Transportation Experiences Among Returning Citizens
Transportation Experiences Among Returning Citizens Dr. Anne Nordberg, Social Work, UT Arlington Dr. Jaya Davis, Criminology & Criminal Justice, UT Arlington Dr. Stephen Mattingly, Department of Civil Engineering, UT Arlington Sarah Robinson, Craig Keaton, Michael Mitchell, Sheida Khademi, Saeed Reza Ramezanpour Nargesi Overview
Social problem Overview of this EJ population
Ongoing project Review of literature to inform project Next steps Mass incarceration in the U.S. The complex reality of returning citizens lives
Optimizing housing and service locations to provide mobility to meet the mandated obligations for former offenders to improve community health and safety . Objectives: 1) Given existing transportation networks, reentry obligations, and service provider locations; identify optimal housing locations (existing or proposed)
for individuals returning to Dallas, Texas from incarceration. 2) Given existing residential clusters of individuals returning from incarceration, transportation networks, and reentry obligations; identify optimal service provider locations (existing or proposed). 3) Given existing residential clusters of individuals returning from incarceration, service provider locations, and reentry obligations; identify optimal residential assignments both overall and for individual clients. National Institute for Transportation and Communities 2016 research proposal #1241
Mixed Methods Facility location problem structure to formulate a strategy (quantitative) Siting housing for returning citizens
Selecting optimal locations for social and health services Selecting the optimal location to house a single client Bottom up Approach Informing the facility location problem (qualitative) TAC/CAB Brokers & Employers Returning Citizens
Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) Synthesize published qualitative data to come to a deeper understanding of a phenomenon Articles reviewed (n=12) Analysis using cloud based software
Findings Only 12 studies found! Only 1/12 articles focused on logistics
6/12 published in the last 5 years Almost all collected data via interviews Most common codes 1. 2. 3. 4.
Public transportation takes lots of time Transportation creates challenges for parole requirements Lack of financial means for transportation No transportation upon release/Immediate transportation issue 5. Not safe to walk The daily head count for prisoners was taken at 12:01 a.m., one minute after midnight. If an inmate is eligible for release, he or she is held throughout the evening until the official postmidnight count takes place, and then they are released to the streets. "Damn, it's pretty bad,
that area around the jail." Anita said that she walked out of jail into the middle of a crowd of pimps, drug pushers, and thieves. No buses run in that area of town until after five in the morning. "You got no money, no place to go. You don't know anybody. What do they expect you to do? You want to turn around and go back in [the jail]. (Whittamore, 2008, pp. 112) Theme 1: Obligations Linked to Transportation I start my day running to drop my urine (drug testing). Then I go
to see my children, show up for my training program, look for a job, go to a meeting (Alcoholics Anonymous) and show up at my part-time job. I have to take the bus everywhere, sometimes eight buses for 4 hours a day. I dont have the proper outer clothes, I dont have the money to buy lunch along the way, and everyone who works with me keeps me waiting so that I am late to my next appointment. If I fail any one of these things and my PO (probation officer) finds out, I am revoked (probation is revoked). I am so tired
that I sometimes fall asleep on my way home from work at 2 a.m. and thats dangerous given where I live. And then the next day I have to start over again (Richie, 2001, pp. 380-381) Theme 2: Transportation Challenges I see women here who want to get their license but they are too scared. Many of them still owe for traffic tickets and they dont have the money to pay for these tickets. So they are
scared that when they go down there to get their license, they are going to be arrested. So they dont go. (Johnson, 2014, pp. 380) Due to the small number of bus passes we obtain,[the director] has cut off people who come from halfway houses and try to keep them [bus passes] for the homeless and people with less resources. (Nhan, Bowen, & Polzer, 2017, pp. 15) Theme 3: Losses Due to Inadequate
Transportation I was working at a job that I was able to get. I made less that $200 a month. I quit the job because the pay was so low and I lived so far away from the job. I ended up spending my salary on bus fare, cab, or paying someone to take me to work when a family member was not available to take me. (Johnson, 2014, pp. 381)
My case manager recommended school . . . I wanted to maybe take up solar panels, its the new technology now. But it was far away to school. So I couldnt go because I didnt have a ride. (Sachs & Miller, 2018, pp. 4305) Next Steps Use synthesis of literature to formulate interview questions Interview returning citizens, service providers, employers
(Summer 2019) Integrate findings into quantitative portion of the project Thank you! Questions?
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