated the relationship between helping alliance perceived by therapists and substance use (t(341) = 2.03, p = 0.04, d = 0.22, fig. 1). There were no differences in matching effects between CTN 0004 and 0021. Results: Hypothesis 1 Results: Hypothesis 2 Gender matched patients reported significantly more days of drug use (t(341) = 2.17, p = 0.03, d = 0.23, fig. 2; a 57% increase from 3.4 to 5.3 days,) even after HAQ-II therapists scores were included in the model (t(341) = 2.01, p = 0.045, d = 0.22). Perceived gender similarity did not significantly affect the level of helping alliance indicated by patients (t(341) = 1.72, p = 0.09, d = 0.19) or therapists (t(341) = 0.56, p = 0.58, d = 0.06).

There were no differences in matching effects between CTN 0004 and 0021. Results: Hypothesis 2 Discussion Some unexpected findings: Matches in race resulted in significantly less substance use compared to patients and therapists whose race did not match. Therapists ratings of alliance varied by race matching, but patients ratings didnt. This suggests that therapists in this study seemed to have an easier time building alliance when working with a patient whose race matched their own. Unlike matches in race, matches in perceived gender between therapist and patient do not seem to be a helpful in decreasing substance use. Patients who perceived their therapists gender to be the same as their own gender actually had more days of substance use. Gender similarity also didnt increase therapeutic alliance as perceived by patients or therapists

Limitations A few limitations are worthy of mention when interpreting these results: This study only examined patients perceptions of gender and race. It cannot be assumed that the therapists had the same impression, and it remains unknown whether these impressions might have resulted in different outcomes. Asking patients about their therapists race may have been confusing for patients who were Latino or Hispanic, since many consider Latino to be an ethnic group rather than a race. Race may have been defined differently, thus results may have differed if the question would have been Was your counselor the same ethnicity as you? There were many more males than females in this study, which may have influenced the results. There were also very few African Americans, which is too few to make conclusions about matching African American patients with same race therapists. Summary Overall, findings from this study support a

recommendation of matching patients to providers of the same race, but do not support a recommendation of routinely matching patients to providers of the same gender. Research Support This research was supported by NIDAs Clinical Trials Network References Crits-Christoph, P., R. Gallop, et al. (2009). "The alliance in motivational enhancement therapy and counseling as usual for substance use problems." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 77(6): 1125-1135. Connors, G. J., K. M. Carroll, et al. (1997). "The therapeutic alliance and its relationship to alcoholism

treatment participation and outcome." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 65(4): 588-598. Fiorentine, R. and M. P. Hillhouse (1999). "Drug treatment effectiveness and client-counselor empathy." Journal of Drug Issues 29(1): 59-74. McLellan, A. T., G. E. Woody, et al. (1988). "Is the counselor an "active ingredient" in substance abuse rehabilitation? An examination of treatment success among four counselors." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 176: 423-430. Miller, W. R., & Rose, G. S. (2009). Toward a theory of motivational interviewing. American Psychologist, 64, 527537.

Thompson, C. E., R. Worthington, et al. (1994). "Counselor content orientation, counselor race, and Black women's cultural mistrust and self-disclosures." Journal of Counseling Psychology 41(2): 155-161. Contact Information: Kathy Burlew, Ph.D. University of Cincinnati [email protected] Carmen Rosa, M.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse [email protected] Audrey J. Brooks, Ph.D. University of Arizona [email protected] Jerren Weekes, M.A. University of Cincinnati [email protected] Alyssa Forcehimes, Ph.D. University of New Mexico [email protected]

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