U.S. Imperialism Unit Overview Organizing Principle During the early Gilded Age, American interests largely remained confined within its own borders. However, the far reaching economic changes of this time period, coupled with the radically changing social structure, prompted America to compete abroad for international possessions and prestige. By 1900,
the United States became an empire. The New Imperialism Sewards Folly (1867) Purchase of Alaska American Nationalism Shaped by sense of powerpopulation growth,
wealth, and production Interest in colonies and territories Access to markets Yellow Press sensationalized stories of Pulitzer and Hearst Ethnocentrism Belief in cultural superiority
Social Darwinism Scramble for AfricaBerlin Conference (1884) Manifestations of the New Imperialism Closing of the frontier Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan Control of the seanew steel navy
James G. Blaine Big Sister policy Pan-American Conference (1899) Samoan Islands German-American conflict
British GuianaVenezuelan border dispute GOLD! Monroe DoctrineS.O.S. Richard Olney The Germans! The Great Rapprochement Mele Kalikimaka? American interests in Hawaii Way stationwhalers Missionaries
Sugar! Americans capitalize on Japanese and Chinese labor 1887 treatPearl Harbor American control Japanese intervention McKinley Tariff (1890)
Queen Liliuokalani (lee-lee-oo-oh-kah-lah-nee) Insisted on native control! American troops Annexation? Cleveland blocks Cuba and the Spanish Problem
Cuba=Spanish colony Tariff cripples sugar industryhurts American agricultural interests Insurrectosscorched earth policy Stakes 50 million invested100 million annual trade Panama Canal Gas on the fire Valeriano Butcher Weyler Concentration camps yellow journalism de Lme Letter
Criticized McKinley for being soft USS Maine Explodes on 15 February 1898 260 sailor dieSpanish to blame (not really) McKinley declares war Teller Amendment Spanish-American War
The Pacific Theater The Philippines Commodore George Dewey 01 May 1898obliterates Spanish fleet Spanish losses: 10 ships (out dated) and 400 men U.S. survives the engagement unscathed Manila captured 13 August 1898 Hawaii Way station for troops in Philippines Fear of Japanese encroachment
Annexation7 July 1898 Full territorial status1900 Liberating The Caribbean Cuba Americans blockade Santiago
Harbor Spanish have rickety fleet there American realities Armyunorganized and outdated Rough RidersAmerican cavalry Teddy Roosevelt and Leonard Wood African Americans Aided by insurrectos Puerto Rico
Welcomed as liberators American losses 400 from battle 5,000 from disease and sickness American Empire The Treaty of Paris 1898 Guam, Puerto Rico, and Philippines (20 million dollars)
The question of the Philippines Size and population? Imperial interests of the Old World? Acquisition after armisticeopposition? support? Independence? Contiguous territories? White mans burden?
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