U.S. History Final Format

U.S. History Final Format

U.S. History Final Format 75 Multiple Choice ( .7 pts. each) 52.5 10 True or False ( .7 pts. each) 7.0 15 Matching (3x5) ( .7 pts. each) 10.5 2 of 8 Essay Questions (15 pts. each) 30.0 100.0 Junior 15pt. Essay Themes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. These essays are to be answered in Knockout Format! Both Content and Style matter! Usually Knockouts are 5 paragraphs. You may add extra paragraphs if you have more than 3 seeds. Rise and Fall of Racial Segregation

Industrial Revolution (Business, Industry, Transportation, Communication) Railroads (Expansion v. Plains Indians) Age of Imperialism / Western Hemi. Relations Progressives (Labor, Immigration, Corruption, Women, Urban Centers) Reasons and Results of Entering World War I Causes of the Stock Market Crash Examples of New Deals Goals of Relief, Recovery & Reform Unit 6: Civil War Cotton Cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 Demand for cotton Leads to land butchery westward expansion

more slavery of worlds cotton grown in South South believes their economic importance to the world would give them support in case of war with North Cottonocracy Antebellum (pre-Civil War South) Oligarchy government by a small number of elite About 1,700 families had large plantations with more than 100 slaves Had the most political power Social ranking system: 1. elite, large slave-owners

2. small farmers owned a few slaves 3. poor, non-slave owning whites (3/4 of white population) Despised wealthy slave owners Still pro-slavery, very racist Plantation Slavery Slave importation banned in 1808 Not regulated or enforced Slave population self-sufficient through childbirth Slaves = investment Protected from dangerous jobs

Deep South SC, Louisiana Most strict, tough areas for slaves Slave revolts (Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner) caused tighter security and worse laws for blacks Abolitionist Movements Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Emotional and chilling portrayal of slavery HUGE impact on debate of slavery

Frederick Douglass Escaped slave William Lloyd Garrison Extremist-abolitionist Seen as disruptive to unity, Northern economy Souths Defense Bible supported slavery Slave owners convert their slaves to Christianity Whites and happy darkies get along Slaves and slave-owners like family Slaves lived better lives than Northern wage slaves

1840s America William Henry Harrison dies after a month in office VP John Tyler is new president Tyler not very Whig-minded Vetoes Whig legislation kicked out of party Tyler deals with numerous foreign affairs Canadian attack on American ship Borders of Maine (U.S. vs. Britain) British giving escaped slaves asylum

James K. Polk wins election of 1844 Democratic party Platform of expansion and Manifest Destiny Polks Presidency Very successful and efficient 4 part plan: Lower the tariff

Restore independent treasury Clear up the Oregon border issue Get California Accomplished all in 4 years Issue with Texas Still independent Texas becoming friendly with European countries Dilemma for America Slavery issue, economic factors, Monroe doctrine Polk invites Texas to join the U.S. in 1845 Mexican-American War (1846-1848) Polk wants California (Mexican territory) Offers to buy first, uses force when refused Baited Mexico into a war

Santa Anna cleverly returns to lead Mexican Army U.S. dominates Mexico in 3 phases: Occupy California Secure Texas Conquer Mexico City Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexican Cession forced to give up present day CA, NV, AZ, NM, CO, UT Gadsden Purchase made in 1854 Needed land for railroad route

1840s-1850s America Gen. Zachary Taylor wins presidency under Whig Party in 1848 Challenged by Free Soil Party People moving west (new land, gold in CA) Issue of slavery slave or free states? Huge debate between North and South Clay, Webster, Calhoun Slowly working towards compromise Taylor (anti-slavery) threatens to veto if North makes any concessions Taylor dies, compromising VP Millard

Fillmore takes over Compromise of 1850 North gets: California is a free state balance tipped to free side Texas gives up disputed New Mexico land Slave trade now illegal in D.C. (symbolic significance only) South gets: Popular sovereignty in new Mexican Cession lands New states vote whether to be a free state or slave state Texas paid $10 million for loss of land given to New Mexico

Fugitive Slave Law: runaway slaves given no due process, money paid for catching and returning of slave, Northern officials forced to catch slaves North passes laws to avoid forced capture Leads to further dissention between North and South 1850s America President Franklin Pearce wins election in 1852 Democratic party, safe choice no enemies Kansas-Nebraska Act Transcontinental railroad compromise Kansas open to popular sovereignty Becomes battleground between North and South

Extreme and violent abolitionist: John Brown murderer or martyr? Kansas wins vote to become slave state (scandal) President James Buchanan wins election in 1856 Democratic Ran against John Fremont (Republican) Northerner, but sympathetic towards South Dred Scott Case Slave moved by master from South to North, then back to South Tried to sue for freedom lost case Decision Stated slaves not citizens cannot use legal process

Also stated Congress cannot outlaw slavery Infuriates North South now had advantage politically (president, Supreme Court, Constitution) North has powerless majority Congress Compromise of 1850 North gets: California is a free state balance tipped to free side Texas gives up disputed New Mexico land Slave trade now illegal in D.C. (symbolic significance only) South gets:

Popular sovereignty in new Mexican Cession lands New states vote whether to be a free state or slave state Texas paid $10 million for loss of land given to New Mexico Fugitive Slave Law: runaway slaves given no due process, money paid for catching and returning of slave, Northern officials forced to catch slaves North passes laws to avoid forced capture Leads to further dissention between North and South Dred Scott Case Slave moved by master from South to North, then back to South Tried to sue for freedom lost case Decision Stated slaves not citizens cannot use legal process

Also stated Congress cannot outlaw slavery Infuriates North South now had advantage politically (president, Supreme Court, Constitution) North has powerless majority Congress 1850s America Panic of 1857 Caused by over-speculation, inflation caused by California gold, and overproduction of grain 1858 Illinois Senate Race: Lincoln (Rep) vs. Douglas (Dem)

The Great Debates Douglas wins election, loses his heavy support from South after Freeport Doctrine Stated people hold power to vote down slavery, despite the Supreme Court Lincoln loses, but becomes national figure Election of 1860 Democrats split: North wants Stephen Douglas to run Popular sovereignty position

South wants John C. Breckinridge Pro-slavery position Republicans select Abe Lincoln Campaign successfully unites many Northern factions: Free-Soilers (will stop slaverys expansion) Manufactures (will raise the import tariff) Immigrants (will secure better rights) Westerners (will build a NW railroad) Farmers (will establish homesteading)

System of federal land grants Election of 1860 Lincoln not an abolitionist, but was a FreeSoiler hated by the south SC threatens to secede if Lincoln wins election Southern votes split between Douglas and Breckenridge Lincoln wins comfortably in November, 1860 Scheduled to take office in March 1861 The South Secedes SC secedes in Dec. 1860 Soon followed by Deep South Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas

Feb 1861 Southern states form Confederate States of America Elect Jefferson Davis as President of C.S.A. President Buchanan did almost nothing to stop the secession One final compromise offered Crittendon Compromise (extend Missouri Compromise line north = free, south = slave) Lincoln takes over, crushes compromise Honest Abe took free-soil pledge, wouldnt break it Why the South Seceded: Institution of slavery threatened by North Would kill Southern economy if outlawed

Believed starting own nation allows own development Economy, industry, banking, shipping, etc Compared their secession to independence of American colonies in 1776 U.S. breaks from England, South breaks from North South didnt think North would try to stop their secession If war did break out, Europe would support South due to its economic value Civil War Begins Lincolns Inauguration (Mar. 4, 1861) Primary goal:

REUNITE THE NATION Problems with South leaving: Dividing country impossible due to geographic reasons They still owe national debt Runaway slave issues would surely lead to conflict Europe could prey on a weak and split America (economically, diplomatically, militarily) War Begins (1861) Lincolns inauguration (Mar) Southern delegates offer peace treaty to Lincoln Lincoln refuses

Fort Sumter, SC (April) Island fort held by North, being surrounded by South Supplies running out, reinforcements too late South open fires on Ft. Sumter North surrenders after day War officially begins Call to arms Lincoln Preps for War

75,000 soldiers Orders naval blockade of South 4 undecided states secede and CSA Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and NC Border States Border States Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland All slave states that had not seceded Importance: Would increase Souths population

Would increase Souths industrial potential Lincolns plan to gain border states: Declared martial law in Maryland Railroad importance, buffer to D.C. Convinced border states his motives were to end war, not slavery Splits between border states: Tennessee volunteers Anti-slavery West Virginia breaks away from Virginia Advantages North Larger population

3x Souths population Industry Railroads U.S. Navy Naval blockades importance More money

South Only had to defend, not conquer North needed a decisive victory to win Geographical advantages Better military leadership Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson Warm Up Of the advantages and disadvantages we

know of, which do you think will be the most important throughout the course of the war? Which will help the North the most? Which will hurt the South the most? Souths Foreign Aid? South believed Europe would help them Economic importance cotton Reasons help never came: Some Europeans wanted a split U.S. Other Europeans were anti-slavery Effect of Uncle Toms Cabin Englands reliance on Southern cotton decreasing

Had started own crops in colonized Egypt and India North sends food over to famine-affected Europe throughout war support grows Foreign Affairs England gives very little support to South Trent affair Northern ship stops British ship with 2 Southern diplomats on it arrested released CSS Alabama Staffed with British forces, attacked U.S. ships worldwide, but not in U.S. waters Brits never follow though with promise to build raider

ships for South could hurt England one day U.S.-Canada border issues Puppet government set up in Mexico by Napoleon III (France) violates Monroe doctrine A. Lincoln Stable & established government Can easily exert power Better foreign relations Navy at disposal Telegraph and railroad system

vs. J. Davis Never popular (Elected by delegates, not common people) An unstable confederacy Loosely united

Weak by design Hard to govern Hard to exert power Lincoln vs. the Constitution Unconstitutional actions: Martial law declared in Maryland Increases the size of the Army Created draft too Paid $2 million to a few private citizens for undisclosed military purposes Suspended habeas corpus Anti-unionists arrested and held without trial Supervised Border State elections

Turn and talk with a partner: Which actions are the worst? Rank them. Do you think these actions are acceptable? Why or why not? Do the ends justify the means? Economies During War NORTH Raises import tax Railroads and open seas Sold war bonds Funded 62% of war for North Recreated National

Banking System Secured and regulated money in economy War boomed industry Womens role increased Factory workers, Red Cross SOUTH Union naval blockade killed Souths money flow Could not export cotton Could not import for (no import tax) Massive inflation New CSA currency fails

Southerners held 30% of nations wealth before secession 12% after Lack of money kills Souths war effort War Starts Ft. Sumter (April 1860) Both sides confident war will be short Ninety-Day War North wants to take Richmond, VA (CSA capital)

July 1860 Battle of Bull Run (VA) Both sides unprepared, unorganized Southern Gen. Thomas Jackson holds line, fights off North Stonewall Jackson North panics & retreats, South wins the first major battle of the Civil War Significance? Realization war was going to take much longer Both sides needed better preparation 5,000 casualties in one day Both sides stall to prepare for

long war Lincoln puts Gen. George McClellan in charge Organized, master planner Planned to take Richmond Would end war The Peninsula Campaign (Summer 1862) Stonewall Jackson bluffs attack on D.C. Northern troops split Southern Gen. Jeb Stuarts cavalry circles & outflanks McClellan Southern Gen. Robert E. Lee attacks in Seven Days Battles

Pushes McClellan back to sea South wins another huge battle 35,000 total dead Norths quick solution to war fails twice Lincolns new plan: TOTAL WAR Blockade, divide, conquer Strengthen naval blockade Free the slaves Divide the South along Mississippi River Capture Richmond, VA (CSA Capital) Engage battle anywhere possible Abandons using only large,

planned battles South would be pounded into submission in every facet of war Norths New Strategy Northern Gen. Winfield Scotts Anaconda Plan Naval Blockade

Penetrable at first, strengthened over time Stopped and searched any ships coming in or out C.S.S. Merrimack ironclad ship threatened blockade North builds U.S.S. Monitor Monitor defeats Merrimack in Chesapeake Bay March, 1862 New plan: replace wooden ships with iron, steam ships Whos more likely to manufacture more and at a faster rate? Antietam Aug 1862 Second Battle of Bull Run North beaten badly by South, led by

Lee South undoubtedly winning the war Lee marches forward invades Antietam, MD Wants to lure Border States to join CSA Draw war off of Virginias farmland Make a symbolic victory on Northern soil Loses battle plans found by North Gen. McClellan (back in charge) prepares for battle

Antietam Battle of Antietam Creek (Sep. 1862) Most critical battle of war so far Could be knockout punch for South Northern victory would keep war alive, convinces Europe to stay out of war North wins Overpowers South with

numbers Over 20,000 killed Emancipation Proclamation First, much awaited victory for North Gives Lincoln a stage to announce next part of plan: free the slaves Not just a war to reunite the nation, but now to end slavery as well Gives North a moral rationale for fighting Proclamation did not free slaves in Border States States too fragile could leave secede in anger

No real legal repercussions to Proclamation why? Lincoln holds no political power in South Lincoln didnt have authority to free slaves even in the Union North would have to win the war for it to go into effect South complains Lincoln is stirring slave rebellion Black Soldiers Join Effort Free Black men in the North banned from enlisting at first As war progressed, more soldiers were needed

