Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Time Series Consistency Africa Regional Workshop on the Building of Sustainable National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Management Systems, and the Use of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Swakopmund, Namibia 24-28 April 2017 Jamsranjav, IPCC TFI TSU Task Force on NationalBaasansuren
Greenhouse Gas Inventories Time Series An inventory is not just an estimate of a single year. It includes estimates for a number of years (time series of estimates) Information on historical emissions trend Tracking the effects of strategies to reduce emissions at the national level Annual estimates should be comparable
Should reflect the real annual fluctuations in emissions and removals Therefore, emissions and removals in time series should be estimated consistently Use of the same method and data sources in all years, where possible However, it is not always possible to use the same method and data sets for the entire time series due to a lack of data Splicing Techniques Splicing: combining or joining of more than one method or data series to form a
complete time series Methodological change and refinement Data gaps The 2006 IPCC Guidelines provide several splicing techniques
Overlap Surrogate Interpolation
Extrapolation Selecting a technique requires an evaluation of the specific circumstances and a determination of the best option for the particular case Overlap When a new method is introduced but data are not available for early years in the time series (e.g. implementing a higher tier methodology) Develop a time series based on the relationship (or overlap) observed between
the previously used and new method during the years when both can be used It is preferable to compare the overlap for multiple years to evaluate the relationship between the two methods If there is no consistent overlap between methods and it is not good practice to use the overlap technique Overlap: Consistent Relationship y0: recalculated estimate using the overlap method x0 : estimate developed using the previously used method m,n : overlapping years
Overlap: Inconsistent Relationship Surrogate Data The surrogate method relates emissions or removals to underlying activity or other indicative data Data (statistical) that is related to the emission (emissions may be proportional to production, vehicle distances travelled and population etc.)
Although the relationship between emissions/removals and surrogate can be developed on the basis of data for a single year, the use of multiple years might provide a better estimate Surrogate Data y 0 yt s0 / st y : emission/removal estimate in years 0 and t
s : surrogate statistical parameter in years 0 and t Interpolation When detailed statistics is collected every few years, or it is impractical to conduct detailed surveys on an annual basis Estimates for the intermediate years in the time series can be developed by interpolating between the detailed estimates when: Overall trend appears stable Actual emissions are not substantially different from the values estimated by interpolation
If information on the general trends or underlying parameters is available, then the surrogate data can be used It is good practice to compare interpolated estimates with surrogate data as a QA/QC check Interpolation Extrapolation When data for the base year or the most recent year are not available The data can be extrapolated assuming that the trend in emissions/removals remains constant over the period of extrapolation
Should not be used if the trend is not constant over time. Analyse the character of trend e.g. linear or more complex Summary of Splicing Techniques Each technique can be appropriate in certain situation. It is good practice to perform the splicing using more than one technique before making a final decision Quality of Time Series and Documentation Comparison of the results of multiple approaches where it is possible to use
more than one approach Plotting and comparing the results of splicing techniques on a graph is useful If alternative splicing methods produce different results, should consider which result is most realistic Comparison of recalculated estimates with previous estimates can be a useful check on the quality of a recalculation However, higher tier methods may produce different trends than lower tier methods because they more accurately reflect actual conditions All recalculations and measures taken to improve time series consistency
should be documented and reported Reason of the recalculation Effect of the recalculation on the time series Splicing techniques used Summary We need consistent estimates of emissions/ removals for all years Same method and data sources should be applied to all years, if possible Where this is not possible, inventory compilers should follow the time series consistency guidance to provide consistent estimates for all years Overlap/ Surrogate / Interpolation / Extrapolation /etc. We need to ensure quality of time series
Quality checks are applied to entire time series All decisions, methods and reasons should be documented Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Thank you Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Diagrams IPCC unless otherwise noted
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