Student Attainment and Experience Conference University of Derby What are students perceptions of learning support for their hidden disabilities in higher education classrooms? A cross sectional study in an East Midlands university in the UK. Rosemary Shepherd, 22nd June 2015 [email protected] Points for discussion Literature and policy underpinning the research Feedback from students on the learning support they are receiving in higher education What might be some of the concerns and/or dilemmas for tutors in managing the needs of students with learning support plans? EdD research on student perception of learning support Research into students perceptions of the support they receive for hidden disabilities in higher education classrooms. A steady rise in the numbers of students entering higher education with

both physical and hidden disabilities (Gibson, 2012; Madriaga et al. 2011; VanBergeijk et al, 2008; Konur, 2006; Avramidis and Skidmore, 2004) The driving force for the increased numbers of students entering higher education with disabilities is the legislation and policies to provide better equal opportunities for students with disabilities. (Konur 2006) Disabled Students Allowance 1993 (currently under scrutiny) Statistics for University of Derby 2002 2012 Higher Education Standards Agency HESA Full time Undergraduate students studying their first degree Year Students enrolled Receiving DSA Percentage 2011/12 8705 785 9.0 2010/11 8245

795 9.7 2009/10 8160 735 9.0 2008/09 7645 520 6.8 2007/08 7155 365 5.1 2006/07 7140 330 4.6

2005/06 7285 150 2.1 2004/05 7165 295 4.1 2003/04 7365 170 2.3 2002/03 7260 215 2.9 HESA 2013 www.derby.ac.uk/education HE policy and inclusive practice

Dearing Report in 1997 - a more socially representative university sector to remove barriers to citizens social and economic participation (Sheeran, Brown and Baker 2007:249). Elitism to Inclusion 1998 - to move from what had been seen as a discriminatory attitude on the part of [some] tutors to the making of reasonable adjustments to students with declared disabilities. Disability and Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 updated in 2005 to ensure equality for disabled people in education, SENDA 2001 Equality Act 2010 - Direct/indirect discrimination, discrimination by association or discrimination by perception www.derby.ac.uk/education EdD research - Sample and themes 14 semi-structured interviews - Stages 1, 2 and 3 9 JHS, 5 Single honours EDS Age 20 50 plus 12 females, 2 males. One Jamaican female, 13 White British

Dyslexia, Epilepsy, Dyspraxia, Bi-Polar, Depression/Anxiety, ME, Bone disease Themes discussed Diagnosis of hidden disability, Study needs assessment and equipment provided - DSA Approaching tutors about support plans Teaching methods in the classrooms - what works best, where do students struggle? Student strategies Key theme mental health issues www.derby.ac.uk/education Feedback on Student Wellbeing Services and provision of equipment Different levels of support severity of disability - mixed messages Equipment for some but not for others - confusion Difficulty accessing training for equipment use Pending discussions with student wellbeing www.derby.ac.uk/education Accessing the learning support plan a misty area

The learning support plan is emailed to student Module leader alerted by email Details can be viewed on peoplesoft - on the class list www.derby.ac.uk/education Click on Related Content Support Plans by Class 6 Support Module Studen Plan Cataloge Term ID t Name Reasons 4EDXXX 4EDXXX 4EDXXX 4EDXXX 4EDXXX 4EDXXX 2013 2013 2013

2013 2013 2013 xx xxx xx xxx xx xxx xx x xxxxx xx x xx xx x xxxx DYSLEXIA , DYSLEXIA , DYSLEXIA , DEPRESSION , MIGRAINES DYSLEXIA , Support Advisor Requirements Notes name Plan Start Term xxx Requirements Notes 2013 xxxx Requirements

Notes xxx Requirements Notes xx Requirements Notes xxxxx Requirements Notes xxx Requirements Notes 2013 2013 2013 2013 DYSCALCULIA , 2013 www.derby.ac.uk/education

Click on Requirements Req ID Name uire ment 1 2 3 x x x Area Description mm LECTURES Please provide copies of lecture notes in advance unless to do so would academically A03 AND disadvantage the student. TUTORIALS : mm LECTURES A13 AND Please allow the student to use their laptop in class for note taking purposes. TUTORIALS : mm

