CHAPTER 6 Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems Too Much of a Good Thing? Elephant populations in southern Africa declined sharply due to hunting but have made overwhelming comebacks within nature reserves and parks. Some worry that elephant overpopulation is causing a decline in local biodiversity and damage to farms and infrastructure.
Many efforts to control elephant populations are being considered and put into practice. Talk TalkAbout AboutItItWhich Whichelephant elephantpopulation populationcontrol controleffort effort moving them, sterilizing
them, or culling themdo moving them, sterilizing them, or culling themdoyou you think has the best chance for long-term, positive
effects? think has the best chance for long-term, positive effects? Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Fossil evidence suggests that the frozen continent of Antarctica was once covered in temperate forest. Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes What is a Biome? Groups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions Biomes are primarily defined by their _______________
CLIMATE & typical ____________ PLANT & _____________ ANIMAL life. Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Climate Climate describes the ______________ AVERAGE conditions, including _________________ PRECIPITATION TEMPERATURE & __________________
over long periods in a given area. Weather - _____________ DAY-TO-DAY conditions in Earths atmosphere Ex. Sunny & Humid Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Climate Climatograph climate diagram that shows conditions in a Climatograph climate diagram that shows conditions in a biome (temperature & precipitation). Temperature is usually in _____________
CELSIUS F = 1.8C + 32 Precipitation is usually in cm or mm. 1 inch = 2.54cm 1 inch = 25.4 mm Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Climate Each biome has a set of characteristic ORGANISMS _________________ adapted to its particular climate conditions.
However, within any biome there is a variety of plants and animals due to variation in ______________, SOIL TYPE ______________ ELEVATION & ___________________ WIND EXPOSURE Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Earths Major Biomes
Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Earths Major Biomes Patches representing the same biome tend to occur at similar _______________ LATITUDES 10 primary biomes: tropical rain forest dry forest savanna desert chaparral temperate rain forest
temperate forest temperate grassland chaparral boreal forest (taiga) tundra Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Biomes and Net Primary Production ___________ GROSS primary production: The rate at which primary producers undergo photosynthesis and produce usable energy
______ NET primary production: The amount of organic matter (biomass) that remains after primary producers use some to carry out cellular respiration Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Biomes and Net Primary Production Ecosystems vary in their net primary productivity. WARM, _______ _______ biomes generally have ____________net WET HIGHER
primary productivity than ________ COLD, _______ DRY biomes. This should make sense because plants require _______________, ____________ & warm enough SUNLIGHT WATER temperatures to grow. Lesson 6.1 Defining Biomes Biomes and Net Primary Production
Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tundra, found at very high latitudes, is nearly as dry as a desert. Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tropical Rain Forest Year-round _________ WARM temperatures and at least _____________ 2m (6.6 feet)precipitation a year Near the equator, so the days are almost always
____________ 12 HOURS in length. Soil is generally ____________________ NUTRIENT POOR Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tropical Rain Forest The tallest trees pop through the canopy and make up the EMERGENT LAYER ___________________
Tall trees form a dense layer called the ______________ CANOPY which keeps the forest warm and damp. Short trees and plants make up the _________________ UNDERSTORY and must compete for light. _________________leaves LARGE, FLAT are a common adaptation to increase sunlight intake. Lesson 6.2 Biomes
Tropical Rain Forest ADAPTATIONS _______________ EPIPHYTES - plants that grow on other plants instead of the soil. Ex. Orchids Tall trees use ________________ BUTTRESSES (large above ground roots) for support Because there is not much _______ WIND to assist with pollination,
plants have adapted bright, colorful flowers to attract pollinators. Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tropical Rain Forest Supports ________ MORE animal species than any other biome; animals tend to be highly ________________. SPECIALIZED
Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tropical Dry Forest Warm year-round, but rainfall is highly seasonal with a ________ RAINY & ________ DRY season. Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tropical Dry Forest ADAPTATIONS Most trees are _______________ DECIDUOUS - they lose their leaves
and cease photosynthesis part of the year. This helps reduce _________________. WATER LOSS Plants and animals exhibit adaptations (e.g. waxy leaf coating, deep roots, estivation, migration) that enable them to survive the dry season. ________________ ESTIVATION - animals enter a deep, sleeplike period of dormancy. Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tropical Dry Forest
ESTIVATION Lesson 6.2 Biomes Savanna Receives _______ LESS precipitation than tropical dry forests, but more than deserts; usually has a distinct RAINY ________ season Lesson 6.2 Biomes Savanna ______________
GRASSES interspersed with groups of trees Tree growth limited by frequent __________ WINDS and strong FIRES _________ Lesson 6.2 Biomes Savanna ADAPTATIONS Plants are adapted to dry conditions; tend to be ________________ DECIDUOUS with deep roots, thick bark, and __________
WAXY coatings on leaves. Elephants drink 30-50 gallons of water a day and so they must dig for water with their tusks. Many animals _____________ MIGRATE to find water, or burrow when water is scarce. Lesson 6.2 Biomes Desert Receives less than 25 cm (9.8 in.) of precipitation per year DRIEST biome)
(____________ Temperatures vary widely from _______ DAY to ___________. NIGHT Lesson 6.2 Biomes Desert ADAPTATIONS Did DidYou YouKnow? Know?Cactus
Cactusspines spinesare are modified leaves that protect the plant modified leaves that protect the plant from fromthirsty thirstyanimals. animals.Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis occurs within the green occurs within the greenstems stemsand and trunks. trunks. Plants tend to have __________, THICK leathery leaves
Plants store water in their tissues (_________________) SUCCULENTS Ex. Aloe Some have shallow, spread out roots to gather water. Some have deep tap roots (up to _____ ft) 164 Tough ____________ (modified leaves) SPINES discourage predators from eating them .
