1 1 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Education at a Glance 2007 Under embargo until 18 September 2007 11:00 Paris time 4 Quantity and quality challenges Changes in qualification levels (the past) Changes in graduation rates (the present)
Changes in entry rates (best guess for the future) 6 6 Growth in university-level qualifications Approximated by the percentage of persons with ISCED 5A/6 qualification born in the age groups shown below (2005) % 5 13 11 A1.3a
1. Year of reference 2004. 2. Year of reference 2003. 27 8 8 Ratio of 25-to-34-year-olds with ISCED 5A and 30-to39-year-olds with ISCED 6 levels of education to 55to-64-year-olds with ISCED 5A and 6 levels of education, by fields of education (2004) In all countries there are more younger than older science graduates, and graduate output in science has accelerated faster than across all fields
A1.5b 1. Year of reference 2001. Only ISCED 5A of educational 9 9 Tertiary-type A graduation rates (2000, 2005) Percentage of tertiary type A graduates to the population at the typical age of graduation % 10 3 A3.1
Decline of the relative position of the UK over a 5year-period (2000-2005) 12 12 Number of tertiary science graduates per 100 000 employed 25-to-34-year-olds (2005) Tertiary-type A, tertiary-type B and advanced research programmes, by gender A3.4 13 13 Gender difference in instrumental motivation and tertiary-type A graduates in mathematics
R2=0.35 Countries in red show the lowest scores for mathematics in the instrumental motivation index (less than -.25). Countries in green show the highest scores
for mathematics in the instrumental motivation index (more than 30). Gender difference (M-F) in index of instrumental motivation in mathematics at 15 years-old (2003)2. A3.5 1. Percentage of females graduated in mathematics and computing for tertiary-type A and advanced programmes. 2. The greater the gender difference, the less females are motivated compared to males. 16 16
Entry rates in tertiary type A substantially increased between 1995 and 2005, by 18 percentage points on average in OECD countries. Between 2000 and 2005, the growth exceeds 10 percentage points in Sum of net entry rates for each yearwith of age more than one-quarter of the 24 OECD countries available data. While the proportion of the UKs age cohort entering tertiary-type A
programmes was 48% in 1998 significantly above the OECD average of then 40% in 2005 it was 51%, compared to an OECD average of 54%. Entry rates into tertiary type A education % C2.1 17 17 Percentage of 15-year-olds expecting to complete tertiary education (2003) %
A4.1 18 So what? Has the increasing supply of well-educated labour been matched by the creation of high-paying jobs? Will one day everyone have a university degree but work for the minimum wage? 19 19 The effects of tertiary expansion: A high calibre workforce or the overqualified In those countries that did not expand tertiary education (the crowding
outto the lesser qualified? bottom group), failure complete upper secondary education is associated with rate an as 80% greater of being Lower now secondary
unemployment a ratio of upperprobability secondary unemployment Middle unemployed, compared to less rate than 50% in the top group. group The eight countries with modest increases in tertiary education (2.4% on average) (UK)
Top group The nine countries that expanded tertiary education fastest in the 1990s (5.9% on average) A1.4 Bottom group The nine countries with no or very modest increases in tertiary education (0.1% on average) 20 20
Changes in tertiary education and changes in unemployment for lower secondary educated adults: late 1990s and early 2000s CountriesPercentage in red point change within the periods had low or no growth in tertiary attainment but substantial growth in unemployment among the lower educated. Countries in green had the fastest growth in tertiary attainment and close to zero or negative growth in
unemployment. A1.5 Change in tertiary attainment levels between 1990-1994 and 21 21 Relative earnings from employment (2005 or latest available year) By level of educational attainment and gender for 25-to-64-year-olds (upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education=100) A9.2 1. Year of reference 2002. 2. Year of reference 2003.
3. Year of reference 2004. 4. Year of reference 2005. Relative earnings from employment (2005 or latest available year) 22 22 By level of educational attainment and gender for 25-to-64-year-olds (upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education= 100). Note also: rising higher education qualifications seem generally not to have led to an inflation of the labour-market
value of qualifications. A9.2 In all but three of the 20 countries with available data, the earnings benefit increased between 1997 and 2003, in Germany, Italy and Hungary by between 20% and 40% 1. Year of reference 2002. 2. Year of reference 2003. 3. Year of reference 2004. 4. Year of reference 2005. 23
23 Difference between unemployment rates of females and males, by level Gender of differences unemployment education attainmentin are much smaller Percentage points A8.3 for those with higher qualifications
28 28 Student mobility in tertiary education (2005) Percentage of international students enrolled in tertiary education C3.1 Note: The data on the mobility of international students presented are not comparable with data on foreign students in tertiary education (defined on the basis of citizenship) presented in pre-2006 editions of Education at a Glance . 29 29 Distribution of foreign students by country of destination (2005)
Percentage of foreign tertiary students reported to the OECD who are enrolled in each country of destination The United States receives the most of foreign students (in absolute terms), followed by the United Kingdom, Germany and France. Altogether, these four major destinations account for 52% of all tertiary students pursuing their studies abroad. C3.2 31 31 Proportion of international and foreign students in tertiary graduate output (2005) Percentage of tertiary qualifications awarded to international students %
C3.5 32 Equity challenges How well are countries using their potential to generate future human capital by providing equitable learning opportunities? 34 34 Growth in baseline qualifications A world of change
Approximated by percentage of persons with high school or equivalent qualfications in the age groups 55-64, 45-55, 45-44 und 25-34 years % 1 13 4 A1.2 27 1. Excluding ISCED 3C short programmes 2. Year of reference 2004 3. Including some ISCED 3C short programmes 3. Year of reference 2003.