LECTURES AED Extended deadlines of 1 week for submission of all assessed work excluding group work, AND 1 presentations and modules that contain progressive assessments. TUTORIALS : 4 x mm LECTURES AED AND Extended deadlines of 2 weeks for submission of final year Independent Study. 62 TUTORIALS : 5 x mm LECTURES MH1 AND Allow student to record lectures and seminars using their own digital voice recorder. 4 TUTORIALS : 6

x mm A01 LIBRARY : 7 x mm A01 Extended book loan service: 5 weeks on resources normally loaned for 3 weeks; 2 weeks on resources normally loaned for 1 week. PLACEMENT The student should contact their placement tutor as soon as possible after preparation of : this Support Plan to discuss their needs on placement. www.derby.ac.uk/education Notes details for the student ID 1 2 3 4 x x

x x Name Notes Note Title Notes Details LECTURES AND TUTORIALS: Discuss Support Plan with tutors. 01 LECTURES AND TUTORIALS : xxxx 07 LIBRARY - EXTENDED BOOK LOAN: Restricted and LIBRARY : EXTENDED BOOK two day loans are not included in these arrangements LOAN and cannot be extended. xxxx This is a confidential document, held in your electronic CONFIDENTIALITY student record and is only accessed by appropriate CONF STATEMENT members of University staff, for the purpose of arranging your support.

xxxx Your Support Plan is an on-going, continuous document to help you throughout your time at university. If you feel there are any adjustments to be made to it, or want to discuss any aspect of your Support Plan, please contact the Student Wellbeing Service. xxxx SP SUPPORT PLAN www.derby.ac.uk/education How are learning support plans used? What happens next? What do tutors do with support plans? Are students meeting tutors to discuss learning needs and reasonable adjustments? www.derby.ac.uk/education Discussions on the learning support plan Students with learning support plans often avoid approaching tutor to discuss learning needs Didnt know they had to talk to tutor about their learning needs

Assumed tutor would know Didnt want to. Worried or embarrassed about approaching tutor Tinklin, Riddell and Wilson, (2004) informs us that students may experience anxiety and the fear of exposure or failure if they discuss their disability. Embarrassment/fear of approaching tutor about support plan I havent said anything You do feel strange you feel embarrassed You feel like a right pain to the lecturers No Im a bit shy I wouldnt know what to say.. I dont think support told me to go to and talk to them It affects me a bit and I dont want to be labelled I think some lecturers are more terrifying than others I didnt feel confident to go and see them Its weird having to talk to them Saying.. Ive got dyslexia, like having a tag already I get a bit embarrassed I should be able to go up and say.. I have this problem Not approached a tutor face to face Its easier for them to look at it (support plan) I dont know if people know You need someone to play the game with you Not sure if my support plan is in place or not www.derby.ac.uk/education Approaching tutors about the support plan Concerns and unhelpful responses

Supportive tutor He ignored it (email) didnt even acknowledge it Some tutors are fantastic, they print scripts on blue paper! Youve made it very hard on yourself coming to university Tell me what you need, Ill make sure it is there for you Theyre not bothered Theyve been so supportive Theyve not been interested They wouldnt help Another tutor was just not very helpful www.derby.ac.uk/education Difficulties experienced in the classroom He put the blinds down put all the fluorescent lights on [Used] overhead screen [for] all his lecture notes and read them in a very thick accent If you dont leave them confused you have not done your job I dont want to be confused Lecture notes not available before session They do a lot of scribbling wiping it off and moving on to something else

I was completely zoned out Really dark room with no windows I couldnt cope... She'd say how teachers need to be sensitive towards other's needs and do exactly the opposite Kept my head down read it, didnt talk to anyone, I White background on screen got nowhere not taking it in at all I tried to record it and the tutor wouldn't let me I needed to go to the toilet and to walk around I was told you've got to wait If it's just boring and monotone talking at you They call me out and say "oh what did we learn" I dont know it's embarrassing [Tutor says ]stop what you are doing and focus on the board I am still writing notes [trying keep up] [She has] lots of powerpoints and just reads them off Reading tasks 26 pages long 25 minutes with questions She talks in very flat tones like rarr rarr rarr www.derby.ac.uk/education Positives in the classroom I love how she is so enthusiastic When I was stressed I was able to tell her that