Black men now allowed to enlist 10% of army made up of Black men Southern army often just executed captured Black soldiers rather than treat them as POWs Massacre at Ft. Pillow, Tennessee Advancing Northern armies freed slaves, some of which joined the war Futile Northern Generals Gen. McClellan demoted again after Antietam Had Lees plans!!! Barely won the battle

Largely because of numbers Failed to pursue and crush Lee Gen. Burnside takes over Defeated at Fredericksburg, VA (Dec, 1862) Gen. Hooker takes over Defeated at Chancellorsville, VA (May, 1863) Lees most impressive victory Humiliating loss for the North Stonewall Jackson mistakenly killed

by own men Gen. Meade takes over Gettysburg Lee again goes for knockout punch Invades North again Battle of Gettysburg, PA (July 1863) South wins first two days of battle forcing North to retreat up into hills Third Day: Picketts Charge Lee sends 15,000 men across open field to crush the North

with frontal assault Fails miserably Northern lines hold North wins HUGE battle Gettysburg Biggest win for North thus far Massive loss for South 25,000 casualties Turning point in war South could not keep up with Norths influx of soldiers, supplies Chances at victory dwindling fast

Gettysburg Address (Nov 1863) Lincoln returned to battlefield to give speech to troops Meant to boost morale, rationalize war Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Blockade, Divide, Conquer Ulysses S. Grant

Unconditional Surrender Rose to fame by capturing Jackson and Vicksburg, MS One day after Gettysburg Divides South at Mississippi River Gen. Sherman divides South from Tennessee to Atlanta (Spring 1864) March to Sea Total war tactics Destroyed everything in his path Burns Atlanta to ground

Election of 1864 Lincoln had some Northern opposition Radical Republicans felt Lincoln was mismanaging war Democrats split on Lincoln support War Dems vs. Peace Dems Lincoln forms Union Party Combines Republicans and War Democrats George McClellan runs vs. Lincoln Lincoln easily wins election The Final Stages: Lee vs. Grant Grant promoted to Commanding General Army

South blockaded & divided GRANTs strategy now: Beat the South by outlasting the South North has strength in numbers Series of battles in VA grinds away at South: The Wilderness (May 1864) Spotsylvania Courthouse (May) Cold Harbor (June 1864)*

Petersburg (June 1864 - Mar 1865) All result in Northern victories* The South Surrenders Petersburg was Souths last stand After it falls, South doomed Grant marches to Richmond Scorched earth method of South causes fires in Richmond Evacuation allows for easy capture of capital

April 1865 Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse in VA Aftermath 600,000 dead A whole generation gone $15 billion spent Long-term animosity

Physically destroyed the South Pro: Slavery ended forever Lincoln assassinated 5 days after the war ends At a play at Fords Theater in D.C. Shot by John Wilkes Booth in part of plot to still help South win the war Lincoln an instant martyr in North Died reuniting the nation, ending slavery Assassination celebrated in South, ironically dooms them Radical Reps who replace Lincoln not as forgiving as Lincoln The Reconstruction Freedmen freed slaves in tough situation: Most stayed (either by choice or force) on plantation

U.S. Army freed all slaves eventually Some fled North Some rioted against former masters New social structure for blacks is shaky Churches grow and become pillar of black community Freedmans Bureau created to help blacks adjust to free life provided food, clothing, education Improved literacy, failed in most other

areas Disliked by Southerners, Pres. Johnson President Andrew Johnson Tennessee Democrat chosen by Lincoln to balance ticket in 1864 election Was only Southern Congressman to not secede Disliked by both North and South Stubborn, confrontational, short-tempered white supremacist The Reconstruction Plan Lincolns plan: The 10% Plan

Southern states could rejoin the U.S. after 10% of the voters take oath of loyalty and respect for emancipation Plan seen as very forgiving Radical Republicans wanted to punish South Propose Wade-Davis Bill up to 50%, add laws to protect freed blacks Lincoln vetoes why? The Reconstruction Plan Lincoln assassinated

Johnson adds some changes: Former Confeds cannot vote Secession ordinances repealed U.S. repudiated Confed debts States must ratify the 13th amendment Outlaws slavery Souths social structure & workforce demolished and disassembled The Black Codes White Southerners pass Black Codes

Laws designed to keep freed blacks under control of their white employers Contracts forcing blacks to work for whites Very discriminatory Blacks given little rights, punishable offenses Northerners outraged Battle for Congress North dominated Congress during war Passed many major bills during war Dec 1865 Johnson allows all Southern states to rejoin the U.S. Southern politicians return to Congress Could gain more representation now than before

Three-Fifths Compromise eradicated now Johnson vs. Congress Johnson vetoed all Republican bills Civil Rights Bill grants blacks citizenship, weakens Black Codes Congress creates 14th Amendment Blacks get citizenship Didnt guarantee suffrage States lose Congressional representation if blacks were denied voting Confederate leaders banned from federal offices

Johnson battles Congress with round the circle speeches backfires Ratified by states in 1868 Congressional Reconstruction Republicans now in control of Reconstruction Split: (Radicals vs. Moderates Radical Reps: Led by Sen. Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens Wanted a slow Reconstruction to institute major social and economic changes to South Moderate Reps:

Wanted a more hands-off approach to Reconstruction Both groups wanted black suffrage The Reconstruction Act Passed March 1867 Divides South into 5 military districts Army occupied each to maintain order Southern states not fully readmitted to U.S. until: 14th Amendment is ratified Black suffrage guaranteed Radical Reps pass 15th Amendment in 1870 to ensure suffrage cannot be removed Unit 7: Postwar

The Reconstruction Freedmen freed slaves in tough situation: Most stayed (either by choice or force) on plantation U.S. Army freed all slaves eventually Some fled North Some rioted against former masters New social structure for blacks is shaky Churches grow and become pillar of

black community Freedmans Bureau created to help blacks adjust to free life provided food, clothing, education Improved literacy, failed in most other areas Disliked by Southerners, Pres. Johnson President Andrew Johnson Tennessee Democrat chosen by Lincoln to balance ticket in 1864 election Was only Southern Congressman to not secede

Disliked by both North and South Stubborn, confrontational, short-tempered white supremacist The Reconstruction Plan Lincolns plan: The 10% Plan Southern states could rejoin the U.S. after 10% of the voters take oath of loyalty and respect for emancipation Plan seen as very forgiving Radical Republicans wanted to punish South Propose Wade-Davis Bill up to 50%, add laws to protect freed blacks Lincoln vetoes why?

The Reconstruction Plan Lincoln assassinated Johnson adds some changes: Former Confeds cannot vote Secession ordinances repealed U.S. repudiated Confed debts States must ratify the 13th amendment Outlaws slavery

Souths social structure & workforce demolished and disassembled The Black Codes White Southerners pass Black Codes Laws designed to keep freed blacks under control of their white employers Contracts forcing blacks to work for whites Very discriminatory Blacks given little rights, punishable offenses Northerners outraged Battle for Congress North dominated Congress during war Passed many major bills during war

Dec 1865 Johnson allows all Southern states to rejoin the U.S. Southern politicians return to Congress Could gain more representation now than before Three-Fifths Compromise eradicated now Johnson vs. Congress Johnson vetoed all Republican bills Civil Rights Bill grants blacks citizenship, weakens Black Codes Congress creates 14th Amendment Blacks get citizenship Didnt guarantee suffrage

States lose Congressional representation if blacks were denied voting Confederate leaders banned from federal offices Johnson battles Congress with round the circle speeches backfires Ratified by states in 1868 Congressional Reconstruction Republicans now in control of Reconstruction Split: Radicals vs. Moderates Radical Reps: Led by Sen. Charles Sumner

and Thaddeus Stevens From Sumner-Brooks Affair (1856) Wanted a slow Reconstruction to institute major social and economic changes to South Moderate Reps: Wanted a more hands-off approach to Reconstruction Both groups wanted black suffrage The Reconstruction Act

Passed March 1867 Divides South into 5 military districts Army occupied each to maintain order Southern states not fully readmitted to U.S. until: 14th Amendment is ratified Black suffrage guaranteed Radical Reps pass 15th Amendment in 1870 to ensure suffrage cannot be removed Progression of Black Rights 13th amendment abolishes slavery 14th amendment makes ex-slaves citizens 15th amendment protects black suffrage 14 Amendment

th The right to vote at any election is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged (if violated) the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. 15 Amendment th The rights of citizens of the U.S. to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the

U.S. or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude What is controversial about the language used in the 14th and 15th amendments? Women Suffrage 14th amendment refers to citizens as males 15th amendment claims voting cant be denied by race, color, or previous servitude Women outraged, feel left out, see opportunity

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony lead womens movement Fought to keep these amendments from entering Constitution without guaranteeing womens suffrage Failed amendments passed Reconstruction in Action Blacks begin to organize, create Union League Web of associations working together to help black communities, consolidate political power, etc. Many white southerners temporarily unable to vote leads to blacks gaining power politically

Hiram Revels becomes first black Senator (1870) White Southerners infuriated Blacks freed, serving over whites in Congress and state legislatures Scalawags whites who were sympathetic towards North Carpetbaggers Northerners who moved to South after the war Some came to help, some came to profit, some swindled Underground movement among White Southerners gaining strength The Ku Klux Klan

The Invisible Empire of the South Formed in Tennessee (1866) Thrived on fear, unknown membership Threatened, lynched, murdered blacks Effective in slowing down black progress Southern White Retaliation White Southerners use political tricks to

disenfranchise blacks Started literacy tests as requirement to vote Targets illiterate blacks problem? Add grandfather clauses to protect illiterate whites Allows voting rights to any citizen whos grandfather could vote Congress vs. Johnson Johnson impeding Congressional Reconstruction Radical Reps plot to impeach Johnson Pass Tenure of Office Act (1867) President needs Senate approval to fire anyone who had been previously appointed to him Rational: Senate approves appointees when hired,

thus should approve when fired Johnson wants to replace Sec. of War Edwin Stanton Appointed by Lincoln Conspiring against Johnson with Radical Republicans Lose-lose for Johnson, Win-Win for Congress: Allow Stanton to stay Radical Reps happy Fire Stanton breaking the law, could be impeached Impeachment? Johnson fires Stanton in 1868 Congress votes to impeach Johnson on high crimes and misdemeanors Generally due to all of Johnsons misdoings during Reconstruction, specifically due to firing Stanton Impeachment trials:

Johnson remains silent His lawyers argue he was acting under Constitution, not Tenure of Office Act Senate needs 2/3 to support impeachment, fall short by one vote Johnson remains in office Radical Republicans claim the non-guilty verdict as a dangerous precedent Purchase of Alaska Russia willing to sell Alaska William H. Steward Johnsons Sec. of State Expansionist, pushed for purchase of Alaska Unpopular campaign Sewards Folly, Sewards Icebox

Eventually gains enough support in Senate Purchased for $ 7.2 million Seward scorned for purchase Adds to Johnsons unpopularity Vindicated long after death gold and oil discovered Legacy of Reconstruction Reconstruction just as bad as the war for South Loss of infrastructure, economy, political power, massive physical destruction Causes decades of animosity South felt beaten down, humiliated Civil War referred to as War of Northern Aggression

Emancipation gives somewhat false hope to blacks Progress made with 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments But in some cases, had it better in antebellum times Violence, tricky politics keep blacks down Significant progress not made again until the 1950s and 60s The Gilded Age (1870-1900) Gilded Covered thinly with gold paint Times appeared great Railroads Industry booms Westward Expansion Relative Peace Wealth

but numerous problems: Corruption Crooked business practices Tight and chaotic political races Ethnic conflict Wealth Gaps Political Division of the Gilded Age Republicans: Supported in North and West Grand Army of the Republic (G.A.R.) Military veteran group devout to Republican party

Allude to Puritan ancestry Most political power after Civil War Democrats: Supported mostly by the South Supported by Lutherans and Catholics Very little political power after Civil War Various political parties emerge during era in response to problems of the Gilded Age: corruption, economy, labor rights, etc. Election of 1868 Ulysses S. Grant vs. Horatio Seymour

Grant and the Republicans (Radical): Radicals needed a strong president to enforce their policies Grant had no political experience Reps. relying on what? War-hero, slogan: wave the bloody shirt Hoping military heroics would be enough to win election Seymour and the Democrats: Seymour a former Governor from NY Party extremely disorganized Agreed on only one thing: Dislike of military Reconstruction Grant narrowly wins election what does this imply? Political campaigns now tightening up, more efficiently run Grants Reconstruction Implemented Radical Rep policies of Reconstruction

Protection of equal rights for blacks Civil Rights Act (1875) Creates Dept. of Justice Helps prosecute KKK leaders, members Used military to: Enforce fair voting practices Quell KKK violence Grants support would slowly decline during terms: Why? Mission already accomplished: many felt Reconstruction was largely complete by 1870 Corruption Corruption

