Topic B - hcchealth1.com

Topic B - hcchealth1.com

Topic B - Factors affecting Human Growth and Development B1: Nature/Nurture debate related factors B2: Genetic factors that affect development B3: Environmental factors that affect development B4: Social factors that affect development B5: Economic factors that affect development B6: Major life events that affect development Topic B2 - Genetic Factors that affect Development Genetic factors that affect development Each living cell in the human body has a nucleus containing 23 pairs of chromosomes. In each pair of chromosomes, one comes from the father and one from the mother.

The chromosome inherited from the farther determines the gender . An X from the father would result in an XX combination(female) A Y from the father would result in an XY combination (male) Each chromosome carries units of inheritance known as genes Genes are made of a substance called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA has the biological instructions to create another life. Topic B2 - Genetic Factors that affect Development There are 3 main genetic factors which affect development. Can you match the definitions with the factors? 1: Predisposition diseases 2: Susceptible diseases 3: Biological factors Inherited genes that determine physical growth, development, health and appearance. The environment inside a mothers womb can have a dramatic influence on a childs development. It can affect a childs long-term development including their attention span and learning abilities. An increased likelihood of acquiring a disease because of an individuals genetic makeup Topic B2 - Genetic Factors that affect Development 1: Genetic predispositions to particular conditions Predispositio n diseases

What is meant by the term predisposition? A predisposition is the possibility that you will develop a certain condition. Genetic predisposition means that you inherit genes that determine physical growth, development, health and appearance from one or both of your parents However! This does not mean that you will develop that condition. Although genetic conditions cannot be altered; changing environmental factors, support and treatment can help an individual live as healthy as possible. What examples of Genetic predisposition to particular conditions can you think of? Cystic fibrosis, Brittle Bone Disease, Phenylketonuria (PKU), Huntington's Disease, Klinefelter Syndrome, Downs Syndrome, Colour Blindness and Duchene Muscular Dystrophy Topic B2 - Genetic Factors that affect Development Susceptibility to Disease 2: Susceptible diseases What is meant by the term susceptibility? an increased likelihood of acquiring a disease because of an individuals genetic makeup. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), most diseases involve environmental factors and the complex interaction of many genes. In other words, although an individual may not be born with a disease, their genetic make-up may make them susceptible to acquiring it later in life. What diseases do you know are likely to happen through

genetic makeup? Certain types of cancer, diabetes and having high blood cholesterol. Topic B2 - Genetic Factors that affect Development Biological factors that affect development 3: Biological factors What is meant by biological factors? The environment inside a mothers womb can have a dramatic influence on a childs development. What factors can impact foetal development? If a woman smokes or drinks alcohol during pregnancy, foetal development may be affected. How do these factors reach the foetus? The nicotine inhaled in smoking contains carbon dioxide which gets into the blood stream restricting the amount of oxygen to the foetus. How do these factors impact the health of the foetus? Children born to mothers who smoke tend to weigh less at birth and are more prone to infections and are twice as likely to die of cot death. What could the future impacts be? It can affect a childs long-term development including their attention span and learning abilities. Taking drugs and getting some types of infection can also damage a childs development in the womb. Topic B2 - Genetic Factors that affect Development Revision Checklist 1: Predispositio n diseases 2: Susceptible diseases 3: Biological factors Cystic fibrosis

Cancer Foetal alcohol syndrome Brittle bone disease Diabetes Maternal infections Phenylketonuria (PKU) High blood cholesterol Huntingtons disease Kleinfelter Syndrome Down Syndrome Colour Blindness Duchenne muscular dystrophy Research and put together a fact page for other students about genetic factors that affect development. Make your presentation creative and colourful. Include the key words and definitions in the form of a glossary during pregnancy Lifestyle/diet during pregnancy Congenital defects Different Genetic conditions:

