ULI101 Week 01 Week Overview Course introduction Obtaining your Seneca accounts Changing passwords The Matrix server
The role of an operating system *nix overview Open source philosophy Linux GUI The terminal window Secure communication
with the Matrix server Welcome to ULI101! The Internet has become part of our daily lives. Although we use it every day, few of us have a real understanding of the underlying technologies. This course introduces you to the Linux/ Unix o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m that underlies much of the Internet. Important Information
The website for this course is: https ://ict.senecac.on.ca/~uli101/ it contains weekly slides, assignment details, otherthat important Please makeand certain you read through the course which information for outline, the course. states what this course will cover, how
you will be evaluated, and the course policies relating to late assignments or missed tests. Important Information Your professor will give you additional details which may override or supplement the information on the course website (for example, your Topics such as course introduction, section's test and assignment dates evaluation policies,
student conduct, and may where to obtain notes/resources are vary). usually discussed in the first class. Definition - Operating Systems A computer cant do anything useful without a program a program is defined as data and a list of instructions to follow. An operating system (OS) is a collection of programs which manage and control the basic operation of the computer, including:
Allocating resources (memory, disk space, network bandwidth, access to devices) Managing files Starting, stopping, and controlling other programs Enforcing basic system security Evolution Unix OS Unix is an operating system originally developed at Bell Labs starting in 1969. Unix i s :
a portable, interactive, multitasking, multiuser operating system. written in a language that can be used on different types of computers (the C language) interactive i.e. users can use the computer directly, and immediately see the results of their actions a multitasking environment - the operating system creates the illusion of performing multiple tasks at the same time by rapidly switching between them Evolution Unix OS Unix i s a l s o : a Multi-user environment - it provides features necessary to support multiple users, including file security and the ability to
interact with several people at once Unix became very popular because Bell Labs (AT&T) distributed it at almost no cost to colleges and universities, which then taught students operating system programming using the Unix source code; these students later entered the industry and wanted to continue to use this powerful, familiar operating system. Evolution Unix OS Hardware vendors appreciated an operating system which could easily be configured for new hardware, rather than reinventing the wheel each time a new family of computers Unix and the Internet grew up hand-in-hand.The DARPANET
project, precursor the Internet, was was introduced. In f a c t ,toUnix/Linux approved in April 1969 the same month that Bellnpulled out Multics project ow ru n sofothe n s ystem s r a nand g i nbegan g the development of Unix. Throughout the history of the Internet, the Unix OS has provided from w a t c h e s to h u g e its platform. mainframes.
Linux and GNU Although Unix source code was widely distributed at low cost to educational institutions, it was still controlled by AT&T and was therefore never completely free (cost) nor free (unrestricted freedom to modify and use it). Richard Stallman published the GNU Manifesto in 1984, which described the need for Free Software ("Free in the sense of free speech, not free beer"). The resultant GNU project developed free, open source replacements for most of the Unix programs, but not for the Unix kernel (the core program that interacted with and controlled the
hardware). Linux and GNU These programs were released under the GNU General Public License (GPL), which permits anyone to copy, use, and modify the software, as long as these rights are preserved for anyone receiving a subsequent copy of the software. Linux and GNU In 1991, Linus Torvalds, a Finnish computer programmer, released the Linux kernel, eventually placing it under the GPL. The Linux kernel, GNU software, and some other components can be combined into a powerful, Unixlike operating system (it cant technically be called Unix, because it has never been certified to be Unix,
but virtually everyone in the industry regards it as such). The combined GNU and Linux system is called GNU/ Linux by some but just Linux by others (much to the dismay of Richard Stallman, who feels that the simple name Linux downplays the tremendous contribution made by the GNU Project). Using Linux/Unix at Seneca Throughout your studies at Seneca you will use a variety of Unix/Linux systems, including: MATRIX Practice & perform Linux commands ZENIT Used for some advanced courses ICT Main ICT web server MY.SENECACOLLEGE.CA (Blackboard) College LMS
(Learning Management System) Most college servers are available under servername.senecac.on.ca and/or servername.senecacollege.ca Matrix Server The Matrix server consists of several Virtual Computers running CentOS all connected together to form a cluster. A cluster is a cost effective alternative to larger servers. Matrix
Note that the workstations in the labs can connect to Server the Matrix cluster. When you boot (startup) a PC in a Seneca lab, you can use the ssh or Putty app in Windows to open a connection to Matrix. An alternative method to connect to Matrix from the Windows desktop is to use the Knoppix VM. Knoppix is a Linux virtual machine. Once you start it you can open a terminal window and issue the ssh command like this ssh [email protected] Obtaining Your Matrix Account
If you have never logged into Matrix before and you are new to Seneca, check your email for confirmation that your Matrix account has been automatically created. Your Matrix account should be the same userid and password as your Seneca Email and Blackboard accounts. Email [email protected] in case of problems with your Matrix account. User names and Most servers at Seneca are accessible using your passwords My Seneca user name and password
Your Seneca password must be changed periodically as per college policy Use the appropriate link at: https://my.senecacollege.ca The college Password Service enforces certain rules when creating passwords please read the instructions on the password creation/change page It is extremely important to guard your accounts from unauthorized access make sure that you password is hard to guess (but easy to remember for you) and always Interacting with Unix/Linux
Traditionally, interaction with Unix and Linux servers is conducted using terminals (sometimes called shells), which connect remotely to the server This provides users with a command-line interface Users can use the server from other operating systems With a more advanced setup, or in case of desktop Linux installations, users can interact with the OS using a Graphical User Interface (GUI) similar to Windows It is important to know that such a GUI (Window
Manager) is not essential to the OS operation A local terminal window offers an efficient way to interact with the system, especially for advanced users Interacting with Unix/Linux You will be shown the use of a telnet application (such as ssh or putty) to connect to your Matrix account. When the telnet application runs and connects to the server, it acts like a terminal that is physically connected to the computer. In this case, the monitor is the telnet window on your PC, and accepts keyboard entry. Interacting with Unix/Linux
The original Telnet application was invented in 1972, and many versions of this application are still available for many operating systems (eg. Windows, Linux, Unix, Apple-Macintosh). A major weakness of Telnet is the lack of security. Another individual could easily view or capture a users keystrokes when using the telnet application including passwords! Today, Telnet is a legacy application, used rarely or for testing purposes you should always communicate with servers using encrypted connections. Secure Communication
SSH or secure shell application allows data (i.e. keystrokes) to be encrypted to prevent other people intercepting this information. Other than that, the functionality is similar to telnet In the Seneca Labs in MS Windows, there is an application on the desktop called SSH Client. You are advised to use this application. You can download SSH applications for your PC at home. On a Unix/Linux host ssh is available on the command line, for example: ssh [email protected]
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