Time period AKA The Era of Good Stealings Widespread corruption after Civil War JubileeJim Fisk & Jay Gould: Caught with scheme to cornerstone gold market Boss Tweed: Ran Tammany Hall, a political organzation in NYC Bribes, rigged elections, cronyism Prosecuted by Samuel J. Tilden Corruption Credit Mobilier scandal: Railroad company caught fixing hiring

process to get paid double Bribed Congressmen and VP Schuyler Colfax with stocks Whiskey Ring: Revenue from liquor tax being stolen Large ring of government workers & Grants secretary Grant: Let no man escape doesnt prosecute secretary William Belknap: Grants Sec. of War caught swindling $24,000 from Indians Grants Presidency Grant a very honest man not involved in any

scandals But still condemned as corrupt: Major corruption in administration Failed to recognize it Failed to deal with it properly Reformers form own party to combat crooked Republicans: Liberal Republican Party Included both ex-Reps and ex-Dems Main goal: clean up government corruption Election of 1872 Ulysses S. Grant vs. Horace Greeley Republican Grant tries for second term Horace Greeley nominee for Liberal Republicans

Editor of NY Tribune, little political experience Stubborn abolitionist, and harsh critic of Democrats Still gets support from Southern Dems why? Soft on Southern Reconstruction Dems desperately eager to gain office Extreme mudslinging: Greeley called an atheist, communist, vegetarian, Confederate sympathizer Grant: drunk, stupid, swindler Results of Election of 1872 Grant Popular vote: 55% Electoral vote: 286 (of 352)

Greeley Popular vote: 46% Electoral vote: 3 (of 352) (Last 63 Electoral votes spread out among various Democratic and Liberal Republican politicians) What happened? Greeley dies during election after popular vote, but before electoral vote. Grant easily wins election. Effects of Election of 1872 Popular vote was close enough to scare Reps Republican Congress begins to reform: The Amnesty Act (1872) Removed voting and office-holding restrictions on many ex-Confederates

Efforts to reduce tariff rates Would help Southern economy Clean up the corruption in Grants administration Fired any workers involved in any past scandals Panic of 1873 Industrialization of U.S. caused over-growth Railroads & manufacturing boom Economic downturns every twenty years in 1800s: (1819, 1837, 1857, 1873, 1893) Panic of 1873: What caused it? Over-speculation Overspending, overinvesting with borrowed money Railroads and factories specifically

Banks giving too-easy credit Young American industry hit hard Black communities hurt especially why? Economic downturn less jobs last to be hired Debate ensues on how to fix economy Soft Money vs. Hard Money AKA Cheap Money Policies call for forced inflation Paper currency fluctuating value Would ease debt payments of masses Supported by middle and lower

classes Policies keep amount of money stable by keeping it correlated with amount of gold Coin currency defined value Inflation unfair: lent money would be less valuable once paid back Supported by wealthy, banks SOLUTION: Grant supports hard money policy, passes Resumption Act:

Aimed to lower paper money in circulation & phase it out Backfires: starts contraction amount of money in circulation decreases worsens recession value of dollar bill increases Greenback Labor Party emerges in 1878 main goal: CHEAP MONEY POLICIES Grants Presidency (1878-1876) How did public rate his presidency? How do you rate it? General historical

view: Good and honest leader but presidency is marred and burdened by widespread corruption, economic downturn Election of 1876 Grants two terms complete Republican split redevelops: Stalwarts (Radicals) led by Roscoe Conkling Half-Breeds (Moderates) led by James G. Blaine

Agree to nominate Rutherford B. Hayes The Great Unknown Neutral Republican From Ohio (important swing state) Democrats nominate Samuel Tilden Famous for prosecuting Boss Tweed Election of 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Samuel Tilden Tilden gets 51% of popular vote, but falls one electoral vote short of winning election

But 20 votes disputed due to questionable process of return and handling Near chaos ensues: Both Reps and Dems send officials to investigate Both sides claim victory Recount called for but who in Congress would count? Democratic majority in House, Republican majority in Senate Congress creates Electoral Count Act which sets up commission of 15 men to solve crisis problem? Uneven number: 8 Republicans, 7 Democrats Republicans claim victory, Democrats filibuster to stop process North gets:

Hayes elected as Republican president Compromise of 1877 South gets: Removal of military occupation Reconstruction now officially over Effects of Compromise of 1877: Southern blacks unprotected now White Southerners regain more political power Civil Rights Act of 1875 significantly cut back

Pass Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow Laws Many laws created to keep blacks in subservient role in South Many blacks were sharecroppers: Farmed land they didnt own, paid landlords with crops System abused, designed to keep blacks poor Jim Crow Laws Many states had begun to legalize segregation constitutional? Forced segregation in all public facilities: Schools, theaters, restrooms, transportation Violation could result in fines, imprisonment, violence

Mob lynchings peak during this era 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court ruled it legal separate but equal Separate Yes but Equal? Class Conflict 1877 4 largest railroad companies agree to cut wages by 10% Workers strike, railroads shut down Cripples industry, transportation Hayes uses federal troops to suppress violent strike Several weeks pass workers lose

Shows weakness of labor movement Chinese immigration Many young, poor Chinese men emigrate to California Find jobs building railroads Job competition with Irish Chinese willing to work for lower wages San Francisco Denis Kearney forms Irish gang Terrorizes Chinese community Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)

Immigration from China cut off First immigration restriction in America Why were the Chinese targeted? Ethnic Conflict Election of 1880 Reps nominate James A. Garfield Dark horse from Ohio Running mate: Chester Arthur (a Stalwart) Dems nominate Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock

Civil War veteran, no political experience Popular vote close, but electoral vote gives Garfield the win Garfields Presidency Heated feud between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds Hindered any progress for Garfield July 1881 Garfield assassinated Shot by Charles J. Guiteau (Stalwart) Dies in September VP Chester Arthur (Stalwart)

takes over President Chester Arthur A Stalwart, but more reform-minded than other Stalwarts (1883) Pendleton Act passed Political reform calling for merit based hiring for government jobs Civil Service Commission created to enforce act Effects: Only applied to 10% of federal jobs but Stopped worst offenses of cronyism Stepping stone to future reform Election of 1884 Reps nominate James G. Blaine Half-Breed leader

Blaine not very reform minded Reps wanting reform abandoned and supported Dems Mugwumps Dems nominate Grover Cleveland From New Jersey, but supported by South Seen as a man of principle, honest Extreme mudslinging Cleveland wins very close election President Grover Cleveland First democrat elected since 1857 (James Buchanan) Democratic majority in Congress Believed in laissez-faire capitalism Pleased big businesses, upsets working class

Names two former-Confeds to cabinet Aims to mend North and South Wants to follow merit system But pressure mounts from Dems Replaces 40,000 Reps with Dems Military pensions Powerful G.A.R. pushing bills to raise already high pension Many passed seen as exploitation

Cleveland (not a veteran) in tough spot: Doesnt want to disrespect and outrage veterans Vetoes many pension bills President Grover Cleveland Budget surplus Extra money in government budget from high tariff Two options to use it: Invest it Lower taxes Chooses to lower the tariff Reps, Dems, businesses Who supports this? Who doesnt? Dems support lowered tariff Reps and business owners support higher tariff

Debate ensues, leads into election of 1888 Election of 1888 Dems nominate Cleveland Reps nominate Benjamin Harrison From Indiana Grandson of Old Tippecanoe Benjamin wins very close race Return of a Republican Congress Republicans win back power in Congress Elect Thomas Czar Reed as Speaker of the House

Ran House like a dictator Tall, tough debater, vicious rhetoric Dems resist, refuse to answer roll call No roll call = no quorum = no meeting Return of a Republican Congress Republicans win back power in Congress Elect Thomas Czar Reed as Speaker of the House

Ran House like a dictator Tall, tough debater, vicious rhetoric Dems resist, refuse to answer roll call No roll call = no quorum = no meeting Reed changes role call stipulations and proceeds with meetings With no opposition in the House: More hard money policies enacted Military pensions increase 1890 McKinley Tariff

Increases tariff to 48% Political Discontent 1892 Populist Party emerges AKA Peoples Party Demanded: Mostly inflation and cheap money policies Graduated income tax Higher salary = higher income tax

More government regulation on big business Direct election of U.S. senators Initiative and Referendum The people can propose laws, vote to pass them Shorter working day Immigration restrictions Who does this party represent? Farmers, working class, common people Election of 1892 Dems nominate Cleveland again Reps nominate Harrison again Populist Party nominate James B. Weaver Southern support why? Farmers, targeted Northern business

South withdraws support from Populist ticket go back to Dems why? Populist party tried to help blacks vote upsets white Southerners Cleveland wins election Populist Party does relatively well in election Threatened white southerners tighten black voting rights Literacy tests and grandfather clause Clevelands 2nd Presidency Depression of 1893 hits ironic? Cleveland now has budget deficit, not a surplus Gold supply dangerously low Cleveland makes deal with J.P. Morgan and other bankers Loan U.S. $65 million in gold to fix problem

Cleveland loses popularity Image of common mans president takes hit with JP Morgan deal Promises to lower taxes fail with weak WilsonGorman Tariff Looked like Cleveland was helping rich, not the poor The Gilded Age Characteristics of the Gilded Age (1870-1900) Industrialization in America U.S. becomes largest manufacturing nation in world why? Liquid capital lots of money, assets Natural resources great plains, mountains,

California, etc Immigration large workforce kept labor cheap Inventions help mass production Railroads 1865 35,000 miles Congress commissions expansion and grants land to railroad companies 1900 200,000 miles Transcontinental railroad completed in 1869 Railroads Impact of Railroads? Eastern and western markets now linked

Investment and westward expansion Western cities boom Chicago, San Francisco, Denver Problem with industrial centers & railroads spread across 3,000? Coordination: Time zones begin in 1883 Titans of Industry John D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil Company) Monopolized oil industry

Andrew Carnegie (U.S. Steel Corp) Monopolized steel industry Uses Bessemer process U.S. becomes top producer of steel by 1900 J.P. Morgan Financier made millions by making deals, buying and flipping companies Leland Stanford Monopolized Western industry Plutocracy and Corruption Plutocracy develops Rule by the rich

Wealthy business owners unregulated Big business and bribed Government Numerous scandals fixed by reform Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) Aimed to outlaw monopolies trusts, limit their power and New Type of Labor Rise of factories = rise of factory workers Pros: Mass production and wealth Job creation

Standard of living rose Cons: Immigration increasing = wages decreasing Workers rights minimal at first Unions Unions ineffective at first why? IMMIGRATION, scabs, business owners had govt on their side, job contracts outlawing unions, black lists, etc Unions gain power and influence: National Labor Union (1866) Knights of Labor (1881)

American Federation of Labor (1886) By 1900, Unions become more successful Strikes, collective bargaining, Labor Day Urbanization Population in cities triple during Gilded Age Steel industry, trolley cars, skyscrapers Problems with rapid urbanization? Poor sanitation, spread of disease, crime Cities began having lights,

plumbing Telephones, typewriters Who do these inventions influence? Bring women to workplace Immigration Old Immigration Northern and Western Europe Britain, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia Shared similar cultures: Light-skinned Educated, democratic political views Came with some money

Mainly protestant Who of these groups got the worst treatment? Irish uneducated, poor, Catholic Immigration Shifts New Immigration Southern and Eastern Europe Poland, Italy, Slovakia, Croatia, Jews Very different than Americans: Different cultures Little democratic experience Poor, Catholic or Jewish

Which group would gain success fastest? Jewish came from cities of Europe Knew city-life skills unlike other immigrants Immigrants Receive Backlash Nativism begins Bias against inferior foreigners begin Saw them as threatening American culture and way of life Unable and unwilling to assimilate Evidence: Little Italy, Little Poland Scabs Statue of Liberty given to America from France in

1886 irony? Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to be free Reform movements for immigrants and women gain strength Cultural Advancements Americans becoming more literate Education system growing in America Libraries spawning across the country Music, Art, Poetry, Literature, Theater, Sports all flourish Barnum and Bailey, Buffalo Bill, Baseball, Boxing, Basketball, Horse Racing, Bicycling

Power of the Press Newspapers: Joseph Pulitzer New York World William Randolph Hearst San Francisco Examiner, New York Journal Both Created a news monopolies Became rivals Effects of Newspapers? Helped unite nation National sports rose baseball Yellow journalism begins Juicy story, not accurate story Yellow Journalism Also used for political,

economic gains Spanish American War (1898) San Francisco Earthquake (1906) Industrial Revolutions Effects: Many setbacks, but standard of life overall improved Majority of population leaves agrarian lifestyle, move to cities Issues of corruption, immigration, worker rights all met with eventual reform

Debate between Thomas Jefferson vs. Alexander Hamilton finally solved: who won? Hamiltons idea of an industrial, big-city America has come to fruition Westward Expansion Main problem with expansion? Native American problem Federal Governments Agenda: Clear out Indian presence in the west to allow for white settlement The Indian Wars (1864-1890) Series of skirmishes, battles, and massacres Overtime, new advancements in weaponry give U.S. advantage

Colt .45 revolver, Winchester rifle Reservation system: Lands reserved for Indians to protect from white settlers Problems: Americas misconception of Indian political structure leads to conflict Overestimating a chiefs authority and representation Indians never received promised food & supplies from federal government in exchange for land Conditions are harsh on reservation cold, barren, unfamiliar land many die Massacres and Battles Sand Creek Massacre (1864)

