Vascular shunt Anatomy of the arteries veins and capillaries.
Vascular shunt Anatomy of the arteries veins and capillaries. Anatomy and Physiology On the white boards outline the process of fainting after an athlete performs exercise and then stops abruptly. (clue, vascular return) Cause Solutions During exercise high Q (what is Q)
Put head below heart to aid blood flow there After and stop drop in muscle pump and less VR Lie down - restores BP and aids VR. SO less SV, Q, BP drops and less flow O2 to brain = dizzy
Active cool down will aid reduction in VR Venule Structure & Function Venule Venule Structure Venules are minute vessels that drain blood from capillaries and into veins. Many venules unite to form
a vein. Function Drains blood from capillaries into veins, for return to the heart Artery & Vein Composition 1 - an outer fibrous layer tunica externa 2 - a thick middle layer tunica media 3 - a thin lining of cells to the inside tunica interna. The tunica media is comprised of smooth muscle and elastic tissue, which enables the arteries and arterioles to alter their diameter.
3 2 1 Artery Structure The artery wall has a thick muscular / elastic layer to expand as the blood surges through, and recoil after.
Artery Function The blood is under HIGH PRESSURE and HIGH VELOCITY as it has been ejected from the heart. Arteriole Structure & Function Arterioles are tiny branches of arteries that lead to
capillaries. Capillary Structure & Function Capillaries are tiny (extremely narrow) blood vessels 1 cell thick Capillary beds surround organs. These capillaries are supplied with blood by arterioles and drained by venules. Capillary walls are only one cell thick which permits exchanges of material between the
contents of the capillary and the surrounding tissue. Supply gases & nutrients remove waste Diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, salts, between the blood and the organs BP and BLOOD FLOW here are much less, as the total area of capillaries is immense.
Vascular shunting. What percentage of blood is used in the muscles while we are at rest? 20% Have a look at page 85 to discover how this changes when we take part in high intensity exercise.
Chart on page 85 Dont panic the blood supply to the brain is maintained. So how does this all transfer into an exam question? See page 120 and hand out. Organs (during exercise) There is vasoconstricts in the arterioles and pre-capillary sphincter.
These both decrease the distribution of blood flow from the essential organs. Muscles (during exercise) The arterioles and pre capillary sphincters vasodilate. Both increase the blood flow towards the capillaries in the working muscles. Exam Q Explain the vascular shunt mechanism during exercise. 4 Vasodilation of arteries/arterioles/blood vessels/leading to working muscles/vascular shunt Opening/vasodilation of pre capillary sphincters leading to
working muscles Vasoconstriction of arteries/arterioles/blood vessels leading to non-essential organs Closing of pre capillary sphincters leading to non-essential organs Exam Question During exercise the body has to respond to an increased demand for oxygen by the working muscles. Figure 2 shows the distribution of cardiac output during exercise. Describe the mechanism that allows for the
redistribution of blood flow during exercise and explain how it is controlled. (10 marks) Reading the flipping question. Break it down into the command words and the subject qualifiers. What is it asking for? Section 1 we can answer. Section 2 Look at page 86 and bullet point on the white boards the answer. See where you will get ten marks in total.
Mark Scheme Distribution of blood flow during exercise (mechanism) (subsub max 4) vascular shunt mechanism (redistributes blood during exercise so that) areas with the greatest need receive more blood/areas with low demand receive less blood through vasodilation of arterioles/blood vessels feeding working muscles and vasodilation/opening of precapillary sphincters feeding working muscles through vasoconstriction of arterioles feeding others organs (e.g. liver/kidney/intestines) and vasoconstriction/closing of precapillary sphincters
feeding these organs vascular shunt mechanism) (control explanation) (subsubmax 4) controlled by the vasomotor control centre CCC; located in the medulla (oblongata) of the brain VCC responds to changes in blood pressure/muscle/blood chemistry chemoreceptors detect changes in lactic acid/carbon dioxide/oxygen/pH/ content of blood chemoreceptors located in muscles/aorta/carotid arteries baroreceptors detect changes in blood pressure baroreceptors located in aorta/carotid arteries
VCC uses sympathetic nervous system which acts on the middle layer of smooth muscle in an arteriole/the ring of smooth muscle at the opening of a capillary (precapillary sphincter)/control diameter of arterioles/precapillary sphincters Using the white boards draw the transfer of blood highlighting the affiliation to Hb. Give values where appropriate. Next person add in the affiliation to monoxide (smoke).
Application of understanding. Can you check your answers against someone else in the group. See if you have the same answer. (speed dating). Can you explain why the blood pressure in the endurance training will plateau at around 140-160? Can you account for the increase in systolic Bp in line with exercise intensity? Why during exercise does the diastolic pressure stay roughy the same? Can you explain why localised muscular diastolic pressure may fall?
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