Understanding Students with Learning Disabilities

Understanding Students with Learning Disabilities

Inclusive Education Introduction to Students with Special Needs Post Graduate Diploma in Education The University of the West Indies, School of Education Presenter: Nadia Laptiste-Francis (M.Ed.) Coordinator: Elna Carrington-Blaides(Ph.D.) 09.08.18 Topics

Overview

Definition Categories of Special Needs Students Continuum of Placements Prevalence Causes Educational Considerations Overview Historically, people with disabilities and other

marginalized groups have largely been provided for through segregated methods such as residential institutions and special schools. Policy has now shifted towards community and educational inclusion. (Carrington- Blaides, 2013). Global Mandates The World Declaration on Education for All, adopted in

Jomtien, Thailand (1990), sets out an overall vision: universalizing access to education for all children, youth and adults, and promoting equity.( UNESCO policy guidelines,2009) World Conference on Special Needs Education (1994) Salamanca, Spain. adopted the principle of inclusive education Dakar Framework for Action (2000) adopted the World Declaration on Education for All (EFA), re-affirmed the notion of education as a fundamental right and led to the new Millennium

Development Goal to provide every girl and boy with primary school education by 2015 (Miske Witt 2008 Regional Trends The Caribbean Symposium on Inclusive education was held in 2007 as part of the preparations for the 48th International Conference on Education (2008). The purpose of these meetings was to discuss existing perceptions of inclusive education and to

identify best practices for use in its implementation in the context of the Anglophone Caribbean (UNESCO 2009) The Resultant policy created is known as the Caribbean Education For All Action Plan (2015) Local Context In Trinidad and Tobago, the governments commitment to addressing students with special

needs was seen even prior to EFA (1990) National Survey of Handicapped Children and Youth (Marge 1984).Identified some 27,000 or 16.1% of the school population as having a disability (Marge, 1984). The Macro Economic Policy (1989-1995) which called for curriculum changes and increases in the number of technical and vocational teachers

Local Context Pilgrim Report (1990) which proposed the unification of special education and general education Education Policy Paper (19932003), which exposed a philosophy that underscored the following beliefs: that every child has an inherent right to an education which will enhance the development of maximum capability regardless of gender, ethnic, economic, social and religious background; that every child has

the ability to learn (Johnstone 2010) Local Context Inclusive Education Policy (2009) describes a commitment to Inclusive Education within the context of a seamless education system undergirded by support services to make education available, accessible, acceptable and adaptable. (Inclusive Education Policy,2009). Further initiatives for inclusive education were situated

within the MoEs Seamless Education approach, designed to facilitate all learners who may be marginalized or excluded, such as dropouts, underachievers, students with learning or other disabilities What is Special Education? Special Education is education specifically designed for learners who cannot profit maximally from regular education such that they

require trained personnel, modifications to curricula, teaching methods, instructional materials and adaptations in facilities and equipment. What Is Inclusive Education? Inclusive Education is a process of responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities

and reducing exclusion within and from education ( Booth, 1996) Continuum of placements Categories of Students with Special Needs The Student Support Services specified that students targeted for Inclusive Education include dropouts,

students with learning or other disabilities, students who are gifted and talented, students infected or affected with HIV, students with social, emotional, or behavioural difficulties, ESL students (English for speakers of other languages). (Ministry of Education Student Support Services Division. Understanding Inclusive Education in Trinidad and Tobago) Definition

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) definition: Specific Learning Disability Learning Disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning and mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to a central

nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the life span Prevalence 5 to 6 percent of students aged 6 to 17 identified About half of students identified as needing special education are labeled learning disabled Prevalence has more than doubled since the

1977 (Over-identification or social-cultural changes) Boys outnumber girls 3 to 1 Causes Recent evidence of central nervous system dysfunction Neuroimaging techniques Genetic factors

Teratogenic factors Medical factors Recent research suggests: There is also a strong relationship between low socio-economic status (SES) and

learning disabilities. Many factors associated with poverty could be contributing to LD such as: Little access to health care Lack of supportive environment Teachers need to recognize the uncertainty about the causes of LD and keep their expectations high for students. Learning Disabilities and the Brain The left temporal lobe of the brain and some areas

around it are closely associated with reading disabilities. Timed Activity ( 30 secs) Read the following out loud: ehT kcalb tac tas no eht toh nit foor

Identification The Discrepancy Model Intelligence Tests Achievement Tests The discrepancy model compared two norm-referenced test scores: Aptitude-achievement Criticisms of the IQ-Achievement discrepancy Statistically flawed formulas

Difficult and expensive to implement IQ scores are unreliable and are not strong predictor of reading ability Unrealistic concept for very young children Identification Response to Intervention A problem-solving approach that involves multiple tiers of increasingly intense, research-based interventions matched to students needs.

Three tiered approach Tier 1, evidence-based instruction Tier 2, small-group instruction Tier 3, referred to special education Response to Intervention Characteristics Academic Academic achievement problems Reading

Written language Spoken language Math Memory Socio-emotional and Behavioural Characteristics Inter-individual variation/ Intra individual variation

Disorders of attention and hyperactivity Memory, and metacognitive problems Social-emotional problems Nonverbal learning disabilities Motivational problems Inactive learner with strategy deficits Educational Considerations

Differentiated Instruction (Tomlinson, 2014) Educational Considerations Differentiated Instruction Provide visual or graphic organizer Incorporate models, demonstrations, or role play Using teacher presentation cues to emphasize

key points Scaffolding key concepts Involving students by implementing everypupil response techniques or incorporating manipulatives for students to use. Universal Design for Learning Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is promoted as a philosophy, framework, and set of principles for designing and delivering

flexible approaches to teaching and learning that address student diversity within the classroom context. ( Capp , 2017) Universally designed lessons attempt to meet the needs of all learners at the onset of instruction rather than having to retrofit lesson plans that initially fail some learners Universal Design for Learning

Three Basic Principles of UDL multiple ways of representing knowledge: designing instructional materials that make content accessible to the greatest number of diverse learners multiple ways students can demonstrate their understanding: Students are provided with alternative communication methods to demonstrate their learning

multiple ways of engaging students: a range of options for engaging students in the learning process as no single option will work for all students The MOE Student Support Services Division ( SSSD) Referral Process Step 1 : Continuous Assessment Step 2 : Identification of students at risk Step 3: Data Collection

Step 4: Initial Classroom Intervention Step 5: Diagnostic Assessment/ Progress Monitoring Step 6: Consultation with the School Based Team The MOE Student Support Services Division ( SSSD)Referral Process

Step 7: Implementation of Intervention Strategies Step 8: Case Review Step 9: Consultation of Parent/Guardian Step 10: Referral of Client Step 11: Team consultation/ Case review Step 12: Assessment and Intervention Step 13: Development of Individualized Education Plan ( IEP)

Step 14: Programme Review and Evaluation Famous Faces Famous Faces Famous Faces Famous Faces

Food for Thought All those persons have the gift of Dyslexia. Imagine the world today if they believed that they could not do .

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