Col. J.M. Chivington and his troops encircled and killed up to 150 Indians in Colorado Many were women and children Fetterman Massacre (1866) American soldiers securing Bozemans Trail to gold in Montana 81 soldiers ambushed and killed in Wyoming by the Sioux tribe Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) Government made peace with Sioux, abandon use of trail 1874 Gold discovered in South Dakota on Sioux reservation Set the stage for Custers Last Stand

Massacres and Battles Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) General George Custer sent in with 400 cavalry soldiers to remove Sioux Met by a coalition of 10,000 Indians led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull All American troops killed, including Custer Battle and previous massacres reduce Indian-White relations to an all-time high for hostility Massacres and Battles Chief Joseph and Nez Perce

tribe defeated at Battle of Bear Paw Mountain Relocated to reservation in Kansas Apache, led by Geronimo, in Southwest very hostile Apache every hard to subdue Geronimo eventually caught and imprisoned in Oklahoma Native Americans Defeated Indians subdued because: Railroads Increasing white population in America Diseases Buffalo population decreasing

War Indians lose 50% of their during Gilded Age Efforts to Help Indians Missionaries sent in to reservations to convert Indians Efforts led to Battle of Wounded Knee Over 200 Indians massacred for practicing outlawed traditional dance Marks the end of the Indian Wars Dawes Severalty Act (1887) goal was to anglicize Indians: Indians could become U.S. citizens after 25 years

European immigrants were becoming citizens after only 3 years Carlisle Indian School opens in 1879 Forces assimilation Indian children trained to be white Kill the Indian, save the child Dawes Act successful in its goal of killing Indian way of life The Wild, Wild West Growing urban populations in East increase demand for food Ranching and beef become big business in west Cowboys drove herds across plains to east very inefficient

Newly built railroads begin to transport cattle back east Cowboys only existed 20 years, but became a popular image of American West Farmers Homestead Act (1862) and land rushes (in Oklahoma) encourages western settlement Farming was not as easy in western states Land was fertile, but very dry Dry farming system starts: Farmers would plow dew into top few inches of soil Effective, but created a dusty layer of power on top of

soil Would lead to the 1930s Great Dust Bowl By 1890, U.S. Census Bureau determines there is no longer a discernable frontier Farmers New inventions allow for mass production Farming transformed into cash crop farming Farmers transport product by railroad (Refrigerator car invented in the 1880s) Farmers became at the mercy of railroads Farmers unite to gain political power: Greenback Labor Party (1868) The Grange (1869) Farmers Alliance (1870s)

Populist Part AKA Peoples Party (1891) Unit 8: Imperialism and Reform 1896-1914 Goals of this Unit To be able to explain the economic, political, and cultural forces that sparked a spectacular burst of imperialistic expansionism for the United States, culminating in the Spanish-American War. To understand the importance of the strong progressive movement successfully demanding that the powers of government be applied to solving the economic and social problems of industrialization.

To explain why a split Republican party will lead to Woodrow Wilsons progressive idealism and isolationism would initiate sweeping reforms domestically, but lead to dangerous military involvements internationally. Issues: Election of 1896 Base currency off gold, silver, or both? Demands of working class vs. worried upper classes Reps nominate William McKinley Safe choice: Civil War vet, good Congressional record, pro-tariff, friendly and likeable Very pro-business

Dems nominate William Jennings Bryan Boy orator of the Platte Young (36), great speaker & debater from Nebraska Anti-tariff, used Populist Partys main platform: coin more silver Populists started joining the Democrats: Dem-Pop Party McKinley exploits economic fears of country, drums up far more campaign money McKinley easily wins election Results & effects of election? Currency will be based on gold, not silver Victory for business owners and upper classes President William McKinley

Very safe and cautious with his decisions Made decisions based off public opinion Two issues: gold vs. silver & fix economy Dingley Tariff Act (1897) significantly raised tariff to 46% Goal was to increase revenue & fix economy after Panic of 1893 Clevelands low Wilson-Gorman Tariff deemed ineffective Gold Standard Act (1900) Allowed for people to trade paper money for gold More symbolic than anything Giving people the option brought calmness and confidence in the economy

Gold discovered in Alaska causes inflation Helps lower classes Prosperity McKinley successful in fixing economy Country pulled out of recession Pro-business policies, inflation from gold discovery, gold vs. silver debate solved Allows for calmness and confidence in economy Calmness and confidence economic growth

Uncertainty in economy hinders growth The Rise of Imperialism Europe had been colonizing in Africa and Asia for most of the 1800s Isolationist America turning towards imperialism now Why Imperialism? Europe showing economic benefits of

imperialism New markets in rare resources from Africa & Asia Yellow journalism Increased public interest in foreign exotic and adventurous lands Missionaries Wanted to save un-Christian natives of these lands Reverend Josiah Strong leader of movement Capt. Alfred Thayer Mahans Influence of Sea Power Upon History Stressed that key to power is through the navy Effect of book: U.S. starts building up Navy Stronger navy allows for imperialism

Why Imperialism? Widely believed social theories: Darwins survival of the fittest theory: Weaker nations will wither away due to course of nature Thus, its only natural for stronger nations to conquer the weak Kiplings The White Mans Burden: (Read the poem silently and turn to a partner to discuss its meaning) Theorized that white Europe and America have a responsibility to colonize to help the weaker nations Thus make own nation stronger Both used as justification for imperialism

The White Mans Burden By Rudyard Kipling TAKE UP THE WHITE MAN'S BURDEN SEND FORTH THE BEST YE BREED GO BIND YOUR SONS TO EXILE TO SERVE YOUR CAPTIVES' NEED; TO WAIT IN HEAVY HARNESS, ON FLUTTERED FOLK AND WILD YOUR NEW-CAUGHT, SULLEN PEOPLES, HALF-DEVIL AND HALF-CHILD. TAKE UP THE WHITE MAN'S BURDEN NO TAWDRY RULE OF KINGS, BUT TOIL OF SERF AND SWEEPER TAKE UP THE WHITE MAN'S BURDEN

THE TALE OF COMMON THINGS. IN PATIENCE TO ABIDE, THE PORTS YE SHALL NOT ENTER, TO VEIL THE THREAT OF TERROR THE ROADS YE SHALL NOT TREAD, AND CHECK THE SHOW OF PRIDE; GO MARK THEM WITH YOUR LIVING, BY OPEN SPEECH AND SIMPLE, AND MARK THEM WITH YOUR DEAD. AN HUNDRED TIMES MADE PLAIN TO SEEK ANOTHER'S PROFIT, AND WORK ANOTHER'S GAIN. International Incidents & Policies How does each push America towards imperialism and the need for a strong navy? James G. Blaines Big Brother (AKA

Big Sister) policy U.S. responsibility to protect Latin America 1882 Blaine leads Pan-American Conference U.S. mediates disputes between Latin American countries Push towards imperialism/navy? Goals for Blaine were imperialistic: Make Latin America supportive and reliant on U.S. Allow U.S. to have direct influence in Latin American politics 1888 Standoff: USA vs. Germany over Samoa Result: Samoa split in half

1891 Standoff: USA vs. Italy 11 Italian immigrants lynched in New Orleans Result: USA made payments to Italian families Push towards imperialism/navy? Navy needed strengthening in case of war 1889 Standoff: USA vs. Britain after gold is discovered in Guiana (Venezuelan region) Britain attempts to take over and mine gold Issue? Breaking the Monroe Doctrine Result: Venezuela pleads with U.S. for help U.S. steps in and sticks up for little sister Britain backs down, war narrowly avoided Push towards imperialism/navy?

Strengthens Latin American dependence on U.S. Navy needed strengthening in case of war Hawaii American economic imperialism present in Hawaii since early 1800s Fruit and sugar companies had lots of power over islands due to economic power Hawaii regarded as a little sister as well Reasons for imperialism: Companies feared Japan might try to take over Resistance of native

Hawaiians growing McKinleys high import tax was hurting American companies in Hawaii Solution? Annex Hawaii Hawaiis Annexation? Queen Liliuokalani refused to give up power 1893 Americans in Hawaii & dethrone Queen with some U.S. military help President Grover Cleveland upset by non-diplomatic

methods Refused to sign off on annexation Temporary republic set up by business owners Hawaii eventually annexed in 1898 by McKinley Cuba 1895 Cubans revolt against Spain American roots for Cuba why? Supports the Monroe Doctrine policy Cuba valuable for ports and location

Sentimental of American revolution Spanish General Weyler sent to stop revolt Harsh tactics: concentration camps for insurrectos Effect of Yellow Journalism Hearst & Pulitzer portray Weyler as super villain Embellished pictures outrage Americans The de Lome letter Stolen letter written by Spanish diplomat insulting McKinley is published in Hearsts newspapers

Americans angered The U.S.S. Maine explosion (1898) Ship explodes in Havana harbor killing 258 American sailors Cause of explosion unknown but the yellow press blamed Spain American public demanded war for revenge on Spain McKinley reluctantly gives in, Congress declares war April 1898 Teller Amendment U.S. promises not to annex Cuba after war Spanish-American War Spanish-American War

War heavily supported by the public America overconfident and underprepared Poor planning on both sides War in the Pacific Secretary of the Navy Teddy Roosevelt sees chance for imperialistic gains Roosevelt orders Commodore George Dewey to attack Spain in the Philippines May 1, 1898 Dewey attacks and first battle of war ensues 10 aged Spanish ships vs. 6 modern American ships Very one-sided naval battle America wins naval battle Unprepared: couldnt invade must wait on foot soldier reinforcements Aug 13 U.S. captures Manila from Spain with help of Filipino insurgents against Spain Americans save Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo from exile to

help fight Spain Now with U.S. controlling Philippines, a coaling station needed between Southeast Asia & California Hawaii officially annexed in 1898 War in the Caribbean U.S. led by Gen. William Shafter Teddy Roosevelt resigns from Sec. of Navy to fight in war Organizes Rough Riders cavalry horseless cavalry Unprepared: couldnt get horses from ships to shore Spain sends fleet to Santiagos narrow harbor Mistake: creates a gauntlet for Spain to get in or out U.S. sends ships and troops to Santiago Unprepared: soldiers issued wool uniforms suffer in extreme

summer heat U.S. navy blockades harbor and soldiers surrounded the Spanish from the other side of the harbor Spain tries to run gauntlet out of the harbor and gets mowed down by the U.S. navy U.S. easily takes Spanish-owned Puerto Rico and Guam too Spain surrenders and signs armistice by August 1898 Aftermath of Spanish American War Effects of the Splendid Little War Unprepared: poor medical planning more soldiers (5,000) will die of disease than in battle (4,000) U.S. seen as a rising world power North vs. South tension disappears a

bit Common enemy was the Spaniards, not each other Teddy Roosevelt rises to fame Post-war treaty proposed: Cuba would be free U.S. would gain Puerto Rico, Guam, and control of Philippines What to do with all these countries? Cuba Promised freedom to Cuba, but America wanted to ensure a stable government would take power: Temporary military government led by Col. Leonard Wood

Sets up Cuban government, education system, agriculture Makes medical advancements to combat rampant disease U.S. leaves Cuba by 1902 creates Platt Agreement: U.S. approves all Cuban treaties U.S. could intervene if Cuban economy crashes U.S. military owns one coaling station in Cuba Guantanamo Bay Puerto Rico Retained as an unincorporated territory of the U.S.

Issue: Do American laws apply here? Series of Insular Cases taken to Supreme Court Supreme Court declares American laws dont extend to these new lands Improvements made in sanitation, transportation, education, etc Foraker Act gives P.R. limited elected government 1917 Puerto Ricans granted full U.S. citizenship Many freely move to New York City

The Annexation of Puerto Rico The Philippines Dilemma Big issue at treaty talks: What to do with the Philippines? Give back to Spain? Spain ruled harshly and abusive of natives Let Filipinos rule themselves? Could result in chaos due to rival warlords U.S. takes over the country? Would make U.S. look like imperial bullies Angry Filipinos willing to fight for freedom

McKinley decides to take over Philippines Swayed by yellow presss effect on public opinion and imperialist business owners $20 million paid to Spain for Philippines The Philippines Dilemma Senate still needs to approve treaty debate ensues: Anti-Imperialist League lobby against annexation: Unlike Hawaii or Alaska, Philippines had a heavily resistant population and out of U.S. jurisdiction Imperialists lobby for annexation: The White Mans Burden used as justification

Treaty approved by one vote in Senate Filipino Resistance Filipinos felt deceived by USA, wanted independence Feb 4, 1899 Emilio Aguinaldo leads uprising ironic? Philippine-American War Fighting lasts for over a year America uses cruel tactics to suppress Filipinos American soldiers die more from disease than battle Diplomatic solutions taken

William H. Taft sent to serve as civil governor of Philippines Taft well liked by Filipinos Filipino Resistance Taft institutes benevolent assimilation policy: Goal was to caringly help and improve the Philippines Millions of American dollars invested in Filipino infrastructure: Sanitation, roads, education, economy, healthcare Fighting fades away, but desire for independence still alive Philippines not granted freedom until 1946. Imperialized China

Separated into spheres of influence by Europe Various European countries had exclusive trade rights in coastal cities of China American business wants in on Chinas natural resources Sec. of State John Hay drafts Open Door Policy Suggests that Chinese cities should be open to all nations for trade ban all exclusive trade rights Europe not willing to compromise 1899 Chinas Boxer Rebellion against foreigners quelled by combined forces

of Europe and America Open Door Policy now accepted at treaty talks America now has open and lucrative trade with China Election of 1900 Rematch between McKinley and William Jennings Bryan Mudslinging: Bryan: McKinley is an imperialist bully and war monger McKinley: Bryan as president would kill American prosperity McKinley chose famous and beloved Teddy Roosevelt as VP

