VT PowerPoint Template5

VT PowerPoint Template5

INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Building Communities and Supporting Families: A Social Action Framework Jay A. Mancini, Ph.D. Lecture Given at University of Dublin, Trinity College Ollscoil Atha Cliath, Colaiste na Trionoide School of Social Work and Social Policy November 29, 2007 INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT

Overview How connected are you? The Community Connections Index A social organization framework Building community capacity Leveraging toward resilience Applications to research and practice Community health Military family support systems Intimate partner violence

Retention of long-term care professionals Recovery from natural disaster (Hurricane Katrina) Implications for prevention science INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Theorizing and Research Since 1995 concerned Pathways with sustaining community-based programs for families (government and foundation funded) Since 2000 concerned with broader approach to building capacity of communities to reach desired results

(government funded) Initiated with focus on observing military family communities 2000 community capacity model More recently expanded to community social organization Community capacity, network structures, and social capital Broader substantive focus INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Mix of Theory, Research, & Practice Consultation to government

Basic research Evaluation research Policy and Practice Theory Consultation to communities INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT How connected are you to your community? Community Engagement and Sense of Community*

*Mancini, J.A., Bowen, G.L., Martin, J.A., & Ware, W. B. (June, 2003). The community connections index. Paper presented at the Hawaii International Conference on the Social Sciences, Honolulu, HI. INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Now, I would like to know about your relationships with people in your community, other than family members. How often in the past year (often, sometimes, rarely, or never) have you: Community engagement items: Joined with people to solve problems Felt like you could make a difference in your community Volunteered in the community

Participated in community events and activities Attended club meetings Attended religious services Attended an informational meeting Attended local government/political meeting INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT How often in the past year have you (often, sometimes, rarely, or never): Sense of community items: Spent time with others when you needed a little company Showed concern for others Talked with people about their difficulties Made new friends with someone Felt like you belonged in the community

Felt your own circumstances were similar to others Felt close to other people in the community INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Community Connections Who we know Elements Nature of efforts to How well we know each other How close we feel to them Our experience with them What we expect of them What we do together

of importance Quality of life in our communities improve community life How programs and professionals help us How we can sustain what is good and helpful The best way to bring about change

Shared responsibility and collective competence INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Organization Networks, Social Capital, and Community Capacity INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Structure Social Organizational Processes

Individual/Family Results Social Capital Information Reciprocity Trust Network Structure Informal networks Formal networks Network effect levels Community Capacity Shared responsibility Collective competence Figure 1. Social Organizational Processes, Social Structure, and Individual/Family Results INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND

ENVIRONMENT Social Organization Theory: Definition of Social Organization Values, norms, processes, and behavior patterns within a community that organize, facilitate, and constrain interactions among community members Process by which communities achieve desired results for individuals and families, including ability to demonstrate resiliency Includes networks of people, exchanges and reciprocity in relationships, accepted standards of social support, and social controls that regulate behavior and interaction INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT

Social Organization Theory Our research program: 2000 to present Our work is informed by: Cantillon, Davidson, & Schweitzer (2003) Chaskin, Brown, Venkatesh, & Vidal (2001) Furstenberg & Hughes (1997) Janowitz (1991)

Kornhauser (1978) Putnam (2000) Sampson (1992) Small (2002) Small & Supple (2001) INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Organization Theory Model Our approach, however, Shifts social organization theory from single plane of explanation on disorganization and delinquency Moves the theory toward a more layered approach to communities Presents the theory as having a more

fundamental role in explaining broader family system phenomena INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Structure Social Organizational Processes Individual/Family Results Social Capital Information Reciprocity Trust Network Structure

Informal networks Formal networks Network effect levels Community Capacity Shared responsibility Collective competence Figure 1. Social Organizational Processes, Social Structure, and Individual/Family Results INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Organization Structure and Process Differentiation of structure from process Structure pertains to configuration and composition