She has slides and pictures and videos We were moving around and just interacting with people There was visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning I find that having groups discussions help it's nice to talk to other people about it Having slides on udo I think that asking questions... always helps She makes us laugh I like having a personality She never uses white on powerpoints All scripts were printed on blue paper Talks without relying on powerpoints They'll simplify it down and then do activities on it I like slower talking She responded by email regularly We pool our ideas and present them back www.derby.ac.uk/education Teaching methods - Inclusive practice

Inclusive pedagogy - teaching approaches that address the learning of all learners to accommodate a range of needs (Le Roux and Graham 1998; Florian and Linklater 2010; Florian and Black-Hawkins 2011) Focusing on ways of extending what is already in place in terms of materials and delivery styles, and which responds to the differences between learners rather than specifically individualizing for some (Florian and Linklater 2010:370). A shift from the traditional directive delivery of information, to thinking about teaching methods that work for most learners with some add on methods that support students who are experiencing learning difficulties (Long, 2011) . www.derby.ac.uk/education Disable Students Allowance -Cuts David Willets (April 2014) Minister for Universities and Science Written Ministerial statement We believe that HEIs are better placed to consider how to respond in many cases, including giving greater consideration to the delivery of their courses and how to provide support Cuts delayed until 2016/7

How will universities and tutors respond? www.derby.ac.uk/education Summary There is a rise in students coming into higher education with special educational deeds and disabilities Tutors need more awareness of a range of learning needs Need to ensure inclusive practice for all students Communication between Wellbeing services/student/tutor Strategies for students Managing the cuts in DSA. Mental Health Issues www.derby.ac.uk/education References 1

Avramidis, E. and Skidmore, D. (2004) Reappraising Learning Support in Higher Education, Research in Post-Compulsory Education Vol 9 No 1 pp63 82 Florian, L. and Linklater, H. (2010): Preparing teachers for inclusive education: using inclusive pedagogy to enhance teaching and learning for all, Cambridge Journal of Education, 40:4, pp369-386 Florian, L. and Black-Hawkins, K. (2011): Exploring inclusive pedagogy, British Educational Research Journal, 37:5, pp 813-828 Holbrook, T., Moore, C., and Zoss, M. (2010) Equitable intent: reflections on Universal Design in education as an ethic of care. Reflective Practice, Vol 11, No 5 pp 681-692 Gibson, S. (2012): Narrative accounts of university education: sociocultural perspectives of students with disabilities, Disability & Society, 27:3, 353-369 Konur, O., (2006) Teaching disabled students in higher education, Teaching in Higher Education. Vol. 11:3, pp. 351-363 References 2

Long, M., Wood, C., Littleton, K., Passenger, T., and Sheehy, K., (2011) The Psychology of Education, 2nd Ed. London: Routledge. Madriaga, M., Hanson, K., Kay, H., and Walker, A., (2011) Marking-out normalcy and disability in higher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education. Vol. 32:6 pp 901-92 Sheeran, Y., Brown, B.J., and Baker, S., (2007) Conflicting philosophies of inclusion: the contestation of knowledge in widening participation. London Review of Education 5, (3): 249-263, https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/2086/2431/sheeran2%20(2).pdf? sequence=1 Accessed June 2015 Silver, P., Bourke, A., & Strehorn, K., (1998): Universal Instructional Design in Higher Education: An Approach for Inclusion, Equity & Excellence in Education, 31:2, pp47-51 VanBergeijk, E., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F., (2008) Supporting More Able Students on the Autism Spectrum: College and Beyond, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Vol. 38:7, pp13591370 Willets, D. (2014) Written Ministerial Statement (modernising the DSA) http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-vote-office/April %202014/7%20April%202014/1.BIS-HE-Student-Support.pdf June 2015 www.derby.ac.uk/education

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