McKinley is easily reelected McKinley shot and killed 6 months into second term Assassin was a disgruntled anarchist Secret Service reassigned to full-time duty of protecting presidents and politicians President Theodore Roosevelt AKA Teddy or TR Short, brawny New Yorker, Harvard grad Theory of role: a president should lead, not supervise Motto: Speak softly and carry a big stick Ironic because TR was boisterous, stubborn, and

temperamental BELOVED by the public why? Press often portrayed him a spunky, cartoonish, war-hero Imperialist Teddy: Panama Canal TR wants canal in Central America built why? Would greatly benefit trade and power of navy French engineer Philippe Bunau-Varilla hired Obstacles:

European jurisdictions Location of canal: Nicaragua? Panama? Panama chosen, but is part of Columbia refused to give up land The Panama Canal Bunau-Varilla incited Panama rebellion in 1901 U.S. Navy helps Panama in wining independence from Columbian tyrants Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty signed between Panama and U.S. Approves construction and

lease of canal to U.S Panama Canal completed in 1914 Obstacles of sanitation, disease, and overwhelming engineering task overcome Construction led by George Washington Goethals U.S.-Latin America Relations Damaged Canal causes major tension because of Big Stick Policy Bullying techniques used to cause war

between Panama and Columbia Latin American countries consistently behind in repaying debts to Europe TR worried Europe would intervene problem? Violates Monroe Doctrine Creates the Roosevelt Corollary Amendment to Monroe Doctrine stating U.S. will intervene and collect debts for Europe U.S. significantly intervenes in Cuba in 1906, and later Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic TRs Big Stick Policy contradicts

the intended Good Neighbor Policy Latin American relations with U.S. deteriorate Teddy the Peacemaker 1905 TR asked to mediate treaty talks after Russo-Japanese War Both Japan and Russia unhappy with results, especially Japan Relations between all three countries decline 1906 TR successfully mediates a dispute in North Africa Wins Nobel Peace Prize for peace-making work

Rocky Relations with Japan Japan bitter after TRs mediation Small number of Japanese laborers begin to migrate to California Yellow peril sweeps through state thanks to influence of press 1906 Asian immigrants segregated from SF Schools Japan outraged at treatment of Japanese in California talks of war

TR makes Gentlemans Agreement to end issue Asian segregation in schools ends, Japan halts emigration to U.S. TR worried agreement makes America look weak Sends the Great White Fleet on diplomatic good-will mission Subtly shows power of U.S. military U.S. and Japan sign Root-Takahira

agreement respect for each others territories Progressive Party Rises New reform movement gaining influence Progressives Roots from Greenback Party (1870s) and Populist Party (1890s) Goal: to achieve social justice by using government as an agency of human welfare Calling for more government intervention, less laissez-faire capitalism 1902 Muckrakers emerge writers and social critics exposing corruption and injustice through newspapers and

magazines Cosmopolitan Magazine The Shame of Cities by Lincoln Steffens Who was the Progressive Party? Mostly made up of middle class Felt squashed between business tycoons at top and working class at bottom Political reforms wanted: Initiative and referendum public can propose & vote on laws Recall voters can remove elected officials

Secret ballot ensures free and fair voting Female suffrage Womens Movement Lillian Ward & Jane Addams lead suffrage movement Create Hull House in Chicago to help working class and immigrants Womens rights gaining strength through legislation: 1908 Muller v. Oregon extra laws to protect female workers deemed constitutional 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire new motion for laws for better hours, conditions, safety, and worker compensation

Prohibition Movement Anti-Saloon League join Womans Christian Temperance Movement Well-organized, well-financed Many states started banning alcohol Half of Americans by 1914 live in dry areas 1919 18th Amendment passes Prohibition Alcohol sale, consumption, and possession banned Teddy the Progressive TR deeply influenced by muckrakers progressivism ironic? TR created the derogatory name

Teddy calls platform: The Square Deal: Vows to accomplish the Three Cs: Control corporations Consumer protection Conservation of natural resources 1st C: Control the Corporations Creates the Dept. of Commerce and Labor Bureau of Corporations responsible for: Investigating interstate trade Stops railroad corruption & bullying Breaking up monopolies (AKA trusts) Teddy the Trust buster

TR proudly begins to break up monopolies Disbands over 40 bad trusts Biggest was JP Morgans trust Good trusts were allowed to operate 2nd C: Consumer Protection 1906 The Jungle by Upton Sinclair exposes horrible conditions of meat packing industry Has major influence on public and Congress 1906 Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act both

passed Proper labeling techniques, inspection, prevents tampering Results in increased exports of American meat 3rd C: Conservation of Natural Resources By 1900, America realizing natural resources not unlimited TR leads conservation movement 1902 Newlands Act massive irrigation projects in West TR lawfully protects 125 million acres of forest TR still a pragmatist over a conservationist

Example: Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite Leads to a philosophical split The Roosevelt Panic of 1907 Sudden sharp economic downturn Beloved Teddy solely blamed Congress passes AldrichVreeland Act (1908) Authorizes national banks to release money into circulation An elastic supply of currency could now help during recessions Would lead to the Federal Reserve Act (1913)

Election of 1908 TR still very popular announced he would not run for a third term Endorses a similar-minded politician William Taft is Rep. Nominee Taft was BIG and very likeable William Jennings Bryan is Dem. Nominee for 3rd time Taft easily wins election Much help from TRs popularity Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs gets 3% of popular vote significance?

Debs rose to fame in Pullman Strike in Chicago Sign of the times: social justice movement Teddys Legacy Brought big business under control Increases role of presidency Passes wide range of reform Showed U.S. was a world power Therefore U.S. had major responsibility TR stressed President William H. Taft Taft was well-liked, but less like TR than expected: Hands-off approach to leading

Mildly progressive Desired stability rather than reform Taft pushed Dollar Diplomacy policy: America would strategically invest in foreign countries to gain power Therefore, U.S. could gain power and money simultaneously Very different from TRs Big Stick Policy Dollar Diplomacy in action: Purchase of Chinese railroads fail blocked by Russia & Japan U.S. heavily invests in Latin America U.S. now responsible for maintaining stability in Latin America Taft the Trustbuster

Taft out-busts TR 90 trusts disbanded in his term Biggest was Rockefellers Standard Oil Company Taft attempts to break up U.S. Steel Company TR had deemed it one of the good trusts Taft refuses to halt investigation, TR furious Republicans Split Old, traditional Reps vs. New, progressive Reps 2 big dividing issues: the tariff & conservation

Old Reps: high tariff, develop land for economic benefit New Reps: low tariff, conserve lands Taft promised to lower tariff during campaigning Signs Payne-Aldrich Bill which raises tariff Further splits Rep. Party Taft allows for Wyoming, Montana, Alaska to be open for development Very unpopular with public Whos bound to gain power from this split? Democrats win heavily in Congressional Elections in 1910 The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture The Republican Party officially splits:

1911 National Progressive Republican League Led by Senator Robert La Follette Roosevelt so upset by Tafts presidency, he decides to run again Progressive Republican Party nominates TR June 1912 Republican Presidential Convention Taft vs. Roosevelt, winner would run as Rep. nominee for president Convention votes on Taft why? Incumbent, fear public wouldnt vote for a 3rd term president Teddy refused to step aside, vows to

run as a 3rd party candidate Election of 1912 Republican Party nominates Taft Progressive Party nominates Roosevelt Bull Moose Party Democratic Party nominates Dr. Woodrow Wilson Governor of New Jersey Very progressive minded Two Major Platforms: Roosevelts New Nationalism Only disband bad trusts, female suffrage, social welfare programs

Wilsons New Freedom Disband all trusts, supported small business Mudslinging and incident: Major mudslinging between Taft and Roosevelt Roosevelt shot on campaign trail, survives Election of 1912 Wilson wins easily Popular vote: Wilson: 42%

Roosevelt: 28% Taft: 23% Why is this significant? Majority wanted a Republican president, not Wilson Taft retires from politics, goes to law school Becomes Chief Justice of Supreme Court in 1921 Teddy goes on expedition of South Africa Side note: Eugene Debs (Socialist) gets 6% of popular vote President Woodrow Wilson Born and raised in South, very intelligent, deeply religious, believed

president should lead Very different than TR: Stubborn idealist, not a pragmatist Sometimes detrimental to achieving goals Not a peoples person A Progressive President Wilson vows to tear down triple wall of privilege: The tariff, the banks, the trusts Domestic: Triple Wall of Privilege Major reforms made: Tariffs: The Underwood Tariff (1913) Reduced tariffs on imports

Initiated a graduated income tax Banking: Federal Reserve Act (1913) Creates appointed Federal Reserve Board Oversee 12 regional, federal banks Issue paper money to regulate amount of currency in circulation Made conservative appointments to Board to keep business tycoons happy Trusts: Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) Investigates activities of trust Goal: stop crooked business practices affecting consumers

Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) also passed Forbade price discrimination, interlocking directorates, helped union rights Domestic: Wilsonian Progressivism Follows up with several reforms: Protection for farmers Better treatment and pay for sailors Paved way for better workers rights: Workers Compensation Act (1916) Adamson Act (1916) 8-hour workday and overtime Made small steps toward ethnic equality Appoints Louis Brandeis, first Jewish Supreme Justice

Little done for African Americans during progressivism W.E.B. Du Bois created National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) International: Wilsons Foreign Policy Wilson a pacifist and anti-imperialist: Blocked American involvement in mass loan to China Got Congress to repeal Panama Canal Tolls Act (1912) American ships now had to pay tolls Jones Act (1916) granting territorial status of Philippines Promises independence when stable government is established Defused situation with Japan over treatment of

Japanese in California Purchases Virgin Islands from Denmark for protective reasons United States Virgin Islands International: Wilsons Foreign Policy Wilson a pacifist and anti-imperialist: Why might this have a dangerous outcome on America internationally? America already had many businesses and land overseas From Tafts Dollar Diplomacy Abandoning them? Forced to send Marines to protect American investments in Haiti and Dom. Rep. after violence erupts

Mexican Revolution Mexican Revolution (1910) Extremely poor and oppressed population revolts Political chaos breaks out among rival warlords Mass immigration to Southwestern U.S. ensues Fearing war, Wilson declines to protect American businesses Rebel Pancho Villa despises American business in Mexico Raids and kills 16 American engineers Kills 19 more in near border in New Mexico

Wilson sends in Army to catch Pancho Villa Meet resistance from rival Mexican armies Troops called back to U.S. in 1914 why? WWI starts, never catch Pancho Villa War Breaks Out in Europe 1914 Austrian prince Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian nationalist Complex alliances pulls all of Europe into war one by one Central Powers: Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Allied Powers: Russia France England Australia Wilson declares U.S. officially neural Picking Sides About 20% of Americans supported the Central Powers Due to ethnic heritage of immigrants

The majority of America supported the Allies Due to cultural, political, economic ties Sympathetic to Allies Kaiser Wilhelm II views as militant tyrant Central Power operative caught with plans to sabotage American industry USA Profits off Neutrality American businesses trade with both sides during war More with Allies, secretly and less with Central Powers Germany hurt by its inferior navy

Cant compete with British navy or block trade with Allies Germanys solution: Rely on U-boats (submarines) Announces unrestricted submarine warfare on Allies and anyone assisting Allies Wilson warns Germany will be held strictly accountable for American damages Unrestricted Submarine Warfare British ship Lusitania sunk by U-boat attack 1,200 civilians killed, including 128 Americans German warnings prior to attack ignored Americans demand revenge, call for war Others civilian ships also attacked:

Arabic British ship 2 Americans killed Sussex French ship 50 killed Wilson pressures Germany to end warfare policy Germans issue Sussex Pledge Promises to give warning to the ship they are to attack problem? Contradicts the purpose of a submarine redacted Unrestricted submarine warfare resumes Wilsons neutrality on verge of ending Election of 1916 Republicans nominate Charles Evans Hughes Former Gov. of NY, progressive Flip-flopper problem with this? Undesirable trait during time of reform & war

Democrats seek reelection with Wilson Campaign slogan: He kept us out of the war Americans hardly neutral now, but ravages of war emphasized as fear tactic Wilson uses neutrality platform to win close election ironic? Wilson enters U.S. into war 5 months later Unit 9: World War One Goals of this Unit To be able to explain why America entered World War I. To understand how Wilson turned Americas participation into a fervent ideological crusade for democracy that successfully stirred the public to a great voluntary war

effort, but at some cost to traditional civil liberties. To know that after Americas limited but important contribution to the Allied victory, a triumphant Wilson attempted to construct a peace based on his idealistic Fourteen Points. To comprehend that because of European and senatorial opposition, and partly his own political errors, doomed American ratification of the Versailles Treaty and participation in the League of Nations. Goal of Today Why was America neutral at first, but eventually was drawn into WWI? War Breaks Out in Europe

1914 Austrian prince Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian nationalist Complex alliances pulls all of Europe into war one by one Central Powers: Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire (Turkey) Allied Powers: Russia France Britain AKA Triple Entente Wilson declares U.S. officially neural

