Think Pharmacy Nine treatable skin conditions Dr Stephanie Gallard Dermatology GPSI 1. Acne vulgaris The most subjective skin condition in the world. All about acne Usually begins at puberty Often a family history Boys worse, girls more affected Dihydrotestosterone stimulates oil glands => sebum Colonization of oil glands by Propobionibacterium Acnes Subsequent inflammation, comedones and pustules
Eventual scarring Benzyl Peroxide 5/10% For mild acne Antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic and comedolytic No use if extensive papules or pustules present Previous antibiotics already Ask about previous treatments Hormonal problems? Check skincare regime avoid mineral oil (esp wipes!)
Scarring needs Roaccutane Signs of psychosocial distress Diet makes no difference Beware the enthusiastic user Bleaches! Can take a few months. 2. Athletes foot for which one does not need to be athletic at all Fungal infection Usually cleft between 4th/5th toe Moist, soft, macerated
And smelly! Red, itchy, sore Check for. Occlusive footwear General foot hygiene Sole and upper foot technically is Tinea Pedis Clotrimazole 1%/Miconazole 2% antifungal AND antibacterial Foot hygiene comes first! But not if under 1/preg or b/f
Daily/twice daily bathing Diabetic or PVD Dry between toes, cotton socks Toenails (esp nail bed) affected Change of footwear or bare feet Immunocompromised. Use until cleared and the week afterwards 3. Dermatitis/Eczema Greek boiling over, breaking out the itch that rashes Affects 1 in 5 of us Multifactorial condition Dermatological and immunological
components ATOPIC constitutional, inherited 14-24% population IRRITANT lack of oil in skin constant handwashing, soaps, disinfectants, detergent or chemical use without hand protection ALLERGIC immune reaction caused by agent in contact with the skin eg cosmetics, hair dye, nickel, plants Your inclusion criteria superficial inflammation of the skin, causing itching, with a red rash Atopic dermatitis From allergic disease, to barrier disease UK has increasing prevalence Decreased expression of filaggrin gene => hyperlinear palms
Impaired barrier function Decrease in NMF Increased staph aureus entry Irritant dermatitis usually hands Beware the unilateral hand eczema!! Irritants remove protective surface oils and NMF This allows deeper penetration of irritant Which triggers inflammation Consider amount and strength of irritant, and length and frequency of exposure Usually work related esp hairdressers
Good self care is vital Beware secondary bacterial superinfection Allergic contact dermatitis Ive always used that hair dye. Tiny amount of skin contact with an allergen to which there has often been previous sensitisation Can be extreme and disfiguring Consider photo-allergies too Can usually give a good history Itchy, acutely blistering, weeping crusted and sore
Hydrocortisone 1% (if over 10) Emulsifying ointment Judgement call But not if Previous history, previous effective therapies weeping, crusting, thickening Untreated infection Seborrheic/other eczema Psoriasis Face/genitalia/axillae SEVERE eczema
Maximum of 7 days allowed Emollient, emollient, emollient. Avoid detergents or other aggravating factors Consider antihistamine Scabies Fingertip units Pregnancy What is a fingertip unit? 4. Head lice Pediculus capitis itchy head all afternoon then?