38 38 Educational status of students fathers Proportion of students fathers with higher education compared with men of corresponding age group as students fathers with higher education Finland, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom have the largest intake of students with fathers holding a higher education degree, whereas Ireland and Italy have the lowest intake from this group. A7.2a 39 39
Educational status of students fathers Ratio of the proportion of students fathers with higher education to the proportion of men of the corresponding age group as students fathers with higher education A7.2b 40 40 Proportion of students in higher education (2003-2005) from a blue-collar background and between school variance in PISA 2000 A7.3
Note: The first bar shows the ratio of students with fathers from a blue collar background compared with men of corresponding age group (40-to-60-year-olds) in blue collar occupations. The second bar shows the between school variance in mathematics from PISA 2000 survey. SOURCE: OECD PISA survey, EUROSTUDENT 2005. 43 Resource and efficiency challenges As the place and mode of educational provision has largely remained unchanged, the labourintensiveness of education have made costs rise over time. 44 44 Cumulative expenditure on educational institutions per student over the theoretical duration
of primary and secondary studies (2004) Annual expenditure on educational institutions per student multiplied by the theoretical duration of studies, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs B1.5a 1. Public institutions only. 45 45 Changes in the number of students as well as changes in expenditure on educational institutions per student primary to secondary education (1995,2004) Index of change between 1995 and 2004 (1995=100, 2004 constant prices)
B1.7a 46 46 Annual expenditure on educational institutions per student for tertiary institutions Tertiary education is not the exception, where expenditure per student ranges from USD 2 562 in the Russian Federation to more than USD 21 000 in Switzerland and the United States. B1.2 49 49
Changes in the number of students as well as changes in expenditure on educational institutions per student, tertiary education (1995,2004) Index of change between 1995 and 2004 (1995=100, 2004 constant prices) B1.7b 52 52 Share of private expenditure on tertiary institutions (1995, 2004) % B3.3c
53 53 Average annual tuition fees charged by tertiary-type A public institutions for full-time national students, in US Dollars converted using PPPs (school year 2004/2005) USD 5000 United States (64%) 4000 Australia (82%), Japan (41%), Korea (51%) This chart does not take into account
grants, subsidies or loans that partially or fully offset the students tuition fees. Canada (m) 3000 Israel1 (55%) 2000 United Kingdom1 (52%) New Zealand (79%), Netherlands1 (59%) 1000 500
0 B5.1 Italy (56%) Austria (37%), Spain (43%), Belgium (Fr. and Fl.) (33%) Turkey (27%), France (m) Czech Republic (41%), Denmark (57%), Finland (73%), Ireland (45%), Iceland (45%), Norway (76%), Poland (76%), Sweden (76%) 1. Public institutions do not exist at this level of education and most of the students are enrolled in government dependent institutions. 57 57
Average class size in primary education (2005) D2.1a 1. Public institutions only 2. Years of reference 2001 and 2005. 58 58 Average class size in educational institutions, lower secondary education (2005) Number of students per classroom D2.2
59 59 Teachers salaries (minimum, after 15 years experience, and maximum) in lower secondary education Annual statutory teachers salaries in public institutions in lower secondary education, in equivalent USD converted using PPs, and the ratio of salary of 15 years of experience to GDP per capita Equivalent USD converted using PPPs D3.2 60
60 Changes in teachers salaries in lower secondary education, by point in the salary scale (1996,2005) Index of change between 1996 and 2004 (1996=100, 2005 price levels using GDP deflators) Index of change D3.3 62 62 Efficiency levels in primary and lower secondary education Potential for increasing learning outcomes at current levels of
resources in primary and lower secondary education across OECD countries as a whole According to this chart, across OECD countries, there is potential for increasing learning outcomes by 22% while maintaining current levels of resources (output efficiency). The scope for reducing the resources devoted to education while maintaining Rate of efficiency the current levels of outcomes is slightly larger, at 30% (input efficiency). B7.1 63 63 Survival rates in tertiary education (2004) Number of graduates divided by the number of new entrants in
the typical year of entrance to the specified programme % A3.6 Note: The survival rates in tertiary education represent the proportion of those who enter a tertiary-type A or a tertiary-type B programme. 64 64 www.pisa.oecd.org All national and international publications The complete micro-level database
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