Picking Sides About 20% of Americans supported the Central Powers Due to ethnic heritage of immigrants The majority of America supported the Allies Due to cultural, political, economic ties Sympathetic to Allies Kaiser Wilhelm II views as militant tyrant Central Power operative caught with plans to sabotage American industry

USA Profits off Neutrality American businesses trade with both sides during war More with Allies, secretly and less with Central Powers Germany hurt by its inferior navy Cant compete with British navy or block trade with Allies Germanys solution: Rely on U-boats (submarines) Announces unrestricted submarine warfare on Allies and anyone assisting Allies Wilson warns Germany will be

held strictly accountable for American damages Unrestricted Submarine Warfare May 1915 British ship Lusitania sunk by U-boat attack 1,200 civilians killed, including 128 Americans German warnings prior to attack ignored Americans demand revenge, call for war Others civilian ships also attacked: Aug 1915: Arabic British ship 2 Americans killed March 1916: Sussex French ship 50 killed

Wilson pressures Germany to end warfare policy May 1916 Germans issue Sussex Pledge Promises to give warning to the ship they are to attack problem? Contradicts the purpose of a submarine Election of 1916 Republicans nominate Charles Evans Hughes Former Gov. of NY, progressive Flip-flopper problem with this? Undesirable trait during time of reform & war Democrats seek reelection with

Wilson Campaign slogan: He kept us out of the war Americans hardly neutral now, but ravages of war emphasized as fear tactic Wilson uses neutrality platform to win close election ironic? Wilson enters U.S. into war 5 months later Americas Fading Neutrality Jan 22, 1917 Wilson gives speech calling for peace without victory Stressing neutrality, calling for end of war

Germany announces redaction of the Sussex Pledge unrestricted submarine warfare resumes World shocked, Americans outraged March 1917 Zimmerman Note German telegram to Mexico intercepted Note encouraged Mexico to wage war on U.S 4 more American merchant ships sunk by German subs Lenins Bolshevik Revolution in Russia Czar overthrown, Russia backs out of war America Declares War Major causes of declaration: Unrestricted submarine warfare

Zimmerman Note Russian Revolution Wilson asks Congress to declare war Problem: Many congressman & Americans were antiwar Wilsons idealist slogan for war: The world must be made safe for democracy Purpose of war was to free Europeans from militant tyrants NOT for riches or conquest Americans eagerly join cause, war effort April 6, 1917 America officially joins the Allied Powers America Declares War

Major causes of declaration: Unrestricted submarine warfare Zimmerman Note Russian Revolution Wilson asks Congress to declare war Problem: Many congressman & Americans were antiwar Wilsons idealist slogan for war: The world must be made safe for democracy Purpose of war was to free Europeans from militant tyrants NOT for riches or conquest Americans eagerly join cause, war effort April 6, 1917 America officially joins the Allied Powers

Wilsons Fourteen Points Idealistic goals for peace after war: Abolishing secret treaties Freedom of the seas Removal of economic barriers between nations Reduction of armaments Fixing colonial claims to benefit both colonizers and natives Self-determination: oppressed nationalistic

groups should have own governments League of Nations: Committee to peacefully settle future international disputes Propaganda George Creel headed the Committee on Public Information Goal was to keep Americans enthusiastic about war Methods: Posters, pamphlets, films, songs Four minute men speeches Advertise war bonds

Effective in hiding the realities of the brutal war Enforcing Loyalty Anti-German sentiments grow: German-Americans labeled spies, saboteurs Suffer alienation, violence Congress passes anti-foreign laws Espionage Act of 1917 Prosecutes spies 2,000 convicted Eugene V. Debs sentenced to 10 years Sedition Act of 1918 Prosecutes anyone engaging in seditious activity

Very broad definition why? Harder to interpret easier to prosecute any supposed anti-government activity Laws safe from 1st Amendment Preparing for War Wilson gets unprepared nation ready for war Forms Council of National Defense Increases ship building Increases size of army Biggest task: kick starting war industry Appoints Bernard Baruch to lead

War Industries Board Coordinates industry to help war effort Efforts only somewhat successful: Boards power a bit weak, businesses enjoy autonomy Wartime Labor Governments work or fight policy provides for large war effort National War Labor Board created to settle and worker disputes and strikes Ensures no loss of production Wartime inflation stops wage increases Strikes rampant and violent African-Americans migrate North as scabs

Creates violent ethnic conflict in cities (Chicago Race Riots, 1919) American Federation of Labor (AF of L) Led by Samuel Gompers Loyal to war effort provided factories with laborers Rewarded with desired workers rights Women on the Home Front National American Woman Suffrage Association Encourage women to join war effort Many fill mens jobs during the war effects? Gaining a larger role in society Women gain power and influence

Wilson endorses womens suffrage By 1920 19th Amendment passed Women granted the right to vote Womens Bureau emerges after war to protect womens new rights and place in workforce Fails: most women leave jobs and return home after war Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act (1921) Wartime Economy Whats needed in a wartime economy?

Rationing, moderation, conservation to assure adequate supplies for the military and allies Herbert Hoover chosen head to Food Administration very successful Oversees the production & allocation of foodstuffs Uses propaganda, not laws

Grains not to be used for alcohol what movement does this help? Prohibition movement gaining strength Fuel Administration encourages rationing, too Treasury Dept. sells war bonds

Raised money for 2/3 of Americas war effort Dependence on America America pictures secondary role in war effort problem? By 1917 European Allies out of men, money, supplies Russia pulls out of war after Bolshevik revolution significance? Germany can fully concentrate troops on Western Front Germans planning big counterattack in Spring of 1918 America becomes more involved than

planned Selective Service Act Draft increases army size, men quickly trained Blacks serve in segregated units Women take support roles in military Americans Arrive in Europe Allies desperate for American reinforcements French barely hanging on at Western Front Small number of troops sent over immediately American soldiers arrive by masses in Spring of 1918

American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) Led by Gen. John J. Perishing Goals of Americans: Stop German invasion of Paris Providing supplies to Allies Boost the little morale left of Allied Forces Trench Warfare The Western Front Trench Warfare New Technology Machine Guns

Flamethrowers Poisonous Gas Tanks & Planes Land Mines Mortars American Action Battle of Chateau-Thierry Stops invading German army 40 miles from Paris Second Battle of the Marne Allies victorious, begins German withdrawal Battle at Belleau Wood

U.S. Marines fiercely fight off Germans, gain prestige Meuse-Argonne Offensive Largest battle in American history to that point, Allies victorious Germany on brink of surrender War Ends Germans becoming increasingly anti-war Kaiser Wilhelm II flees to Holland Fear of infinite American

manpower, supplies Idealistic Fourteen Points appealing to Germany Armistice agreed upon when? 11:00 AM, 11/11/1918 Known as Armistice Day, later Veterans Day Peace Talks Wilson gains worldwide popularity for: Ending war Idealistic promises of postwar Europe Wilson travels to Europe with

delegates for peace talks Does not invite any Republicans Henry Cabot Lodge excluded Chairman of Senate Foreign Relations Committee effects? Alienates party, strengthens party The Big Four meet to lead Paris Peace Conference in 1919 Woodrow Wilson (USA) David Lloyd George (Britain) George Clemenceau (France)

Vittorio Orlando (Italy) Treaty Trouble Conflicting ambitions plagues peace conference Britain and France want Germany punished Italy wants compensation America wants lasting peace League of Nations proposed Wilson compromises to get League created Wilson reluctantly agrees to punish Germany War Guilt Clause

Formally blames war on Germany Humiliated Germans felt wrongly accused Germany charged with cost of war ($33 billion) Treaty Trouble Wilson needed 2/3 of Senate to approve treaty Americas opposition to treaty growing during talks Wanted isolationism Europe uses American disapproval as bargaining chip New demands: France wants bordering German regions Wilson compromises his self-determination policy

Japan wants German islands in Pacific, Chinese peninsula Wilson compromises his self-determination policy Italy wants strategic port in newly formed Yugoslavia Negotiations sour, Italy turns on Wilson Treaty of Versailles Germany forced to sign felt betrayed Wilsons Fourteen Points largely excluded from treaty Treaty creates economic chaos, lasting animosity in Germany Wilson: The Fallen Hero Wilson forced to compromise during treaty talks

Failure to bargain would have resulted in no treaty Wilson seen as fallen hero Deemed a sell out by liberals, soft by imperialists Wilson needs public support, Senate approval to accept treaty Returns to heavy American opposition: Isolationists against entangling alliances Hun-haters felt treaty was too soft Liberals felt treaty was too harsh European-Americans felt treaty was too harsh on their

respective home countries Senator Lodge sees opportunity for revenge on Wilson Rallies Senators against Treaty, stalls process Wilsons Tour for Support Treaty losing support in the Senate Republican majority Wilson goes on nation-wide tour to sway public Rough trip for Wilson: Midwest largely populated by German-Americans Treaty promoting not received well Opposing Senators follow tour to

give rivaling speeches after Wilson leaves town William Borah and Hiram Johnson Western states supportive of Wilson Collapses due to exhaustion in Colorado Suffers a stroke, bedridden & inactive for months Treaty Defeated Lodge amends many parts of Treaty Lodges goals: Retain Americas right to rule themselves Membership in League of Nations would give up some autonomy

Avoid promise of military aid if League nation is attacked Senate votes on newly amended Treaty: Lodge now pro-treaty, Wilson anti-treaty Wilson rallies Dem Senators and forces them to vote against Lodge and the new Treaty Senate votes against Treaty twice Treaty of Versailles never accepted by U.S. U.S. does not join League of Nations Election of 1920 Wilson, still pushing for original Treaty, calls

for solemn referendum A vote by the people on the Treaty demands fail Republicans reorganized and strong why? Excluded by Wilson at peace conference Unified by anti-treaty sentiment Offered platform appealing to pro-treaty Reps too Teddy Roosevelt dies in 1919 Republicans nominate Warren G. Harding Likable Senator from Ohio Vowed for a return to normalcy

Calvin Coolidge as VP Democrats nominate James M. Cox Pro-treaty Ohio Governor Franklin Delano Roosevelt as VP Harding wins by a landslide (60% to 34%) Eugene V. Debs (Socialist Party) gets 4% of vote Caused fear of socialism/communism growing in U.S. Effects of W.W.I. The War to End All Wars ironic? Helps lead to WWII two decades later

America had opportunity to become world leader Instead, recoils into isolationism Trouble soon redevelops in Europe America not there to prevent it League of Nations fail to enforce lasting peace Instead creates legacy of animosity and growing tension RQ 1 Committee on Public Information (propaganda) Keeps Americans enthusiastic about war Keeps war effort up

Helps sell War Bonds Forms Council of National Defense Increases size of army, ship building War Industries Board Kick starting American industry thats geared towards war effort Work or fight policy provides for large war effort American Federation of Labor National War Labor Board Settles strikes / worker disputes = ensures no loss of production

Women take jobs in factories Food Administration enforces rationing & conservation Select Service Act drafts 3 million to U.S. army Wilsons 14 Points provided for post-war plans RQ 2 **Question Clarification** European Allies out of men, money, supplies Due to war of attrition Russia pulls out of war after Bolshevik Revolution HUGE advantage for Central Powers Arrived in late Spring of 1918 to help push back

final German offensive helps end war Provided manpower, money, food and supplies to Allied nations RQ 3 Europe: Too many conflicting motives US wanted insurance of peace, less punishment (Wilsons 14 points League of Nations most importantly) Britain, France, Italy wanted compensation, harsh punishment of Germany Wilson had to compromise Germany blamed and harshly punished American Senate: Wilson alienated Lodge & Republican party Sought revenge, rallied against Wilson, Treaty, and League

American Public: Wanted isolationism Did not want to get involved in future European conflicts Unit 10: Great Depression and WWII Goals of this Unit: To recognize that a prosperous, pro-business, Republican dominated 1920s pursued conservative, pro-business policies at home and economic unilateralism abroad. To be able to explain how the great crash of 1929 led to a severe, prolonged depression that devastated the American economy and spirit, and resisted Hoovers limited efforts to correct it.

