Types of Rocks - Weebly

Types of Rocks - Weebly

Rocks http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USDA_Mineral_Sandstone_93c3955.jpg http://www.beg.utexas.edu/mainweb/publications/graphics/granite.htm http://www.gccaz.edu/earthsci/imagearchive/gneiss.htm Remember the Rock Cycle? Lets look in more detail at Rocks Atoms combine to make

compounds that combine to make minerals. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic elements or compounds having an orderly internal structure and a characteristic chemical composition,

crystal form and physical properties alunite, amethyst, amphibole, analcite, anatase, andalusite, andesine, andradite, anglesite, anhydrite, ankerite, annabergite, anorthite, anthonyite, anthophyllite, anthraconite, anthraxolite, antigorite, apatite, aphrosiderite, apophyllite, aragonite, ardennite, argentoalgodonite, arsenopyrite, asbestos, atacamite, attapulgite, augite,awarurite, axinite, azurite, babingtonite, baddeleyite, barite, bassetite, bastnaesite, beaconite, beryl, biotite, bismuthinite, blomstrandine, bornite, bowlingite, brannerite, braunite, brochantite, bronzite, brookite, brucite, brunsvigite, buttgenbachite, byssolite, bytownite, calciovolborthite, calcite, calderite, calumetite, carnallite, carnelian, celadonite, celestite, cerargyrite, chabazite, chalcedony, chalcocite, chalconatronite, chalcopyrite, chalcotrichite, chamosite, chert, chloanthite, chlorargyrite, chlorastrolite, chlorite, clinochlore, clino-chrysotile, clinozoisite, collophane, columbite, copiapite, copper, coquimbite,

cordierite, corrensite, corundum, covellite, crocidolite, cubanite, cummingtonite, cuprite, dahllite, datolite, daubreelite, delessite, diabantite, diallage, diamond, dickite, digenite, dihydrite, diopside, dioptase, djurleite, dolomite, domeykite, forsterite, francolite, freirinite, fuchsite, fulgurite, galena, garnet, garnierite, gersdorffite, gibbsite, glauconite, goethite, gold, halite, halloysite, halotrichite, harmotome, heterosite, heulandite, hisingerite, hollandite, hornblende, hyacinth, hydrocarbon, hydrohausmannite, hydromica, hydromuscovite, hydrotroilite, hypersthene, iddingsite, illite, ilmenite, isle royale greenstone, jacksonite, jacobsite, jasper, jaspilite, julgoldite, kamacite, kamiokite, kaolinite, kearsargeite, keweenawite, kinoite, koutekite, kupfferite, kutnahorite, kyanite, labradorite, langite, laumontite, lavendulan, lead, lechetelierite, ledouxite, leonhardite, lepidocrocite, lepidolite, manganoan siderite, manganocalcite, marcasite, margarite, marmolite, martite, masonite, maucherite, melaconite, melanochalcite, melanterite, melilite, mercury, mesolite, meta-autunite, metatorbernite, metatyuyamunite, microcline, millerite, minnesotaite, mirabilite, mohawk-algodonite, mohawkite, molybdenite, monazite, montmorillonite, muscovite, nacrite, nantokite, natrojarosite, natrolite, neltnerite, neotocite, niccolite, nontronite, oligoclase, oligonite, olivenite, olivine, orientite, orthoclase, ottrelite, palygorskite,

paragonite, paramelaconite, pararammelsbergite, paratacamite, pargasite, patricianite, paxite, pectolite, pennine, pentlandite, peristerite, perthite, pharmacolite, phengite, phillipsite, phlogopite, phosphides, phosphorite, picrolite, picropharmacolite, pigeonite, pistacite, pitchblende, plagioclase, plancheite, plessite, polyhalite, posnjakite, powellite, prehnite, priorite, prochlorite, protolithionite, pyrolusite, pyrope, pyrophyllite, pyrostilpnite, pyroxene, pyrrhotite, quartz, rammelsbergite, rauenthalite, rhodochrosite, rhodonite, riebeckite, ripidolite, roscoelite, rubellan, rutherfordine, rutile, salite, salt, sanidine, saponite, saussurite, scapolite, scheelite, schefferite, schorl, schreibersite, scolectite, seamanite, semi-whitneyite, sericite, serpentine, siderite, silicon, sillimanite, silver, smaltite, smectite, soapstone, specularite, spessartite, sphalerite, sphene, spinel, spodumene, staurolite, steatite, stellerite, stibiodomeykite, stilbite, stilpnomelane, stinkstone, strontianite, sulfur, sussexite, sylvanite, sylvite, synchisite, szaibelyite, taenite, talc, tantalite, tellurium, tenorite, tetrahedrite, thomsonite, thuringite, tirodite, titanite, titanomagnetite, topaz, tourmaline, tremolite, trichalcite, tridymite, troilite, tyrolite, uralite, uraninite, uranothorite, uvarovite, vaterite,, vesuvianite, violarite, viridite, vivianite, vladimirite, wairakite, whitneyite, williamsite, wollastonite, wurtzite, xanthosiderite, xonotlite, zeolite, zircon, zoisite, zonochlorite

