Unit 1.5 - Colonial Society in the 18th Century

Unit 1.5 - Colonial Society in the 18th Century

COLONIAL SOCIETY IN THE 18TH CENTURY C R E AT I N G T H E A M E R I C A N S P I R I T LIFE IN THE CHESAPEAKE POPULATION Life expectancy: 10 years less than England; 50% not living past 20 y/o Most immigrants young, single men; women extremely scarce

Stabilized with the increase in female settlers and increased immunities to diseases. HEADRIGHT SYSTEM Headright System: Got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid (VA) Indentured servants agreed to years of 4-7 years labor in exchange for transatlantic passage

Promised freedom dues [land, money] 1610-1614: 1:10 outlived their contracts Leads to large numbers of young, poor, unhappy men with little access to land or women for marriage. Englands overpopulation led to high unemployment. There was a labor shortage in the colonies. The problem?

No money to immigrate! BACONS REBELLION VA HoB disenfranchised most landless men in 1670 Nathaniel Bacon led landless former indentured servants in violent attacks against local tribes for their land VA Governor William Berkeley ordered Bacon and his men to stop, and refused to retaliate for previous Indian attacks on white settlers.

Bacons men turn on the governor Rebels resented Berkeleys close relations with Indians. Burn Jamestown Ends when Bacon suddenly dies of fever. Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 23 rebels. The Powhatans lost their remaining lands EFFECTS OF THE REBELLION Exposed resentments

between inland frontiersmen/landless former servants against gentry on coastal plantations. Socio-economic class differences/clashes would continue throughout American history. Upper class planters

searched for laborers less likely to rebel BLACK SLAVES!! THE TRIANGULAR TRADE, PART 1 7 THE MIDDLE PASSAGE ROOTS OF SLAVERY First Africans arrived in Jamestown

in 1619. Unclear status Slavery unimportant until the end of 17c. As the number of slaves increased, white colonists reacted to put down perceived racial threat. Slavery transformed from economic to racial institution. By the mid-1680s, black slaves outnumbered white indentured

servants. Olaudah Equiano ROOTS OF SLAVERY Beginning in 1662 Slave Codes Made blacks [and their children] property, or chattel for life of white masters. In some colonies, it was a

crime to teach a slave to read or write. Conversion to Christianity did not qualify the slave for freedom. STONO REBELLION (AKA: CATO'S CONSPIRACY ), 1739 Largest slave revolt in colonial American history Jemmy (AKA: Cato), led 20 slaves in an armed march

to freedom in Spanish Florida Killed 2225 whites before being intercepted by a South Carolina militia. Rebellion was suppressed. South Carolina passes the Negro Act of 1740 Restricts slave assembly, education and movement

LIFE IN NEW ENGLAND THE HALF-WAY COVENANT, 1662 Puritan leaders worried religious passion was dying down jeremiads (stern, old-fashioned scolding) used to corral wandering souls Half-way Covenant: Eased qualifications for joining the church Full membership = Needed an account of a conversion experience; could be baptized

Partial membership = For children and grandchildren of church members; could partake in the Lord's supper, only children of members could be baptized SALEM WITCH TRIALS In 1692, a few girls claimed to have been bewitched by a Caribbean woman practicing voodoo. Names were named, rumors spread, and innocent people were accused of being witches. Hysteria took hold and twenty

people were executed. By 1693, the Salem residents saw the recklessness for what it was and called it off. AMERICAS WITCH HUNTS THE PEQUOT WARS: 16361637 Pequots very powerful tribe in CT river valley. Pequot War (1637) Whites, with Narragansett Indian allies, attacked

Pequot village on Mystic River. Whites set fire to homes & shot fleeing survivors! Pequot tribe virtually annihilated an uneasy peace lasted for 40 years. KING PHILIPS WAR: 1675-1676 Metacom (known as King Philip by English) tried to unite local tribes to protect themselves against attacks Attacked English settlements on the frontier lasted two

years Eventually defeated; was drawn and quartered and his head displayed on a pike in Plymouth for years SEEDS OF COLONIAL UNITY New England Confederation Consisted of 4 Puritan colonies (MA Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, Connecticut) for the purpose of defense against natives Dominion of New England

Meant to regain English control over the colonies New England ignoring the Navigation Acts Didnt like colonies defending themselves Led by Sir Edmund Andros; despised by colonists Epic failure

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