To understand Roosevelts New Deal helped tackle the Great Depression with massive federal programs designed to bring about relief, recovery, and reform. Goals of this Unit: To realize that in the early and mid-1930s, the United States attempted to isolate itself from foreign involvements and wars. But by the end of the decade, the spread of totalitarianism and war in Europe forced Roosevelt to provide more and more assistance to desperate Britain, despite strong isolationist opposition. To understand that America, unified by Pearl Harbor, effectively carried out a war mobilization effort that produced vast social and economic changes within American society. To be able to explain that by following its get Hitler first

strategy, the United States and its Allies invaded and liberated conquered Europe from Fascist rule. To grasp that the slower strategy of island-hopping against Japan also proceeded successfully, but it was the atomic bomb that brought a sudden end to World War II. President Warren G. Harding Likeable, friendly, popular Average intelligence, easily swayed & tricked Builds strong administration around him too strong? Very pro-business Supported laissez-faire economics Fordney-McCumber Tariff passed raising import tax

Enjoyed a thriving post-war economy Presidency Scandals Hardings administration takes advantage of him: Col. Charles Forbes embezzled $200 million while in charge of Veterans Bureau Convicted prison sentence: two years Attorney General Harry Daugherty accused numerous times of selling pardons and illegal liquor permits Never convicted despite heavy evidence Teapot Dome Scandal - Sec. of Interior Albert Fall illegally places Teapot Dome (Wyoming) under his jurisdiction after oil is discovered in region Took bribes for drilling rights Convicted prison sentence: one year

Stress of scandal becomes overwhelming on Hardings health Collapses and dies in 1923 President Calvin Coolidge Very serious, calm, boring and quiet Silent Cal More pro-business than Harding The man who builds a factory builds a temple and the man who works there, worships there Rides Americas thriving economy to reelection in 1924 American public happy with economy, isolationism Democratic party lacked direction & unity in such

changing times War Debt Coolidge and Congress demanding loaned money to Europe from WWI be repaid Germany could not afford to pay Britain and France, who could not afford to pay America Dawes Plan created in 1924: 1 - America loans money to Germany 2 Germany makes reparation payments to France & Britain 3 France & Britain repay war loans to U.S. 4 Germany eventually repays

America for Dawes loan No interest charged Dawes Plan What does the Dawes plan accomplish? Financially nothing, more a matter of principle: Coolidge: They borrowed the money didnt they? England & France angered see U.S. as greedy Dawes Plan shows little progress after 5 years Young Plan (1929) restructures loan to Germany, includes interest Would not matter by end of 1929 why? Day One: Politics of 1920s GOAL OF TODAY MET?

To understand the political trends of the 1920s and how they influenced both domestic and international policies Election of 1928 Coolidge decides not to run for reelection Republicans nominate Sec. of Commerce Herbert Hoover why? Economic prosperity made him popular choice Hoovers slogan: Rugged individualism America needs to return to roots of tough, self-sufficient individuals Dems nominate Alfred Smith Likeable and sociable NY Governor

Campaigning over radio major factor in election: Hoover sounded better than Smiths NY accent Smith portrayed as a drinking, Irish, Catholic, city-slicker significance? Prohibition Dems supported mostly in South Smith not popular among Southerners Hoover wins by a landslide President Herbert Hoover Benefitting from economic prosperity at first Pro-business and isolationist: Support of farmers lending money, buying surpluses Hawley-Smoot Tariff proposed

raises import tax to almost 60% Full-blown isolationism Europe furious Dangerous lack of presence in European affairs Slowed trade America self-sufficient enough in 1920s, but Will worsen economic conditions during the Depression Economic Depression Hits Americas economic prosperity in 1920s largely built on credit and investment U.S. Stock Market was growing too large, too fast problem? Not built on physical wealth or assets Built on borrowed money and entangled

investments A trigger could cause a crash, a crash could cause a dangerous chain reaction Leading to economic depression Black Tuesday October 29, 1929 the U.S. Stock Market Crashes Rumors of economic trouble in England scares stockholders Panic-selling ensues, prices plummet Stockholders lost $40 billion by January Crash triggered, chain reaction starts: Frightened public becomes overly-cautious with their money Panicking public pulls all their money out of banks

fearing banks would go bankrupt Businesses cant attract scared customers close down As businesses close, unemployment rises Great Depression begins The Great Depression Underlying causes of the Great Depression: Trend of mass-consumerism based on credit, not real money Over-speculation in stocks Over-production in factories and farms Became international depression struggling European postwar economies suffered Caused affected countries to dive deeper into

isolationism Coincidentally, droughts dried up regions of U.S. further hurting farmers Hoovers Initial Response Hoover blamed for depression unfair? Many Americans looking to Hoover for help Rugged individualism being stressed Hoover slow to take action Saw this as part of a natural business cycle Economy has ups and downs this was a natural downturn

Unsure if government intervention would even be helpful Hoovers solution was to wait it out unpopular decision Hoovers Slow Reaction Soup kitchens and shelters on the rise Newly forming shanty-towns soon to be called Hoovervilles Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF) formed by veterans to demand bonuses for participation in WWI Camped out in DC, forcefully evicted by

Gen. MacArthur and U.S. army in Battle of Anacostia Flats Ugly incident hurts Hoovers image further Hoover Takes Action Urges Congress to jumpstart economy with over $2 billion in government spending Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) passed Lends money to finance massive government projects Hoover Dam massive project employs 20 thousand Would eventually fund many of FDRs New Deal projects Hoover goes on good-will tour of Latin America to repair their tarnished relations with America

New policies call for less dollar diplomacy and troops pulled out of Haiti and Nicaragua Laid foundation for FDRs Good Neighbor Policy Hoovers legacy: despite slow response and tarnished image, Hoover did help America battle the Great Depression But effects of his efforts not felt until after his presidency Trouble Brewing Overseas 1931 Japan invades Manchuria region of China Violates all idealistic agreements forbidding imperialism made after WWI League of Nations respond with hollow threat of universal trade boycott against Japan not effective, why? Depression forces need for some nations to trade with Japan

Failure of League of Nations to enforce its rules was a dangerous precedent why? Displays the Leagues policy of appeasement Aggressive nations could take over weaker nations without penalty or interference First steps toward WWII taken Election of 1932 Hoover runs for reelection Argued he had helped the economic situation and the worst has passed Dems nominate Franklin Delano Roosevelt or FDR NY Governor with peoples touch Always smiling, good speaker with a sense of caring for

the common person Eleanor Roosevelt very proactive in politics as well Confidence his catchphrase and Happy Days Are Here Again his campaign song Hoover had no chance, FDR wins by a landslide Hoover humiliated even loses in home state of CA Election of 1932 Voting trends change: Black voters overwhelmingly switch from supporting Rep party to Dem party why? Great Migration of the 1920s massive

movement by blacks from rural South the urban North New, competitive industrial labor and racism led to inequality for black workers Last hired, first fired Reps had become big business-minded Sided with business owners Dems more progressive President Franklin Delano Roosevelt Takes office at worst point of Great Depression Unemployment (25%) and bankruptcies at all-time high Only thing we have to fear is fear itself meaning? Americans should stop being fearful of:

Spending until economy improves Putting their money in banks Stressing confidence fear and panic is only making things worse FDRs platform: The Three Rs Relief: Was for immediate action food, shelter Recover: Was for a year or two climb out of Depression Reform: Was for after Depression ensured to never allow this to happen again The New Deal The New Deal FDRs plan for pulling America out of the Great Depression FDR had support of overwhelmingly

Dem-controlled Congress First 100 Days passes numerous bills into law Gained public support: Fireside Chats series of radio segments talking to Americans about problems faced and progress made The New Deal: Managing Money Emergency Banking Relief Act sets up bank holidays Federal Deposit Insurance Corp (FDIC) insured up to $5,000 of peoples money in the bank FDR orders Federal Reserve to create

inflation so debts can be repaid faster Lenders happy to be paid back, upset its at a lesser value The New Deal: Job Creation FDR uses federal money on programs and projects to help jumpstart economy Based off Hoovers RFC Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Hired young men to improve national forests Very popular and effective Workers Progress Administration (WPA) $11 billion spent for public facilities and

infrastructure Hired federally-paid, unskilled workers to build smaller projects Criticized by some as boondoggling The New Deal: Industry Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) tried to help farmers by paying them not to farm why? Less spending oversupply of product prices fall product sells for very little or not at all farmers go bankrupt Farmers by law destroy excess crops, slaughter excess livestock Effect: Farmers incomes did rise, but so did farmer unemployment National Recovery Administration (NRA) Aimed to help industry, labor, unemployment Relied on fair competition Spreads work out among more people due to increased hours, decreased

wages Government forcing businesses to abide was unconstitutional dismantled Public Works Administration (PWA) Similar to WPA, but gave private firms contracts to hire skilled workers Worked on larger-scale projects building public works and infrastructure Bridges, dams, hospitals, schools, etc One of the most successful programs created in New Deal New Deal: Reform

FDR vowed to reform to prevent future crashes Stock market reform: Federal Securities Act companies must report honest financial numbers for investors Securities Exchange Commissions (SEC) set up to investigate and watch over stock market activities Housing reform: Federal Housing Authority (FHA) low interest on homes Created shelter, economic bump, and employment Social Security Act sets up payment plan for senior citizens,

handicapped, etc Funded by taxes on business and personal income Receives criticism from Republicans socialism Unions gain strength, numbers, and influence during Depression: Norris-La Guardia Act outlaws anti-union contracts (AKA yellow dog contracts) Wagner Act legalizes union organization and collective bargaining Fair Standards Act minimum wage, maximum working hours, set working age at 16 The Dust Bowl (1933) Causes:

System of dry-farming used in plains for decades creates loose topsoil Long drought in lower plains region Heavy wind storms of 1933 Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas farmland destroyed Many farmers migrate west to California looking for work Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck Government relief programs help relocate farmers, improve soil, plant trees as windbreaks (CCC) Election of 1936 Reps nominate Alfred Landon Gov of Kansas, criticized FDRs massive

spending Hurt by record of past support of FDRs spending, weak campaign, weak radio voice Immensely popular FDR wins by an overwhelming landslide The Court-Packing Scheme (1937) FDR still had Democrat dominated Congress, but a conservative Supreme Court FDR proposed to increase Supreme Court to 15 justices and that justices over 70 be removed FDR can appoint liberal justices Congress shocked and upset with FDRs scheme for increased power

Proposal fails, FDR accused of trying to become a dictator Effect was less cooperation from Congress New Deal Effective? By 1937 Progress stalls, effects inconclusive Unemployment dropped from 25% to 15% in first term Roosevelt Recession in 1937 caused by policies like the Social Security tax on incomes Less income, less spending, less economic activity FDRs overspending and socialist policies gaining criticism Debt had doubled from $20 to $40 billion Government becoming too much of a handout state

Americans not working towards recovery, but being given it instead Legacy of FDRs New Deal Both heavily supported and criticized FDR took over in a chaotic time and made big changes while keeping peace and order Other nations (Germany, Italy) did not succeed in keeping peace and order during this economic turmoil The New Deal helped, but did not pull U.S. out of Depression What did? World War II FDRs Foreign Affairs London Conference (1933) set up to create

international solutions to the Great Depression Europe tries to enforce currency stabilization Economic policy that causes deflation, deters spending Policy is counter to FDRs plan of confidence in spending and trust FDR angrily pulls U.S. out of London Conference Solidifies U.S. isolationism Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934) guarantees independence for bothersome Philippines by 1946 Good Neighbor Policy denounces TRs Big Stick Policy of Latin America heavily reduces involvement in Latin America and promises no use of military force Very successful in bettering Latin American relations Dangerous Leaders Rise

Post WWI political and economic chaos, Great Depression lead to rise of totalitarian and/or fascist regimes: Joseph Stalin (USSR) Francisco Franco (Spain) Benito Mussolini (Italy) Hirohito (Japan) Adolf Hitler (Germany)

Totalitarianism focuses all efforts on empowering the state Trouble Overseas 1931 Japan invades and occupies Manchuria (China) 1935 Italy attacks and defeats Ethiopia 1936 Rome-Berlin Axis: allies Germany and Italy League of Nations does nothing to stop these events Display of weakness allows sets dangerous precedent

America remains isolated Does not want to get involved in foreign problems and conflicts Congress passes: Neutrality Acts series of acts to put preventive restrictions on foreign relations with countries at war Johnson Debt Default Act forbids loans to countries that still owe money to U.S. Isolationism Put to Test Spanish Civil War breaks out (1936-1939) Fascist government vs. republican government America rooting for republican government, but must remain isolated and uninvolved Germany and Italy help fellow fascist

General Franco Franco and Spanish Fascists win control Francos 40 year dictatorship begins Democracy falls in another European country, America unhappy Appeaseme nt Appeasement giving into demands to avoid conflict League of Nations policy of appeasement, past negligence, and U.S. isolationism all lead to further conflict Japan conducts mass invasion of China (1937)

Second Sino-Japanese War Rape of Nanking Japanese army murders 300,000 unarmed Chinese civilians Appeasement Hitler breaks Treaty of Versailles: Builds up German military Remilitarization of the Rhineland region (1936) Persecutes Jews Annexes Austria (1938) Hitler convinced European leaders each step of expansion would be his last League of Nations appeased every

demand of his Appeaseme nt Hitler demands annexation of Sudetenland (small bordering region of Czechoslovakia) Munich Conference called to discuss (Sept. 1938) Tense talks lead to appeasement of Hitlers demand English Prime Minister Chamberlain: I have returned from Germany with peace in our time. All of Czechoslovakia annexed months later

Appeasement Ends, War Starts Russo-German Nonaggression Pact signed (1939) Stalin and Hitler promise no military aggression against each other This ensures Hitler will not fight a two-front war like WWI and also allows for an easier invasion of Poland Hitlers motives clear France & Britain finally takes a stand Warns Hitler an invasion of Poland would merit war declaration Hitler attacks Poland one week later (Sep 1, 1939) War declarations ensue WWII starts

Belligerents as of 1940: Allies: Britain, France, Poland VS. Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan Battle Lines Drawn Isolationist America America committed to neutrality, but was rooting for Britain and France Neutrality Acts amended and put in effect: U.S. will sell war materials on a cash-andcarry basis No credit, no U.S. ships involved Ensures isolationism, helps economy