Process involves operations and methods of working Process occurs within structural frameworks Processes provide linkage between social structure and effects on families INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Organization Theory: Focus on Processes Main focus is on processes Networks Social Capital Community Capacity Relationships between them Networks provide context for the development of social capital, and for

building community capacity INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Organization Theory: Networks Primary ways through which community life is enacted Informal networks comprise web of relationships with friends, neighbors, work associates Formal networks associated with agencies and organizations Voluntary and obligatory relationships INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT

Social Organization Theory: Networks Network effects levels Action element of our framework Nexus of informal and formal networks First level-within a network Second level-between like networks Third level-between dissimilar networks Network configurations provide leverage for achieving results through generation of social capital and production of community capacity INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Organization Theory:

Social Capital Information, reciprocity, and trust Aggregate of resources (information, opportunities, and instrumental support) Arise from reciprocal social relationships Results from participation in formal and informal settings Social capital observed in actions of civic groups, faith communities, and any number of community-based groups Increases odds of achieving results otherwise not attained INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Organization Theory:

Community Capacity Shared responsibility For general welfare of the community and its individual members Sentiments Collective competence Taking collective action, confronting situations Assumptions Concern directed at community as a whole and at particular elements, action is beyond expression of positive sentiments, action is proactive and reactive, action targeted at threats and at normative situations INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT

Social Organization Theory: Family and Community Results Consequences of effective social organization Desired results (examples, safety, health and well-being, family resilience) Results not owned by any particular group but valued across community Identified results assist to determine leverage points for change Moves theory from interesting framework to theory of action INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Organization: Summary Need for theorizing that

connects families and communities Social organization provides linkage framework Theory focused on action and community change There are leverage points that can be mobilized to support families and communities Consequent set of considerations for professionals Program developers

Program and community researchers INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Applications Community health Military family support systems Intimate partner violence Retention of long-term care professionals Recovery from natural disaster (Hurricane Katrina) INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT

Community Capacity and Health Health promotion and illness prevention Community capacity as key protective factor Juxtaposition of formal and informal networks Role of formal networks in informal support High capacity communities care and act Model reflects social fabric * Mancini, J.A., Martin, J.A., & Bowen, G. (2003). Community capacity. In T. Gullotta & M. Bloom (Eds.), Encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion (pp. 319-331). New York: Plenum. INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT

Military Family Support Systems Originally focused on retooling U.S. Air Force family support system Streamlining the system, addressing silos Conducted Air Force wide community needs and assets survey Trained base personnel from Results Management planning perspective Demonstrated more effective service delivery * Bowen, G.L., Mancini, J.A., Martin, J.A., Ware. W.B., & Nelson, J.P. (2003). Promoting the adaptation of military families: An empirical test of a community practice model. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 52, 33-44.

INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Intimate Partner Violence Prevention-oriented approach to community-level violence Accessed community capacity approach Network-driven prevention efforts suggested Implications: Community presented as a place, a target, and as a force for prevention *Mancini, J.A., Nelson, J.P., Bowen, G.L., & Martin, J.A. (2006). Preventing intimate partner violence: A community capacity approach. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 13 (3/4), 203-227. INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND

ENVIRONMENT Retention of LTC Professionals National Institute on Aging funding (Grant 1R03-AG020408-01 to Karen Roberto and Jay A. Mancini) Problem of high turnover rates among LTC professionals Influences of individual, family, and community factors Key finding: Being more connected to the workplace and workplace colleagues related to retention intentions, job satisfaction, and job commitment *Mancini, J.A., & Roberto, K.A. Community ecology and retention of long-term care employees: Individual, family and community effects on retention-related outcomes. (2002). Hawaii International Conference on social Sciences, Honolulu, June. INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT

Recovery from Natural Disaster Funded by Americas Promise: The Alliance for Youth Jay Mancini and Lydia Marek, Investigators Study currently underway Focus on sustainability of programs for children and families in New Orleans, Gulf Coast (MS), and Houston Planning orientation grounded in building community capacity, collaboration, sustainability, and results management frameworks INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT

