# Unit 1, Part 1 Notes - Populations - JENSEN BIOLOGY

Unit 1, Part 1 Notes Populations AP Biology Definition of a population (write this down!) -The group of individuals from one species living in a particular area

-Example: All of the red-cockaded woodpeckers living in a forest Population Size vs. Population Density Methods for Estimating Population Density

-Quadrat Technique (not quadrant, sorry!) -Mark and Recapture Technique Mark and Recapture Technique - A little fun math! A limited number of individuals (e.g. 20) are captured at random and marked/tagged then released into the environment. Later a second group of

animals is captured and the percentage of marked individuals determined. If 10% of the animals in this second group have the tag (e.g., 4 out of 40 individuals in the recapture group have a tag), then the original 20 represented 10% of the population and the population then is 200. R/T=M/N

We can represent this math with the following equation 4 / 40 = 20 / 200 0.1 = 0.1 R = # of recaptured individuals that had a mark/tag (4)

T = total # of recaptured individuals (40) M = # of individuals that were initially captured and marked (20) N = total # of individuals in the population (200) Lets answer Notes Question #1 Scientists are using the mark-recapture technique to estimate the population density

of a population of turtles. (Yeah, this is totally made up). Initially, 30 turtles were captured and tagged (marked) with a line of orange paint on their shells and released back into the environment. The scientists later captured 20 more turtles and found that 5 of them had tags on their back. Using this information, estimate the size of the total turtle population.

Exponential vs. Logistic Growth whats the big difference?? Question: for the logistic growth curve shown to the right, how does the birth rate compare to the death rate at points A, B, and C?

A: B: C: Most populations oscillate around the carrying capacity.

Notes Question #3 Demography -In your notes: the study of factors that affect birth and death rate -Alternate definition in our class textbook: the study of statistics that describe a

population -We will discuss the following factors that are part of demography: generation time, fecundity, survivorship, life history, age structure Generation Time -Average span of time between the birth of an organism and the birth of its

offspring. -Large organisms longer generation times slower population growth -Small organisms shorter generation times faster population growth Fecundity -In your notes: Average number of offspring each individual produces at each

life stage (Ex: Humans have a higher fecundity in their mid-20s and 30s compared to their 50s) -Alternate definition from Openstax Biology online textbook: Potential reproductive capacity of an individual in a population (describes how many offspring could ideally be produced)

Survivorship -The fraction of individuals that survive from birth to different life stages -Types of survivorship curves: Type I : low mortality rates until old age (ex: large

mammals with few offspring but a high degree of parental care) Type III: high mortality rates when young, mortality rates drop after the initial die-off (ex: fishes, marine invertebrates) Type II : constant mortality rate at all ages (ex:

Beldings ground squirrels, other rodents, some invertebrates, some lizards) Do most populations show perfect Type I, Type II, or Type III curves? -No!

-Example: Crabs (curve D) Examples of notes annotations? Life History - An organisms life history involves the traits that affect its

schedule of reproduction and survival. a.When reproduction begins (the age at first reproduction or age at maturity) b.How often the organism reproduces c.How many offspring are produced per reproduction

Two Life History Patterns Semelparity = one reproduction with many offspring, small offspring, parent often dies shortly after reproduction, offspring mature at birth, little to no parental care, often occurs in unpredictable environments, r-selected species Iteroparity = several reproductions with a few offspring each time,

typically large offspring, parents have a long lifespan, offspring immature at birth, more parental care, often occurs in predictable environments with many adults competing for resources, K-selected species Differences between r-selected and K-selected

species Life History Trade-Off -Trade-off between reproduction and survival -Semeparity many offspring (more reproduction), but they are less likely to survive (due to less parental care)... Also, the parent does not survive long after

reproducing -Iteroparity few offspring (less reproduction), but they are more likely to survive (due to more parental care).... Also, the parent survives longer Examples of notes annotations?

Age Structure -Percentage of the population that falls into various age ranges (divided up by sex) -More young people in the population more rapid growth -More old people (past reproductive age) in the population slower growth, no growth, or negative growth

Age Structure Pyramids Question: What can you conclude about the population growth rates in Kenya, the U.S., and Italy from their age structure pyramids? Explain your answer thoroughly. Population Density -Limiting Factors

Density-independent limiting factors Density-dependent limiting factors Question: What type of limiting factor is producing the population changes seen in the hare and lynx in the graph below. Explain your answer thoroughly.

Genetic diversity affects a populations ability to respond to changes in the environment and prevent extinction -Genetic diversity / genetic variation: amount of different types of genes within the population Genes: segments of DNA that code for particular traits

Example: Cheetahs Carrying capacity for the human population? -Factors that may increase the carrying capacity: food production (agriculture), health care, etc.

Examples of notes annotations? Behavior within populations -Altruistic Behavior: behavior that makes an individual less likely to survive and/or reproduce but makes another individual more likely to survive and/or reproduce -Example: Alarm calls in meerkats

-Some seemingly altruistic behaviors arent truly altruistic because there is reciprocity involved or they are helping relatives Behaviors to increase personal survival and reproductive success (ex: territory marking, mating dances, etc.)

Signals sent between members of a population Visual, audible, tactile, electrical, and chemical Example: Bee Waggle Dance Length of Waggle = distance from hive to flower patch Amount of vigor in the dance = richness of nectar source

Angle of waggle relative to a vertical line representing the position of the sun = direction of the nectar source How is this behavior cooperative? Examples of notes annotations?

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