3 Key Factors Genetic predispositions A predisposition is the possibility that you will develop a certain condition. A genetic predisposition means that you inherit that possibility from one or both of your biological parents. However, a genetic predisposition does not mean that it is a certainty that you will develop that condition. Although the genetic makeup that predisposes these conditions cannot be altered, we can sometimes alter environmental factors and offer support and treatment to allow the individuals to develop and lead life as healthily as possible There are some inherited conditions, some rarer than others, that have serious consequences for a childs growth and development. Susceptibility to disease According to the World Health Organization (WHO), most diseases involve environmental factors and the complex interaction of many genes. In other words, although an individual may not be born with a disease, their genetic make-up may make them susceptible to acquiring it later in life. Diseases and disorders that are more likely to happen in individuals with a susceptibility include certain types of cancer, diabetes and having high blood cholesterol. Biological factors that affect development The environment inside a mothers womb can have a dramatic influence on a childs development. If a woman smokes or drinks alcohol during pregnancy, foetal development may be affected. The nicotine inhaled in smoking contains carbon dioxide which gets into the blood stream restricting the amount of oxygen to the foetus. Children born to mothers who smoke tend to weigh less at birth and are more prone to infections and are twice as likely to die of cot death. It can affect a childs long-term development including their attention span and learning abilities. Taking drugs and getting some types of infection can also damage a childs development in the womb. Key Definitions For each of the conditions: Provide a simple definition of each condition condition Explain the impacts on the body E.g. PIES

Identify different symptoms of each condition Provide examples of treatment and support available for each condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Provide an average life Genetic conditions: Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is caused by a faulty gene thought to be carried by as many as 4 per cent of the UK population. The gene is recessive, which means that both parents must be carriers for their children to develop cystic fibrosis. When both parents carry the faulty gene, there is a one-in-four chance that their child will be born with cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis results in a defective protein being produced that can cause the lungs to become clogged with thick sticky mucus. People with cystic fibrosis may have problems absorbing nourishment from food and they may also suffer from respiratory and chest infections. In the past, children with cystic fibrosis often had a very short life expectancy, but contemporary medical treatments have succeeded in extending both quality of life and life expectancy. Physiotherapy helps people with cystic fibrosis to clear mucus from their lungs. Various drugs help control breathing and throat and lung infections, and a special diet and drugs help with food absorption. In the future, it may become possible to use genetic therapy to replace the faulty gene Genetic Conditions Provide a simple

definition of the condition Explain the impacts on the body E.g. PIES Identify different symptoms Provide examples of treatment and support available for the condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Provide an average life expectancy Genetic conditions: Brittle bone disease Genetic Conditions Brittle bone disease may be passed from a persons parents, but it can also develop from a genetic mutation. Children born with brittle bone disease are at high risk of fracturing or breaking their bones easily because their bones develop without the right amount or type of a protein called collagen. There are different types of the disease and some types are more serious than others. Children with brittle bone disease can often be helped through physiotherapy, assistive equipment and drug treatments to help strengthen their bones Provide a simple definition of the condition Explain the impacts on the

body E.g. PIES Identify different symptoms Provide examples of treatment and support available for the condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Provide an average life expectancy Genetic conditions: Phenylketonuria (PKU) PKU is a rare genetic disorder that prevents a child from breaking down phenylalanine, an amino acid (a building block for protein) found in many foods such as milk, meat and eggs. In PKU, if the child eats foods containing phenylalanine there is a build-up of harmful substances in the body that damages brain development. The condition cannot be cured. All babies in the UK are screened at birth by a heel-prick blood test. If a high phenylalanine level is detected, treatment will be started immediately with a special diet and medication to prevent the build up of harmful substances. A baby born with undetected PKU would fail to meet developmental milestones and experience developmental delay as their brain became damaged. Untreated PKU would result in severe learning disability and the childs death. Genetic Conditions Provide a simple definition of the condition Explain the impacts on the body E.g. PIES

Identify different symptoms Provide examples of treatment and support available for the condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Provide an average life expectancy Genetic conditions: Huntingtons disease Huntingtons disease can develop at any age but often starts between the ages of 35 and 55. Huntingtons disease is an inherited neurodegenerative genetic disorder that causes progressive damage to certain nerve cells in the brain. It can affect muscle coordination and cause mental decline and behavioural changes. The brain damage gets progressively worse over time, with perception, awareness, thinking and judgement (cognition) affected. Although the symptoms of the disease can vary between individuals, and even affected members of the same family, the progress of the disease is usually predictable. The earliest signs are hardly noticeable and may be missed or mistaken for other conditions, for example subtle changes in personality and mood swings, irritability, altered behaviour and fidgety movements. As the disease progresses, the features of the disease can include psychiatric problems, problems associated with feeding, communication and erratic behaviour. During the later stages of the disease, movement, behaviour and cognitive abilities are affected and the individual becomes increasingly dependent on other people for care and support.