Implications for Prevention Science Implications informed by theorizing, research, and practice experience General program development Theories of change Understanding the intervention Differentiating structure and process Specifying results INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Implications for Program BuildingDevelopment community capacity

Nexus of formal and informal networks Important program function of formal networks is to build informal networks Example: parenting program Example: neighborhood safety *Mancini, J.A., Huebner, A.J., McCollum, E., & Marek, L.I. (2005). Evaluation science and family therapy. In D. Sprenkle & F. Piercy (Eds.), Research methods in family therapy (pp. 272-293). NY: Guilford. INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Implications for Theories of Change Prevention/intervention science focuses on expectations of change, and the trail

that change follows Social organization theory tracks change What people know With whom they interact Who they ultimately trust Level of regard for others Collaboration with others Theory provides leads on change linkages INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Implications for Understanding the Intervention Ongoing challenge of knowing elements of prevention/intervention that make a difference Social organization theory interface

between networks and social capital Products of social capital accrue from network interaction, and reflect what may make a difference in how community members interact and cooperate. Programs should focus on network elements INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Implications for Understanding Structure and Process Theory suggests we must distinguish structure from process Confusing configurations with functions may lead to misspecification of what works to

influence community change Within a particular program, is change furthered by a curriculum, program leader attributes, or interaction among program participants? INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Implications for Specifying Exactly whatResults in communities should change? Theory highlights importance of results that can be clearly articulated Provides guidance for indicators Program results and community

results Former tied to particular programs Latter responsibility of programs, organizations, agencies INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Conclusions and Next Steps Potential for social organization theory to provide bridges between community processes, community programs, and families Theory provides framework for program development and for research INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND

ENVIRONMENT Next Steps in Our Research Program Develop clearer Provide greater precision to community concepts Improve measures of social organization concepts, particularly community capacity Clarify linkages between concepts sense of change

leverage points, their importance, and their likelihood of change Discern layers and levels in communities, organizations, and in families Twists and turns To and Fro processes INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Organization Mancini, J.A., Nelson, J.P., Bowen, G.L., & Martin, J.A. (2006). References

Preventing intimate partner violence: A community capacity approach. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 13 (3/4), 203-227. Mancini, J.A., Bowen, G.L., & Martin, J.A. (2005). Community social organization: A conceptual linchpin in examining families in the context of communities. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 54, 570-582. Mancini, J.A., Huebner, A.J., McCollum, E., & Marek, L.I. (2005). Evaluation science and family therapy. In D. Sprenkle & F. Piercy (Eds.), Research methods in family therapy (pp. 272-293). NY: Guilford.

Mancini, J.A., & Marek, L.I. (2004). Sustaining community-based programs for families: Conceptualization and measurement. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 53, 339-347. Mancini, J.A., Bowen, G.L., & Martin, J.A. (2004). Families in community contexts. In V. Bengtson, A. Acock, K. Allen, P. Dillworth-Anderson, & D. Klein (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theory and research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Social Organization Bowen, G.L., Mancini, J.A., Martin, J.A., Ware. W.B., & References Nelson, J.P. (2003). Promoting the adaptation of military

families: An empirical test of a community practice model. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 52, 33-44. Mancini, J.A., Martin, J.A., & Bowen, G. (2003). Community capacity. In T. Gullotta & M. Bloom (Eds.), Encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion (pp. 319-331). New York: Plenum. Bowen, G., Martin, J.A., Mancini, J.A., & Nelson, J. (2001). Civic engagement and sense of community in the military. Journal of Community Practice, 9, 71-93. Bowen, G., Martin, J., Mancini, J.A. , & Nelson, J. (2000). Community capacity: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Community Practice, 8, 1-21. INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT INSTITUTE FOR SOCIETY, CULTURE AND

ENVIRONMENT Jay A. Mancini, Ph.D. Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Society, Culture, and Environment Professor of Human Development Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, VA, 24061 [email protected] Phone (540) 231-9816 Go raibh mile maith agat!

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