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The Relationship Between Implicit and Explicit Gender J A C O B C O O P E R A N D KA R I N S C H U B E RT HANOVER COLLEGE 2009 Introduction Gender Schema Theory (Bem, 1981): People internalize conceptions of gender as a means of organizing, processing, and interpreting information about their world or their selves. Feminine: having qualities or attributes which are usually associated with females in this culture

Masculine: having qualities or attributes which are usually associated with males in this culture Introduction Tested differences between men and women (Lippa, 2006) Behavior problems Childhood behaviors Sexual orientation Sex drive Social dominance orientation Tendency of social-emotional vs. task-oriented behaviors Occupational preference (Lippa, 1998)

Women prefer people-oriented occupations, whereas men prefer thingoriented occupations (p < .0001). How do researchers test for these differences? Explicit Measurement Surveys or questionnaires Rely on a participant's conscious, "explicit" attitudes and beliefs

Most common way of measuring gender schema Limitations Participants may alter responses Only detect attitudes of which people are aware BSRI (Sandra Bem, 1974) Implicit Measurement Implicit Associations Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee & Schwartz, 1998) Automatic or implicit association between two factors

Associations determined by reactionDog/Bad time Dog/Good Cat/Good Good Cat Dog Cat/Bad Bad Dog Cat Terrible Terrible Meow Canine Happy Feline Meow

Awful Love Bark Quicker reaction times indicate a stronger association Studies have shown IAT can be used to measure selfconcept Greenwald and Farnham (2000) Developed an IAT to measure gender schema Feminine vs. Masculine Self vs. Not-self Represents a single bipolar model

Feminine Masculine Gender schema theory and the BSRI suggest using two unipolar measures, which would allow participants to be high in both masculinity and femininity. Not feminine Not masculine Feminine Masculine Current Study Communion and agency (Wiggins, 1991) Communion: love, social interest, tenderness, trust, popularity Agency: power, superiority, autonomy, status, dominance

Low community Allows for two-dimensional Low agency Two IATs Self and Communion Self and Agency High community modelHigh agency Hypothesis A two-dimensional model for measuring gender schemata will predict previously tested gender differences better than Greenwald and Farnhams (2000) onedimensional model. Method Participants

51 undergraduate students at a small liberal arts college 39 Female, 12 Male Between ages 18 and 23 Mostly Caucasian Method cont. Materials

Occupational Preference Survey Prediger (1982), Lippa (1991, 1998) People-oriented occupations: teacher, social worker, minister Thing-oriented occupations: mechanic, carpenter, farmer Implicit Gender Measures Communion IAT Agency IAT Femininity IAT Caring Not Caring

Self Not self Powerful Not Powerful Self Not self Masculine Feminine Self Not self Method cont. Procedure Psychology computer lab

One computer per participant, maximum of 10 participants Informed consent Demographics Occupational Preference Survey Three IATs in counterbalanced order Debriefing

Results Calculating variables Two critical trials 1. Self & high communion word (kind) 2. Self & low communion word (aloof) A person high in communion would have a faster reaction time (RT) for pairing self & kind and a slower RT for pairing self & aloof Communion score is calculated by:

(average RT for self & aloof) (average RT for self & kind) Results cont. Three expected correlations Communion & people occupations Agency & things occupations r(51) = .065, p = .658 r(51) = .177, p = .218

Femininity & people occupations r(51) = -.163, p = .259 Results cont. Communion IAT -27.69 46.06 -50 -40 -30 -20 Low communion

-10 0 10 20 30 High communion t(47) = .359, p = .721 40 50 Results cont. Agency IAT

-132.22 15.97 -150 -100 -50 Low agency 0 50 High Agency t(48) = 2.258, p = .029

100 150 Results cont. Femininity IAT -123.17 -25.25 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60

-40 Low femininity t(48) = 1.154, p = .254 -20 0 Results cont. There was a significant correlation between people and things at r(51) = .317 at p = .025 Discussion Results contradict previous research Possible reasons for odd data

Participants with poor accuracy? Average accuracies of less than 80% were excluded in analyses. Abnormal sample of men? Abnormal sample of women? Limitations Only 12 male participants Floor effect for thing-oriented occupations Thing-oriented occupations require less education

Instrument limitations Future Directions More accurate measure of people-things occupation preference More representative sample Improved Implicit Associations Tests Questions?

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