Genetic Conditions Provide a simple definition of the condition Explain the impacts on the body E.g. PIES Identify different symptoms Provide examples of treatment and support available for the condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Provide an average life expectancy Genetic conditions: Kleinfelter Syndrome Kleinfelter syndrome is not easy to identify in small children as the signs and symptoms are not always obvious. It is estimated that around one in 600 boys will be born with this condition, sometimes referred to as XXY. The extra X chromosome is acquired after the baby is conceived; it is not an inherited condition. Some of the signs include that the baby is slow in reaching milestones such as sitting up, crawling and walking. The baby may be born with undescended testicles. Poor muscle power, delayed communication and a passive personality may also be signs. Many boys with this condition also experience difficulty socialising and expressing their feelings which can impact on emotional development and lead to low self-confidence. Some boys with this condition experience mild learning difficulties such as low attention span and difficulty with literacy skills, especially reading, writing and spelling. They also experience higher rates of dyslexia or dyspraxia. Other physical signs include low energy levels and extra growth spurts, particularly in the legs and widening of the hips. The onset of puberty is often not affected. However, the testes do

not increase in size and there may be a lack of testosterone leading to a flabby body, low muscle tone, a reduction in calcium in the bones, small firm testicles, a small penis and lack of body or facial hair. There may be difficulties with sex drive (libido) and fertility. Treatment is available for low testosterone levels. Most adult males with this syndrome are Genetic Conditions Provide a simple definition of the condition Explain the impacts on the body E.g. PIES Identify different symptoms Provide examples of treatment and support available for the condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Provide an average life expectancy Genetic conditions: Down Syndrome Down syndrome is a genetic condition that occurs as a result of an extra chromosome (chromosome 21). The condition can cause varying levels of learning disability, the characteristic physical features and associated medical issues. Approximately 750 babies born in the UK will have Down syndrome and recent research estimates that 60,000 people in the UK have the condition. In the vast majority of cases, Down syndrome is not inherited. It is simply the result of a one-off genetic mistake in the sperm or egg. There is a higher risk of giving birth to a baby with Down syndrome for women 45 years and older (about 1 in 50). In comparison, a 20-year-old woman has a risk of one in 1500.

The life expectancy of people who have Down syndrome is generally between 50 and 60 years but with improvements in health care a small number of people with the condition live into their 70s. According to research by NHS Scotland (2004), people with Down syndrome experience a higher incidence of depression. Other health conditions that are more common are hearing, visual or heart problems. Improved health and social care support and education has provided opportunities for young people who have Downs syndrome to leave home and live independently so that they are able to form new relationships Genetic Conditions Provide a simple definition of the condition Explain the impacts on the body E.g. PIES Identify different symptoms Provide examples of treatment and support available for the condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Provide an average life expectancy Genetic conditions: Colour blindness True colour blindness is a very rare condition in which an individual has no colour perception at all. Colour vision deficiency, where individuals have difficulty in distinguishing between different colours, is commonly known as colour blindness. It affects approximately 2.7 million people in Britain, about 4.5 per cent of the population, mostly men. The condition can vary in severity and some people do not realise that they are colour blind,

leading healthy lives without treatment. For the majority of people, the condition is genetic. Inherited colour vision deficiency is a result of an abnormality in the retina (the light-sensitive layers of cells that line the back of the eye). Others will experience the condition as a result of other diseases such as diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The ageing process or a side effects of certain types of medication can also affect colour recognition. Although it is important to identify any colour blindness in young children so that their learning experience is not affected, for most people the condition does not lead to long-term health problems. It is important that health and social care providers take colour blindness into consideration when delivering services by using appropriate colour schemes when producing printed Genetic Conditions Provide a simple definition of the condition Explain the impacts on the body E.g. PIES Identify different symptoms Provide examples of treatment and support available for the condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Provide an average life expectancy Duchenne muscular dystrophy Genetic conditions: The muscular dystrophies (MD) are a group of inherited genetic conditions that gradually weaken muscles leading to disability. It is a progressive condition and

