Unit 2 The Atomic Model of Matter - Lundquist Labs

Unit 2 The Atomic Model of Matter - Lundquist Labs

Unit 2 The Atomic Model of Matter Lundquist -- 2016 Properties of Matter Unit 2.1 Describing Matter Extensive

Dependent on amount Mass Volume Weight color Intensive

Amount does not matter Boiling point Melting point Density () phase

Unit 2.1 Note Quiz Questions 1. Describing Matter Substance has a definite composition (always the same)

Can be identified by unique properties Describing Matter A group of elements bound together chemically is a compound

Subscript denotes the numbers of atoms of that element are present in a representative unit of that compound. Table salt, NaCl; sugar, C12H22O11 Classification of Matter Pure Substance one element or one

compound identified by its unique chemical or physical properties. Molecules compounds but do not have to be different elements, and can be as

few as 1 atom Monoatomic elements Helium Common molecules Carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) Diatomic elements Bromine (Br2),

Iodine (I2), Nitrogen (N2), Chlorine(Cl2), Hydrogen (H2),Oxygen (O2), Fluorine (F2), Classification of Matter Mixtures combination of 2 or more pure substances

Heterogeneous Areas of higher concentration soil, oil & water Homogenous

Equal distribution of particles air, Kool-Aid Note Quiz Questions 2. Do p. 11 Describing Matter Physical

Properties Can be observed without changing the substance Chemical Properties Requires the substance react with another compound or energy

source Caused the atoms to rearrange Note Quiz Questions 3. 4. 5.

6. Do p. 12 Describing Matter Physical Change Change in location or arrangement of molecules

Start = Finish INCLUDES changes of state Chemical Change Rearrangement of ATOMS Start Finish Describing Matter

Chemical changes result in the substance being consumed to produce a new substance Signs of a chemical change Formation of a gas Formation of a solid (precipitate) Change in temperature Change in color Production of light

Note Quiz Questions 7. 8. 9. chemic al Note Quiz Questions 10.

Do p. 13 The Periodic Table Unit 2.2 Elements and Compounds Elements Compound

Simplest form of matter ~114 known (92 naturally occurring) 2+ elements chemically combined Can be broken down

chemically Properties differ from elements that make them History Democritus (460- 370 BCE)

Made of small invisible parts Cant be destroyed Coined the term atomos History

John Dalton (1766- 1844) English chemist, physicist, & meteorologist

Researched colorblindness (daltonism) theorized that atoms were a defining substance of matter History Daltons Theory 1. Elements are atoms 2. Atoms of an element are the

same* 3. Atoms cannot be destroyed 4. Combine in whole number ratios 5. Chemical reactions are just recombination History Joseph James Thomson (1856-1940)

Physicist Nobel prize winner (so did 7 of his students & his son)

Working with electricity in a vacuum found that a ray was produced History Joseph James Thomson (1856-1940) Determined that atoms have a negative

component EXTREMEMLY large charge/mass ratio Plum Pudding Model (1904)

Plums = ePudding = (+) energy History Ernest Rutherford (1837 - 1937) British physicist

Proved that alpha radiation is a helium atom Discovered half-life (won Nobel prize) History Rutherford & The Gold Foil experiment (1911)

Plum pudding model At the atomic level there is no solid To test his ideas about a particles

Rolled Au into a VERY thin sheet Shot a at it History History

lly a a n i Orig etary plan el mod History Niels Bohr (1885 - 1962)

Danish physicist Studied with Rutherford Electrons are held in energy levels (distances from the nucleus) Based of work by Planck,

Einstein, Pauli, & Heisenburg History Energy levels: show number of e- Nucleus: write symbol, #p+ and #n0 History Robert Millikan

American Physicist Won Nobel Prize Found the charge/mass of an e- History Quantum Theory

Duality of matter Quantum Theory History Wolfgang Pauli Developed Paulis exclusion principle

Won the Nobel Prize Two electrons can not be in the same place at the same time History The Periodic Table

Mendeleev Moseley Arranged periodic table by nuclear charge History Unit 2.2 Note Quiz Questions 1.

Unit 2.2 Note Quiz Questions 2. 3. Unit 2.2 Note Quiz Questions 4. Review

Symb ol Mas Char s ge Location Proton p+

1 +1 Nucleus Electro n e- ~0

-1 Outside the nucleus Neutro n n0 ~1 none

Nucleus The Periodic Table Rows = periods Arranged in increasing

nuclear charge (atomic number) Columns = Families / groups The Periodic Table Element Name Atomic Number Elemental symbol Average Atomic Mass

The Periodic Table Element Name English names Some come from antiquity The Periodic Table Atomic Number (Z)

The number of p+ Also called the nuclear charge Since each p+ is a +1 More (+) charge means more e- needed to neutralized it

IF NEUTRAL, Z =# e- The Periodic Table Elemental Symbol Based off English or Latin

Calcium = Ca Tungstun = W (wolfram) Helium = He Lead = Pb (plumbum) The Periodic Table Average Atomic Mass Atoms of an element can

differ in mass This is the average mass of all known isotopes (###) = no stable nuclei are known Unit 2.2 Note Quiz

Questions 5. 6. 7. Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different masses

Same number of p+ Same number of eDIFFERENT number of n0 Isotope names are written as the element-mass

Protium = hydrogen-1 Deuterium = hydrogen-2 Isotopes Notation Way of denoting different isotopes Z is understood and not

always written Since EVERY atom of element X would have Z protons Practice How many protons (p+) neutrons (n0) and electrons (e-) are in each isotope?