There are over 3000 types of minerals Minerals combine to form Rocks Rocks are made up of just one mineral - like rock salt Some (made up of the mineral halite) that

is mined near Detroit. Others Rocks are made up of many minerals - like the granites and gneisses (made up of feldspars, quartz, and other minerals) found near Marquette. This slide show is intended to help you understand important types of rocks. The diagram in the next slide represents the ROCK

CYCLEa scheme that represents the processes of continuous changes that connect the three major groups of rocks: SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS METAMORPHIC It also shows two other important parts of the Rock Cycle SEDIMENTS and molten LAVA and MAGMA Here is another version of the Rock Cycle 8

1 10 9 2 15 3 16

12 6 11 13 19 5

4 17 20 7Obsidian 18 14 8 -Sedementary Rock

1- Igneous Rock 15- Metamorphic Rock 1) IGNEOUS ROCKS Form by solidification (crystallization) of melted minerals Beneath the surface, MAGMA hardens to form 2) INTRUSIVE rocks with easily visible (COARSE-GRAINED) crystal texture. At the surface, LAVA hardens to form

3) EXTRUSIVE rocks with tiny (FINEGRAINED) crystals or GLASSY (no crystal) TEXTURES Intrusive IGNEOUS ROCKS 4) Granite Light-colored, coarsegrained, no pattern Mostly quartz, feldspar, mica, and hornblende Often used for buildings and

monuments Extrusive IGNEOUS ROCKS 5) Basalt Dark-colored, finegrained, extrusive Formed where lava erupted onto surface Most widespread igneous rocks Intrusive IGNEOUS ROCKS

6) Gabbro Dark-colored, coarsegrained intrusive Similar composition to basaltplagioclase feldspar with some pyroxene and olivine Extrusive IGNEOUS ROCKS 7) Obsidian Natural volcanic glass

Forms when lava cools very quickly Usually dark, but small pieces may be clear Fractures along curved (conchoidal) surface Used as spear and arrow points, knives IGNEOUS ROCKS Pumice and other igneous rocks

Light Samecolored, mineralsfrothy as in(many granite, airbut spaces) finer in grain size Back to Chart

8) Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks may be made of rock fragments sedimentsor by chemical reactions. The classification of sediments is shown below. Sedimentary Rocks 9) Clastic rocksmade of cemented sedimentsare classified by their grain sizes. Sedimentary Rocks

Non-clastic rocks form by 10) chemical precipitation (settling out from a solution.) Limestone is made from calcite, chert from quartz, and halite is rock salt. 11) 13) 12) Biologic sedimentarySedimentary rocks Rocks come from the remains of organic

matter. The most important of these is coal. Anthracite coal results from the greatest pressure and releases the most energy when burned. Other varieties are bituminous and lignite. Petrified (permineralized) wood

is another organic rock. Clastic Sedimentary Rocks More about sedimentary rocks 14) Shale is the most common sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks cover about threequarters of the land surface

Back to Chart 15) Metamorphic Rocks Formed by heat and pressure changing existing rocks REGIONAL METAMORPHIC affects a large area and results from plate tectonics CONTACT METAMORPHISM affects rocks on a local scale, such as baking sedimentary rocks next to magma or lava Metamorphic Rocks

16) Foliated rocks contain much mica and other rocks that produce layering or banding 17) 18) Gneisses and schists are common in New York City and Westchester. Metamorphic Rocks 19) Non-foliated metamorphic rocks include

marble, which comes from limestone, and quatzite, which comes from sandstone 20) Name____________________________ Period____ 8 1 10 9

2 15 3 16 12 6 11

13 5 4 17 7Obsidian 18 14

19 20

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