worsens over time. Muscular dystrophy is caused by changes in the genes responsible for the structure and functioning of a persons muscles. This causes changes in the muscle fibres that interfere with their ability to function. The most common and severe form of the muscular dystrophies is Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This condition is inherited on the female gene and is passed only to male offspring. Genetic Conditions Provide a simple definition of the condition Explain the impacts on According to research by Muscular Dystrophy UK (2015), about 1 in 3500 boys in the body E.g. PIES the UK are born with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. There are about 2500 boys living with the condition in the UK at any one time. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by genetic mutations on the X chromosome. This prevents the body from producing a vital muscle protein, dystrophin, which is essential for building and repairing muscles. The muscular weakness is not noticeable at birth but becomes more noticeable in early childhood and more prominent as the child grows older. The condition is usually diagnosed by the age of five and, by the time an individual is 12, they may have to use a wheelchair. It is a serious condition with muscle weakness mainly in muscles near to the trunk of the body, around the hips and the shoulders. This means that fine motor skills such as using hands and fingers, are less affected than gross motor skills. Many young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy face severe health problems, especially by their late teens, as the muscles of their heart and lungs weaken. Although the condition is severely disabling, many young men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are able to lead active lives. Survival beyond age 30 was rare, but research and medical advances are increasing this and life expectancy is beginning to improve. The right specialist health and social care can make a huge difference to both the quality and length of life. Identify different symptoms Provide examples of treatment and support

available for the condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Provide an average life expectancy Susceptible Diseases: Cancer There are over 200 types of cancer. Cancer is a cell disease that results in them becoming abnormal and dividing to make even more abnormal cells. Most cancers are attributed to environmental and lifestyle factors. For example, lung cancer is closely linked with tobacco use and skin cancer to over exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. It is estimated that over 40 per cent of cancers can be prevented by making different lifestyle choices such as diet, not smoking, reducing alcohol intake, exercising and avoiding environmental factors such as exposure to the sun or asbestos dust. Some people are more at risk because they have inherited gene faults that increase their risk. There are a number of cancers where a genetic link has been shown, including cancer of the breast, bowel, womb and kidney. For those with the faulty gene, getting cancer is not inevitable although an unhealthy lifestyle will increase the risk. Susceptible Diseases Provide a simple definition of the condition Give an example of how its genetic influence Give an example of its

environmental influences Explain the impacts on the body E.g. PIES Identify different symptoms Provide examples of treatment and support available for the condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Susceptible Diseases: Diabetes Diabetes is an increasingly common chronic condition affecting millions of people in the UK. Approximately 1 in 16 people (3.9 million) in the UK have diabetes and this figure has doubled since 1996. Susceptible Diseases Provide a simple definition of the condition Give an example of how its genetic influence Although other factors, such as environment and lifestyle are more likely to play a role in Type 2 (later/mature onset) diabetes, there is a strong predisposition to developing both Type 1 (early onset, insulin-dependent) and Type 2 diabetes. Give an example of its environmental influences The genetic risks of developing Type 1 diabetes

is higher if either or both, biological parents have diabetes. The risk for developing Type 2 diabetes is almost 90 per cent if you have an identical twin who is diabetic Provide examples of treatment and support available for the condition Explain the impacts on the body E.g. PIES Identify different symptoms Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Susceptible Diseases: High blood pressure Lifestyle factors, such as unhealthy diet, smoking or lack of exercise increase the chance of having a high blood cholesterol level for most people. Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is carried around the body by proteins. Too much can cause a build-up in the artery walls. This can cause heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Another reason for high cholesterol levels is an inherited condition that runs in families, known as familial hypercholesterolaemia. In the UK, approximately 1 in 600 people have this condition. It is caused by a gene alteration inherited from a parent. People with this type of high blood cholesterol are born with the condition and it can lead to early heart problems unless treated. There is a 50 per cent chance that a child or a sibling of someone diagnosed with familial hypercholesterolaemia will also have the