Lesson 6.2 Biomes Desert Animals get most of their water from the _________ FOOD they eat, and they tend to be _______________ NOCTURNAL (active at night). Some have concentrated URINE ________. Mammals have exaggerated ___________________ APPENDAGES to help
regulate body temperature. Lesson 6.2 Biomes Temperate Rain Forest Year-round MODERATE _____________ temperatures and heavy ____________. RAINFALL Largest extent found in ____________________________ PACIFIC NORTHWEST OF THE US Lesson 6.2 Biomes
Temperate Rain Forest ADAPTATIONS Characterized by tall _________________ EVERGREEN trees, such as cedars and hemlocks, that dont lose leaves annually; many are conifers (produce seed-bearing cones) Forest floor is shaded, damp, covered in ________. MOSS Olympic Peninsula, Hoh River rain forest Lesson 6.2 Biomes
Temperate Rain Forest Animals that require ______________, MOISTURE such as amphibians, thrive here. Squirrels, deer, elk and birds have a __________ VARIED diet which enables them to eat whatever food is available. Lesson 6.2 Biomes Temperate (Deciduous) Forest Precipitation ______________________throughout the year EVENLY SPREAD
Varied temperatures (________ HOT summers, _______ COLD winters) Lesson 6.2 Biomes Temperate Forest ADAPTATIONS Plants tend to be broad-leafed and _______________. DECIDUOUS Soil is enriched with ______________ NUTRIENTS from annual leaf drop.
Lesson 6.2 Biomes Temperate Forest ADAPTATIONS Animals may _____________ MIGRATE or ______________ HIBERNATE Others ________________ STORE FOOD to survive cold conditions. __________________ CAMOUFLAGE helps animals that are exposed during the winter due to lack of foliage survive. Lesson 2.2 Biomes
Temperate Grassland (Prairie) PRECIPITATION and Moderate seasonal ___________________ fairly extreme seasonal ____________________; TEMPERATURES droughts and fires common Rich, fertile soil Lesson 2.2 Biomes Temperate Grassland (Prairie) ADAPTATIONS Not enough precipitation to support large ____________
TREES ______________, GRASSES which grow from their base, thrive despite droughts, fires, animals grazing. Seeds are dispersed by the ____________________ STRONG WINDS Soil tends to be rich in nutrients; most of worlds grasslands have been converted to ______________. FARMLAND Lesson 2.2 Biomes Temperate Grassland (Prairie)
COVER Animals are adapted to deal with lack of _________. Some survive by _________________. BURROWING Others survive by being _________. HUGE Lesson 6.2 Biomes Chaparral (Mediterranean) MILD, WET winters Highly seasonal conditions with _______________ and _______________
WARM, DRY summers Prolonged hot, dry periods; ________________________ DROUGHTS AND FIRES common Soil is thin and not rich in nutrients Lesson 6.2 Biomes Chaparral ADAPTATIONS Plants are drought-resistant; many have thick, waxy __________ HAIRS that trap LEAVES or leaves with __________
moisture; _________________ SUCCULENTS are common. Plants may have thick __________ BARK and deep __________ ROOTS to resist fire. Some plants require __________ FIRE to germinate. Some chaparral plants contain ________ OILY compounds that facilitate the spread of fire. Lesson 6.2 Biomes
Chaparral BURROW Many animals _____________. Many are nocturnal to avoid heat. Many have ________________ OVERSIZED appendages. Lesson 6.2 Biomes Boreal Forest (Taiga) _________________ LONG, COLD winters; _________________ SHORT, COOL summers
Nutrient-poor, slightly acidic soils Lesson 6.2 Biomes Boreal Forest (Taiga) ADAPTATIONS _________ LOW species diversity Coniferous trees with __________ WAXY needles and _____________ CONICAL shape, adapted to harsh, snowy conditions are common.