1-3mm long louse adapted to live attached to hair shafts Feeds on human blood Bites leave irritant saliva Need close head to head contact for transmission Die after 1-2 days off scalp Eggs laid close to scalp hatch after 8 days, mature at 10 days and lays 6 eggs per day after that Hatched eggs are paler Bug busting kit/Hedrin 4% as long as you have seen live lice Comb, comb, comb 30mins
Suffocating agent Every 4 days, for two weeks Dry hair, root to tip Mechanical destruction 8hours to overnight break their legs and they lay no eggs Repeat in 7 days And dont smoke whilst applying Tea tree oil
Cut hair off! Ivermectin. Ongoing battle Refer if severe or resistant Buckets of any conditioner Calendars and stickers? I like Nitty Gritty combs 5. Nappy Rash irritant contact dermatitis of the under nappy area Caused by the incontinence seen extremes of life Urine under occlusion leads to
macerated skin Colonized by various but especially candida Faecal bile salts/enzymes break down skin integrity Urine & faeces => ammonium hydroxide Sudocrem 60g as long as mild to moderate red rash, confined to nappy area Frequent nappy changes But refer on if Leave nappy-free if possible Broken or ulcerated skin
Dont over bathe Avoid perfumed anything Severe fungal infection, or in conjunction with oral thrush Consider wipe allergy Juices increase stool acidity? Truly distressed baby ?with temp Should improve in 48hours And not last longer than 10days 6. Scabies Sarcoptes scabiei A mere 10-12 adult mites
4 weeks to incubate Females lay 3 eggs/day for 1-2/12 No problems for the first few weeks Check contacts, finger webs and genitalia if possibile Burrows are hard to find Nodules of the penis are diagnostic Beware nursing homes Need skin to skin contact Secondary eczema is VERY common
Permethrin dermal cream as long as over 2 years and sure of diagnosis Apply to whole body, overnight Beware post treatment itch! No need to bath first need cool skin Always worse at night I tend to give 100g Eumovate cream Dont forget outbreaks in nursing or residential homes have to be reported to Public Health Systemic ivermectin
Especially webs of fingers/toes, genitalia, any skin creases Repeat in a week Treat whole family at once Boil wash all bedlinens etc 7. Warts and Verrucas They just wont shift Doctor. HPV infection Bane of childhood and GPs Direct contact sheds virus particles Esp when pick, nibble or chew Look for the black dot of end on BV
Will resolve eventually (50% 1 year, 2/3 within 2 years) Persistence, shaving, applying stuff Duct tape and banana skin Beware immunosuppression and consanguineous children No official services exist for referral Salactol wart paint as long as over 1, not on or near face/anogenital area, infected or bleeding, too numerous and sure of diagnosis! HPV leads to overgrowth and non shedding of keratin Excess skin must be pared away Soak, then pumice/emery
board Encircle with Vaseline before application if sensitive skin Refer on if Diabetic, PVD 2 years treatment! What else? Occlusal, cryotherapy Imiquimod Can take AGES Efudix
Persistence is everything Laser! 8. Impetigo PGD for small acute localised lesions. Staphylococcus aureus or streptococcus pyogenes infection Yellowy golden crust Often facial/around mouth Starts with minor skin injury Highly contagious, stay off school/nursery Separate towels and flannels
Over one year of age Maximum of two lesions, each no bigger than a one pence piece Fusidic acid 2% cream UNLESS?? Large areas Underlying eczema or scabies Systemically unwell Immunocompromised Allergic or resistant to Fucidin Already on antibiotics, or
treated already Pregnant or breastfeeding Dont forget to soak away the crust Give the BAD impetigo leaflet 9. Nipple candida in breast feeding mothers PGD For b/f mums who have a baby being treated for oral thrush under Minor Ailments already Systemically well person Red/flaky/shiny nipples Cracked, non-healing Burning, tender and a soreness after initially pain free b/f
After every feed for two weeks. BUT NOT IF. Pyrexial, with red/inflamed/tender breasts (mastitis??) Deep aching breast pain Warfarinised, or hypersensitivity to ingredients Previous tx, or recurrence within 8 weeks Is it cows milk, Doctor?? Filaggrin also associated with allergic asthma and peanut allergy Food allergy (wheat/egg/cow milk protein/soya) commoner in children Study 80-90% could tolerate food their blood tests said allergic to
Very high percentage of false reaction Cow milk allergy has 100% cross reactivity to goat and sheep milk! Changed advice give the food early, stops the allergy Avoid the food 3-4 weeks, reintroduce slowly, see what happens If milk allergics get baked milk outgrow allergy in 5 years If avoid all milk only 30% do For food oral tolerance induction if bake milk/soya/wheat/egg the protein denatures and is less allergic This does NOT work for nuts or fish! Death by Aqueous cream Never as a leave on emollient
Soap substitute at best Contains SLS sodium lauryl sulphate Irritant and drying Cheap!! Shingles Herpes Zoster VZ infection in childhood chickenpox Spots clear, virus doesnt Lies dormant in dorsal horn of spinal column. Immunosuppression! +> pain, blisters, rash
Dermatomal distribution Unilateral nerve pathway Lasting 3-4 weeks Shingles actions needed? Mersey formulary says antiviral tx is not recommended for under 14 yrs for chicken pox And not for shingles under 60 years But refer URGENTLY if suspected ocular involvement
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