condition Susceptible Diseases Provide a simple definition of the condition Give an example of how its genetic influence Give an example of its environmental influences Explain the impacts on the body E.g. PIES Identify different symptoms Provide examples of treatment and support available for the condition Explain how the condition changes throughout the life stages Biological factors: Foetal alcohol syndrome Biological factors Drinking alcohol during pregnancy carries a huge risk to a babys health and development. Mothers may give birth to children with foetal alcohol syndrome. Children with this condition have developmental and physical defects which have lifelong effects. They tend to be smaller and to have smaller heads than normal caused by poor brain development. These children may also have heart defects, learning difficulties and neurological problems. Provide a simple

definition of the factor Give examples of possible triggers for the factor Explain the short term and long term impacts on the foetus E.g. PIES Identify any impacts on the mother (if any) Explain how the condition could impact the future health of the baby Identify different forms of treatment or support; if any. Biological factors: Maternal infections during pregnancy If a pregnant woman is exposed to, or acquires infections such as rubella (a type of measles) or cytomegalovirus (a herpes-type virus) the foetus may be adversely affected. Rubella is particularly dangerous during the first month of pregnancy. If a mother becomes infected in this period her baby may be born with impaired hearing or eyesight, or a damaged heart. Most women are vaccinated against rubella to prevent this risk. Biological factors Provide a simple definition of the factor Give examples of possible triggers for the factor Explain the short term and long term impacts on

the foetus E.g. PIES Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus belonging to Identify any impacts on the herpes family. It spreads via bodily fluids. Most the mother (if any) people are infected with CMV at some stage of their life Explain how the condition but the majority have no noticeable symptoms. If a could impact the future pregnant woman has an active infection they can pass health of the baby it to the foetus and this is referred to as congenital CMV. Around one or two babies in 200 are born with Congenital CMV and around 13 per cent of those are born with symptoms such as deafness and learning difficulties and 14 per cent will develop problems later Identify different forms of treatment or support; if any. Biological factors: Lifestyle/diet during pregnancy Biological factors Our biological life starts at conception, approximately nine months before we are born. Babies are affected by Provide a simple what their mothers eat during pregnancy and definition of the factor breastfeeding. Some recent animal research suggests Give examples of that if a pregnant or breast-feeding woman has a diet possible triggers for the high in sugar and fat it can result in an increased risk of factor high blood cholesterol and later heart disease for the Explain the short term

child. Malnutrition or a lack of healthy food during and long term impacts on pregnancy may result in a lifetime of poor health for the the foetus E.g. PIES child. The Food Standards Agency (FSA) recommends that pregnant women should eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables, plenty of starchy foods such as bread and pasta and rice, foods rich in protein such as lean meat, chicken and fish, plenty of fibre and foods containing calcium such as milk and cheese. They also advise that women should avoid or limit alcohol and avoid too much caffeine, which may result in a low birth weight. Identify any impacts on the mother (if any) Explain how the condition could impact the future health of the baby Identify different forms of treatment or support; if any. Biological factors: Congenital defects Congenital defects are the most common cause of childhood chronic illness, disability and death. About 9 in every 1000 children in the UK are born with congenital defects. The most common and severe congenital disorders are heart defects, neural tube defects and Down syndrome. Congenital defects may be genetic but other factors can also be responsible, for example: socio-economic factors especially lack of access to sufficient nutritious food during pregnancy

environmental factors such as working or living in polluted areas, exposure to chemicals or pesticides, excessive use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs during pregnancy Infectious diseases (during pregnancy) such as syphilis and rubella. Sometimes it can be difficult to identify a specific cause. Some congenital defects can be prevented by adequate antenatal care including screening, vaccination and adequate intake of nutrients such as minerals and vitamins, especially folic acid. Congenital present at birth. Neural tube defects congenital defects of the brain, spine or spinal cord, such as spina bifida. Biological factors Provide a simple definition of the factor Give examples of possible triggers for the factor Explain the short term and long term impacts on the foetus E.g. PIES Identify any impacts on the mother (if any) Explain how the condition could impact the future health of the baby Identify different forms of treatment or support; if

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