Lesson 6.2 Biomes Boreal Forest (Taiga) Animals feed, breed, and care for young mostly during short WARM _________ season Year-round residents tend to have thick insulation and small extremities that maintain heat. Some animals change color. They grow _______________ WHITE COATS for the snowy season. Lesson 6.2 Biomes
Tundra COLD, DARK winters; relatively sunny and Extremely ________________ cool summers Found at very __________ HIGH latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tundra
WINDS nutrient-poor soil, and freezing Harsh _________, temperatures limit plant growth; no tall trees; mosses and lichens common Characterized by __________________ PERMAFROST (underground soil that is frozen YEAR-ROUND ___________________) Lesson 6.2 Biomes Tundra ADAPTATIONS Low, scrubby vegetation and ground-hugging
______________ MOSSES & _____________ LICHENS live here. Birds and ______________ CARIBOU migrate to the tundra during the mild summer to feed on insects and lichens Only a few species live here year-round (including musk oxen and polar bears). Lesson 6.2 Biomes Polar Ice Not classified as a biome No land under polar ice in Northern Hemisphere; ice sits atop
Antarctica in Southern Hemisphere Very few plants; most life is in surrounding ocean NOTOTHENIOD ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS Lesson 6.2 Biomes Mountains Not classified as a biome Mountain communities ELEVATION change with _______________, similar to how biome communities change
with latitude. Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems 75% of Earths surface is covered by water. Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems Normally, biomes are used to describe TERRESTRIAL ___________________ environments but 75% of Earth is
covered in water. Aquatic Ecosystems are described by their ______________, SALINITY _____________ and movement of DEPTH water. Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems Salinity: the amount of dissolved SALT
______ present in water. Measured in parts per thousand (ppt) Salt water = _________ppt 30-50 Fresh water = 0.5ppt or less Brackish = Between __________ppt 0.5 to 30 Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems Photosynthesis tends to be limited by _________ LIGHT availability,
which is a function of depth and water clarity. Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems Aquatic ecosystem zones: photic, aphotic, benthic Photic zone: Where there is enough light for ______________________. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Aphotic zone: Photosynthesis cannot occur because there is not enough sunlight
Benthic zone: Very ____________ BOTTOM of the body of water Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems The photic zone has much more dissolved ____________, OXYGEN so more life is found here (both producers and consumers). Sunlight also causes water to be
_____________ WARMER ______________ layers of aquatic UPPER ecosystems tend to be warmer than _____________ DEEPER layers Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas Salinity is less than 0.5 ppt (parts per thousand)
Includes _______________________________________ PONDS, LAKE AND INLAND SEAS Ponds and lakes are similar, except in ______ SIZE Inland seas are huge and contain organisms adapted for _________ OPEN water. Ex. Great Lakes and The Caspian Sea Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas Ponds and lakes are divided horizontally into 2 zones: littoral
and limnetic. Littoral Zone water is ______________ SHALLOW enough for plants to grow from the mud to above the waters surface Includes many invertebrates like ____________________ SNAILS & CRAYFISH Limnetic Zone ____________from shore where there are no FARTHER rooted plants Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds,
Lakes, Inland Seas Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands Wetland - Area of land _______________ FLOODED with water at least _________________________ PART OF THE YEAR Includes freshwater ________________________________________________ MARSHES, SWAMPS, BOGS & FENS Water can either ______________________
FLOW SLOWLY through wetlands or into other bodies of water or, it can remainYEAR-ROUND _____________ Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands Freshwater Marsh shallow-water wetland characterized by GRASSLIKE plants. Ex. Cattails and Bulrushes ________________ Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands
Swamp shallow water wetland characterized by woody ______________________ SHRUBS & TREES instead of grasses. Ex. Cypress Trees _____________ BEAVERS cause the formation of swamps by building __________ DAMS across streams and causing flooding upstream. Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands Bog wetland characterized by low nutrients, acidic water and
MOSS thick floating mats of vegetation (usually ________) Fen connected to a source of GROUNDWATER ___________________, less acidic and more nutrient rich Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands Benefits of Wetlands They help prevent ______________ FLOODING by absorbing excess water Recharge ________________
AQUIFERS Filter _________________ POLLUTANTS & __________________ SEDIMENTS Provide habitats for many _________________ ANIMALS Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams Bodies of surface water that flow DOWNHILL eventually _______________,