Utilized exclusively by Allies, as intended Lightening Strikes Sept 1939 Germany defeats Poland Months of inactivity some suspected a phony war Hitler amasses & consolidates military April 1940 Hitler suddenly launches blitzkrieg attack Lighting warfare using tanks, planes, infantry simultaneously very effective Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium all defeated instantly

Lightenin France invaded and surrenders by June 1940 g Strikes Italy joins and invades weakened France before surrender Britain is last of the Allies left standing in Europe America shocked FDR begins immediate military built up Conscription law passed first ever peacetime draft Havana Conference called to ensure U.S. and Latin America would work together to defend Monroe Doctrine

Helping Britain Hitler begins bombing Britain with planes All-air Battle of Britain ensues Britain temporarily fights off Germany Americans split on whether to help or stay isolated FDR makes compromise between the two sides: Destroyer Deal (1940) trades 50 old WWI destroyers for 8 naval bases By 1941, Britain needed money for war effort FDR hesitant after WWI debt crisis

Solution was to loan weaponry, not money Lend-Lease Act Lend-Lease Bill passed U.S. now arsenal of democracy Until 1945, $50 billion worth of ships, tanks, weaponry, ammunition supplies to be borrowed Effects of Neutrality Act, Destroyer Deal, and Lend-Lease? American isolationism and neutrality fading fast

Axis powers avoided U.S. prior to this, not anymore Election of 1940 FDR announces a run for third term Strong leadership during uncertain times more important than the twoterm tradition Reps nominate Wendell Willkie Criticized FDRs New Deal but not the issue anymore Threat of war was FDR (1940) FDR easily wins third election FDR (1932)

Hitler Invades Soviet Union (Notes are on next slide in your note packet) June 1941 Paranoid Hitler breaks pact with Russia and attacks Moscow FDR sends $1 billion to help Russia Germanys quick invasion fails by December due to harsh winter

Atlantic Charter August 1941 Atlantic Conference called as meeting between Winston Churchill and FDR (and absent Stalin) Atlantic Charter created to discuss aid to Soviets & layout plans for postwar Main points similar to Wilsons 14 Points: Self-determination Disarmament New peace-keeping organization U.S. again rapidly moving

away from isolationism and neutrality End of U.S. Neutrality Convoys of U.S. destroyers escorted merchant ships to Britain often clashed with German U-Boats in North Atlantic November 1941 Congress repealed Neutrality Act of 1939 and allowed for arming of merchant ships Japan beating China badly in since 1937 Numerous massacres of Chinese civilians and sinking of USS Panay angered Americans July 1941 In protest, U.S. puts embargo on Japan who heavily relied on U.S. oil Japans solution was to attack American code breakers suspect possible Japanese

activity in the Pacific Philippines? British Malaysia? Australia? Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Japan launches all-out sneak attack on U.S. naval bases in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 3,000 Americans killed, Pacific fleet of U.S. Navy almost entirely wiped out Americas only aircraft carriers on Pacific were out at sea America was now at war America Declares War War declarations ensue: Dec 7: Japan declares war on U.S. and

Britain Dec 8: U.S. declares war on Japan Infamy Speech given by FDR Dec 11: Germany & Italy declare war on U.S. Dec 11: U.S. declares war on Germany and Italy Effects of Pearl Harbor Effects of Pearl Harbor on Americans? Go from wanting isolationism, to wanting revenge National unity strong West coast goes into panic Fears of invasion in California Japanese-Americans greatly affected

Internment FDR authorizes Executive Order 9066: Japanese-Americans rounded up and detained in internment camps Non-citizen Italians detained as well Official reasoning was to protect them Hidden motive was to protect America from them Wrongfully accused of being spies loyal to Japan spies Lost businesses, houses, possessions Jailed without due process of law? Supreme Court upheld the internment camps

Day 6: Quiz Day 7: America Enters WWII GOAL OF TODAY: To understand how the United States prepared for war, what impact the war had on the home front socially and economically, and what the turning point for America was in the Pacific. America Prepares for War Americans wants immediate revenge on Japan FDRs plan: get Germany first why?

Hitler a more urgent problem Do not let Britain or Russia fall, hold of Japan until Germany defeated Problem: America greatly unprepared Isolationism and depression weakened U.S. military Americas task: All industry and workforce to support war effort Means New Deal organizations end Organize massive military Ship weapons, supplies, soldiers in two directions Feed the Allies

The War Effort War Production Board takes control of industry Controls whats produced and how much of it Manufacturing and agriculture boom Rationing instituted Food, metals, gasoline, rubber Japanese had control of rubber fields in British Malaysia Office of Price Administration regulated prices War Labor Board enforced low wages to ensure low prices Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act kept strikes minimal

Gives government power to take over industries crippled by strikes The War Effort 15 million men in the military creates need for labor Women fill vacant industrial jobs Rosie the Riveter works as propaganda Helps women gain respect and new roles in society But 2/3 of women return to maternal roles after war Post-war Baby boom Bracero Program brings in seasonal workers from Mexico to

help harvest crops Second Great Migration Many African-Americans leave South to move to Northern and Western cities Reasons why: War industry created jobs New agricultural innovations and machinery in South FDR banned discrimination in defense industries Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) Helps with movement for equality Slogan: Double V

Victory overseas vs. dictators and victory at home vs. racism 125,000 serve in segregated units in military 50,000 Native Americans also helped fight in WWII Code talkers Races Clash Newly diversified cities experience some backlash Zoot Suit Riots in LA (1943) Detroit Race Riots (1943)

War Efforts Economic Effects U.S. enters WWII in economic despair New Deal helped, but war production pulls U.S. out of Great Depression $330 billion war cost WWI had cost $33 billion Paid for mostly on credit National debt quintuples U.S. ends war extremely prosperous GNP, business profits, disposable incomes all had doubled War in Pacific Dec 7, 1941 Japan launches series

of attacks on American and British islands in Pacific: Guam, Wake Island, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Dutch East Indies, coastal China, etc By March 1942, all islands except the Philippines had fallen to overpowering Japan Japan beats General Douglas MacArthur in Battle of the Philippines 75,000 American and Filipino POWs subjected to Bataan Death March Embarrassed MacArthur escapes I shall return Japan seemed unstoppable

Doolittle Raid April 1942 Lt. Colonel James Doolittle leads bombing raid American bombers hit mainland Japan Not overly successful, but big morale boost The Japanese people had been told they were invulnerable ... An attack on the Japanese homeland would cause confusion in the minds of the Japanese people and sow doubt about the reliability of their leaders. There was a second, and equally important, psychological reason for this attack ... Americans badly needed a morale boost. -James

Doolittle Japanese Expansion Halted May 1942 Battle of Coral Sea First major naval battle of war in Pacific Fought entirely with aircrafts via carriers Heavy losses on both sides Tactical victory for Japanese Sunk more ships Strategic victory for Allies Japanese expansion stopped Two Japanese carriers damaged & rendered useless

Would hurt Japanese in next major battle Battle of Midway Japanese want to further defense perimeter after Doolittle Raid and damage of Battle of Coral Sea Code breakers intercept messages of surprise attack on Midway Island Admiral Chester Nimitz and Admiral Raymond Spruance send huge U.S. fleet to defend island Japanese diversion: June 3, 1942 Japan invades islands in Aleutian chain of Alaska Not significant strategically, but greatly upset Americans

Not phased, U.S. fleet waiting for Japan at Midway Battle of Midway June 7, 1942 Battle ensues Japans surprise attack spoiled, ambushed by waiting U.S. fleet U.S. routs Japan: 3,000 Japanese killed vs. 300 Americans killed 4 Japanese carriers sunk vs. 1 American carrier 250 Japanese aircrafts shot down vs. 150 American aircrafts Midway was the turning point of

war in the Pacific Japans fleet virtually wiped out The most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare Military historian John Keegan War in Pacific Americas new plan in Pacific: island hopping AKA leapfrogging Do not attack mainland Japan yet Attack the weaker islands around the Pacific one by one Build airbases on each

island Cut off resources to Japan Main islands of Japan would then be bombed into submission Island Hopping U.S. Marines storm beaches while sailors and bombers shell the island Gen. MacArthur in south Pacific Aug 1942 Victory at Guadalcanal Followed by Solomon Islands

Reaches New Guinea by 1944 MacArthur closing in on the Philippines Admiral Nimitz in central Pacific Marshall Islands, Gilbert Islands, Marianas Islands Marianas Turkey Shoot (1944) American Hellcat fighters shoot down 250 Japanese planes U.S. now close enough for B-29 bombers to reach Japan Progress was being made, but slowly and at great costs War in Europe 1940-1942: German

dominance Germany occupying most of Europe Britain trying to hold off Hitler Controlling the seas with deadly u-boat wolf packs 1942: turning point of war in Europe (and Pacific) Germanys enigma code broken Prowling u-boat wolf packs can now be located Allies begin to win Battle of the Atlantic Supplies can now easily be shipped to Britain & France

Hitler Halted Britain bombs Germans in Cologne, France Americans bomb Germany Sept 1942 Battle of Stalingrad Russians stop German offensive at Stalingrad, begin successful counteroffensive Hitler Halted Oct 1942 Battle of El Alamein German Gen. Erwin Rommel

dominating North Africa Nicknamed the Desert Fox Stopped by the British from gaining control of Suez Canal Germany stopped in both campaigns Endures heavy losses, retreat ensues The Soft Underbelly Burdened Soviet Union urges Allies to open second front FDR wants to invade

through France Churchill wants to invade through Northern Africa and Italy Soft underbelly Soft underbelly approach chosen to lure war away from Britain The Soft Underbelly Nov 1942 Gen. Dwight Eisenhower leads successful campaign in North Africa Jan 1943 Casablanca Conference FDR & Churchill agree to seek unconditional surrender of Germany

Germans pushed out of Africa by May 1943 Sept 1943 Allies invade south Italy Mussolini overthrown, Italy surrenders German soldiers keep fighting invading Allies Invasion slow and bloody Allies finally take Rome by June 1944 Campaign soon becomes just a diversion D-Day Invasion Nov-Dec 1943 Tehran Conference FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet to coordinate

Plans of a new invasion of France made Gen. Eisenhower chosen to lead the operation June 6, 1944 D-Day Invasion Over 150,000 Allied soldiers successfully invade beaches of Normandy region on French coast Largest amphibious assault in history Invading Allies spread through France into different campaigns Effects of D-Day Invasion Paris liberated by 1945 Huge morale boost for Allies

Germany in full-on retreat End was nearing for Hitler and German army 1944 FDR wins 4th election Reps nominate Thomas Dewey Success of war leads to easy victory for FDR Dems choose VP Harry Truman Important choice with FDRs declining health FDR dies by April 1945, Truman becomes president War in Europe Nazis make one last centralized

push at Ardenne Forest Dec 1944 Battle of the Bulge Surprised Americans pushed back Creating a bulge in the battle line Largest and bloodiest battle for American Army Americans hold on to key city of Bastogne until Allied reinforcements arrive Germans eventually defeated, resume retreat Both America and Russia converging towards Berlin Holocaust Discovered

Holocaust had been just an rumor and thought to be embellished at most Retreating Germans accelerate final solution Advancing Allies shocked as they begin to discover Nazi concentration camps German civilians forced to march through camps Germany Surrenders April 1945 Russia reaches Germany Hitler kills himself May 8, 1945

Germany officials surrender V-E Day (Victory in Europe) War in the Pacific By 1945, U.S. weakening Japan: U.S. subs destroying Japanese merchant ships U.S. bombers devastating Japanese cities with firebomb campaigns Mar 1945 Two day firebomb raid on Tokyo 1/4 of city demolished

and 80,000 deal War in the Pacific Series of costly, hard-fought, U.S. victories: Mar 1945 Battle of Leyte Gulf Gen. MacArthur recaptures the Philippines Mar 1945 Battle of Iwo Jima U.S. takes small, but strategic island June 1945 Battle of Okinawa Last island before Japanese mainland American victory But with 50,000 American casualties

The Atomic Bomb Japan refusing to surrender Seen as dishonorable to give up Kamikaze suicide missions increase Must protect their godlike emperor U.S. leaders know invasion of Japan would be grueling and deadly Manhattan Project Since 1940, U.S. secretly began developing worlds first atomic bomb Mostly worked on by ex-German scientists 1945 Tested in New Mexico and ready for use July 1945 Potsdam Conference

American, British and Russian officials meet to give Japan final ultimatum: Surrender or be destroyed Japan Surrenders Japan refuses to surrender, continue hostility American aircrafts drop leaflets warning of atomic bomb, urging evacuation of targeted cities Aug 6, 1945 Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima 70,000 die instantly, 200,000 casualties overall Aug 8, 1945 Russia declares war on Japan

Invades Manchuria Japan still refuses to answer Potsdam Declaration, Aug 9, 1945 Second bomb dropped on Nagasaki 80,000 killed War Ends Aug 19, 1945 Japan officially surrenders WWII ends V-J Day Effects of WWII America able to succeed in WWII because of: Great political, military, and civilian leaders

FDR, Eisenhower, MacArthur, Patton, etc. Astonishing industrial production and resources A total war effort by whole country America comes out of war stronger-than-ever One million American casualties Relatively small compared to other nations America homeland virtually untouched Other nations in ruins U.S. becomes the world superpower

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