2+ Isotopes Same element different masses

In any pure sample of an element there can be several different isotopes Unit 2.2 Note Quiz Questions 8. 9. 10.

Do p. 14 Average Atomic Mass Unit 2.3 Mass Spectrometer Lots of Arguing <1850 the mass of atoms was based on Hydrogen

1850-1956 used Oxygen O = 16 amu

H = 1 atomic mass unit Making H of O Small problem (1919) isotopes (O with a mass of 17 & 18) Made 2 different systems (O and O) 1961 based off

Was already a base in physics for masses More stable isotope 1 amu = mass of 1 nucleus 13 6 Carbon-13

12 6 Carbon with a mass of 13 6 protons 7 neutrons

Carbon-12 Carbon with a mass of 12 6 protons

6 neutrons Average Atomic Mass Number of protons (+) charge in the nucleus Number of e- if neutral Average atomic mass

Isotopes (heavier/lighter Weighted average atoms) Average Atomic Mass . . =(1 %1)+(2 %2)+(3 %3)..

f so e s Ma top i so nt as e rc nce al e P da im un dec b

a a Do p. 15 Isotopes Generally the most stable isotope exists in the highest abundance Contributes the most to the

mass Generality ADVANCED PROBLEM Hint: Remember percent abundance must equal 100 together A sample of argon contains 2 isotopes and ,

given the average atomic mass of argon what is the percent abundance of each isotope? 1. Unit 2.3 Note Quiz Questions 2. 3.

Unit 2.3 Note Quiz Questions 4. 5. Unit 2.3 Note Quiz Questions P3.2 Do the TOP HALF of p. 17

stop at Decay reaction Next class & the class after Lab next class BEANIUM!!! Quiz the class after Write the isotope notation for an element

Determine number of p+, n0, & e- Assign to a family Determine average atomic mass Unit 2.4 Nuclear Decay

History Marie Curie (1867-1934) Developed :

the theory of radioactivity Dying of radioactivity The treatment of radioactivity First woman Nobel prize winner (won twice!) Discovered Po & Rd

Radioactivity Stability Less energy where everything wants to be ratio

More p+/n0 = unstable (more energy) For larger elements stable nuclei occur at intervals of 8ish There are LOTS of types of

nuclear decay Ways for atoms to lower their energy and become more stable Nuclear Decay Alpha (a) Decay Too big nuclei (after Pb) all

do this Atomic bulimia Releases an alpha particle

Helium atom or Stopped by tissue paper Nuclear Decay Beta (b) Decay Alters the ratio Turns a neutron into a proton

Emits an electron like particle Has almost no mass and a (-) charge or Stopped by cardboard n

to N o ur yo or L SO st te Nuclear Decay Positron Emission -or- Electron capture

0r Releases antimatter! Neutron becomes a proton Nuclear Chemistry Gamma Radiation The release of energy that accompanies almost ALL

radiation Has no mass or charge is pure energy ONLY blocked by Pb 1.

Unit 2.4 Note Quiz Questions 2. Nuclear Decay Fission Destruction of the nucleus into smaller nuclei Fusion

Combination of two nuclei Unit 2.4 Note Quiz Questions 3. Predicting products of nuclear reactions Mass must be conserved

What type of decay occurred? Charge must be conserved What is the product of the radiation shown above? Unit 2.4 Note Quiz Questions 4.

5. 6. Finish p. 17 Do p. 16, & 19 Half Life The amount of time it takes half a sample to decay into another element

Half Life Going forward in time Back in time Divide by 2 for however many half lives pass

Multiply by 2 for however many half lives pass Look for amount left after x time Look for original sample? end with x grams

Half life An isotope of cesium has a half life of 30 year. If 1.0 g degenerated to xeon over a period of 90 years, how many grams of Cs will remain in the sample? How much of the sample will be Xeon ? Half Life Actinium-226 has a half life of 29 hours. What was the mass of the original sample if after 58

hours 50.0 mg remains? Finding Half Life Determine the amount that would have had to have happened What is the half life of an isotope if after 100. years 12.5% of the original sample remains Unit 2.4 Note Quiz Questions 7.

8. Unit 2.4 Note Quiz Questions 9. 10. Do p. 21 & 20 THE END Test NEXT PERIOD!

25 MC you will need to 21 to get a 100 1 free response worth 10 points, you will need to earn 7 to get a 100 Multiple Choice homework due NEXT PERIOD!

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