reaching an ocean or a landlocked body of water _____________ TRIBUTARY- a small river flowing into a larger one _________________: WATERSHED The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams
Rivers shape the ________________ LANDSCAPE through which they run. The ___________ SOURCE or beginning of ________ MOST rivers is high in the mountains where melting snow collects due to GRAVITY ____________ Characteristics of the source _____________ COLD _________________________ FULL OF OXYGEN
_________________________ FEW ORGANISMS _____________________________________ CUTS A DEEP, STRAIGHT PATH Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams Characteristics of a river as it leaves its source. WARMER ___________________
___________________ SLOWER ___________________ MORE ORGANISMS ___________________ LESS OXYGEN ___________________ MEANDERS ___________________ CAN CREATE AN OXBOW LAKE Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams FLOOD _________________ PLAIN area near a rivers course that is periodically flooded __________ MOUTH where the river empties Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Estuaries OCEAN or a freshwater
Occur where a river flows into the _________ body of water Coastal estuaries are _______________ BRACKISH ecosystems; organisms must tolerate wide salinity and temperature ranges. Some estuaries (like the _______________________) THE GREAT LAKES contain only __________________. FRESHWATER Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Estuaries Two types of estuary ecosystems:
1) ____________________ SALT MARSHES along coasts at temperate latitudes Characterized by salt-tolerant grasses 2) MANGROVE ________________________ FOREST along coasts at subtropical and tropical latitudes Include mangrove trees Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Estuaries
Benefits of Estuaries: 1) Prevent __________________ SOIL EROSION & __________________ FLOODING 2) Protective barrier between ________ SEA LAND & __________ 3) Home to many ______________, ANIMALS some which are commercially beneficial Destruction of Estuaries: Many are being destroyed for housing and commerce Flooding from Katrina was significantly worse where the salt marshes had been destroyed
Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Oceans 71% of All of the Earths major oceans combined occupy _______ the Earths surface. If we evaporated all of the water from the oceans, there would be a layer of salt approximately ___________ 200 FEET deep left. Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems
Oceans Currents are driven by WATER ___________________________ TEMPERATURE and ____________________________, DENSITY DIFFERENCES wind, and gravity. Water density increases as temperature _______________ DECREASES and salinity (salt content) _________________. INCREASES Heavier (________________________) COLDER & SALTIER water sinks Lighter (_________________________________)
water WARMER & LESS SALTY remains near the surface. Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Oceans Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Oceans VERTICAL Surface winds and heating generate _______________ currents that transport nutrients and oxygen.
__________________ UPWELLING - the flow of cold, nutrient rich water towards the surface. It occurs when horizontal currents _______________ DIVERGE (flow apart). ____________________ DOWNWELLING - the flow of warm water, full of dissolved gases away from the surface, into the deep ocean. It occurs when horizontal ocean currents ________________ CONVERGE (flow together). Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems
Ocean Ecosystems Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems INTERTIDAL ______________: Highly diverse; extreme range of temperature, moisture, and salinity. Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems
___________: NERITIC Extends from the low tide mark to the edge of the ____________________________. CONTINENTAL SHELF Two productive ecosystems exist here: 1) KELP ________________ FOREST - large brown algae grows from the continental shelf. 2) ________________ CORAL REEF - Exists in subtropical and tropical waters. A mass of ____________________________ CALCIUM CARBONATE composed SKELETONS
of ______________ of marine coral. Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems Open ocean: Begins at the edge of the ___________________ CONTINENTAL shelf Makes up _______ 90% of the Earths oceans Low productivity due to low ___________________________ LIGHT PENETRATION ______________________ PHYTOPLANKTON are at base of food chain
Includes jelly fish, whales, sea turtles, squids, large fish & sharks. Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems In the aphotic open-ocean, animals have many adaptations to help them survive. CARCASSES Ex. SCAVENGE ______________________________ BIOLUMINESCENCE - sometimes a symbiotic Ex. ________________________
relationship with bacteria Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems Lesson 6.3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems Benthic Ecosystems around _______________________ HYDROTHERMAL vents (hot water flows out from the sea floor) are home to come strange organisms. Bacteria use chemicals to make energy
(AKA ________________________) CHEMOSYNTHESIS Other organisms like ___________________ TUBEWORMS are in a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria and survive using the energy they make.
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