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Project Management Indike Manthilake MGT 30725 MBA, Msc, Bsc, CSM, PMI-ACP [email protected] Lesson 6 The Project Schedule Agenda PERT and Critical Path Analysis PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Activity-on-Node (AON) Diagramming Method Method used in Critical Path Methodology (CPM) No dummy activities Activities are represented by boxes Arrows show relationships between activities Very popular and used by project management software

Better at showing different types of dependencies Sequence activities Leads and Lags Use leads and lags to support realistic and achievable project schedule. Each activity is connected at least to one predecessor and one successor except the start and the end. A B C predecessor Leads May be added to start an activity before the predecessor activity is complete. Successor Lags Inserted waiting time between activities A A B

B Leads and Lags activities Sequence FS 2 days A100 FOUNDATIONS A400 PLUMBING A400 - LEAD (Acceleration) by 2 days FS + 2 days A100 WALL PAINTING COAT1 A200 WALL PAINTING COAT2 A200 - LAG (Delayed) by 2 days (need to allow Coat1 painting to dry first before applying Coat2) Sequence activities Project Schedule Network Diagrams Graphical representation of the logical relationships, also referred to as dependencies, among the project schedule activities Network diagram is produced manually or by using project management software. Network Diagrams Activity on Node (AON) Exercise: Draw an AON Network for the following

precedence table Task Predecessor A B C D E F A B B CD Network Diagrams Activity on Node (AON) F C A Finis h Start D B E

Network Diagrams Exercise 1 Preceding Activity Succeeding Activity Start A100 A100 A200 A100 A300 A200 A400 A300 A500 A400 A600 A500 A600

A600 Finish Draw a network diagram based on the above table Network Diagrams Exercise 2 Task Predecessor a -- b -- c a d b e b f

c, d g e Network Diagrams Exercise 2 Network Diagrams Task ID ES DUR EF LS Float LF ES Early Start EF Early Finish LS Late Start LF Late Finish DUR - Duration Network Diagrams Forward Pass One

Predecessor Early Start (ES) = EF p ES 3 = Early Finish (EF) = Early Start (ES) + Duration EF 3+4=7 = A100 (Task 1) FOUNDATIONS ES EF A200 (Task 2) WALLS ES May 1 May 2 May 3

May 4 Task ID EF May 5 May 6 May 7 May 8 ES DUR EF LS Float LF Network Diagrams Forward Pass Multiple Predecessor Early Start (ES) = Max(EF ) p ES 3

= last completion date of all predecessors A100 ES EF A200 ES EF A300 ES EF Task ID A400 ES May 1 May 2 May 3 May 4 EF May 5

May 6 May 7 May 8 ES DUR EF LS Float LF Network Diagrams Forward Pass A100 0 3 A200 FS Finish-to-Start 3 3

LS Float LF 4 7 LS Float LF A100 (Task 1) FOUNDATIONS ES Task ID EF ES DUR EF LS Float LF A200 (Task 2) WALLS ES May 1 May 2

May 3 May 4 EF May 5 May 6 May 7 May 8 Network Diagrams Backward Pass One Successor Late Finish(LF) = LS s LF = 3 Late Start(LS) = Late Finish(LF) Duration LS = 3 - 3 = 0 A100 (Task 1) FOUNDATIONS LS Task ID LF A200 (Task 2) WALLS

LS May 1 May 2 May 3 May 4 LF May 5 May 6 May 7 May 8 ES DUR EF LS Float LF Network Diagrams Backward Pass Multiple

Successor Late Finish (LF) = Min(LS ) s LF = 4 earliest completion all successors A200 (Task 2) WALLS LS LF A100 LS LF Task ID A200 LS LF A300 LS May 1 May 2 May 3

May 4 May 5 May 6 LF May 7 May 8 ES DUR EF LS Float LF Network Diagrams Backward Pass A100 0 0 3 A200 3

FS Finish-to-Start Float 3 3 3 4 7 Float 7 A100 (Task 1) FOUNDATIONS LS Task ID LF A200 (Task 2) WALLS LS May 1 May 2 May 3 May 4

LF May 5 May 6 May 7 May 8 ES DUR EF LS Float LF Network Diagrams Float/Slack Float = Late Start Early Start A100 A200 0 3

3 0 0 3 FS Finish-to-Start 3 4 7 3 0 7 Task ID ES DUR EF LS

Float LF Critical Path Method (CPM) Critical Path is the longest duration path in a Network Diagram. IT identifies the shortest time needed to complete a project. There can be more than one critical path in a Network Diagram. Near-critical path is the path that has close in duration to critical path. Any delay to an activity in a Critical Path will delay the entire project. All activities in a Critical Path contains zero (0) slack/float. Case Study - 1 Following activities were identified as main tasks for the computerization project. Draw the Activity on Node (AON) network diagram and mark the critical path for the project. TaskI D Activity Time (weeks) Immediate predecessor

A Analyse Requirements 6 ---- B System Design 8 A C Finalyse the Architecture 4 A D Database Design 6 B

E System Implementation 6 D F Testing 8 E G UAT 12 F H Parallel Run 4 G

I Rollout 1 C,H Schedule Compression Used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope. Crashing - used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources. Examples of crashing include approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, or paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical path. Crashing works only for activities on the critical path where additional resources will shorten the activitys duration. Fast Tracking - activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration. An example is constructing the foundation for a building before completing all of the architectural drawings. Group Work - Case Study - 2 Expected Duration - Exercise

Refer ABC superMKT case study and answer questions Lesson 7 The Project Schedule Agenda Estimate Costs and income Creating a Preliminary Budget Budget and Schedule Balancing

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