THE WAR SCROLL 1QM,1Q33,4Q4917, 4Q471 Hitgalut 12:17 And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Yeshua the Messiah. 1 Outline for War Scroll I.
II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII.
Introduction Proclamation of war Reorganization of Temple worship Program of 40 year war The trumpets The standards War formations Age of soldiers The camp Duties of priests and Levites Addresses and prayers of the battle liturgy
Thanksgiving songs Battle against the Kittiym 2 The War Scroll Column 1 For the In[structor, the Rule of] the War. The first attack of the Sons of Light shall be undertaken against the forces of the Sons of Darkness, the army of Belial: the troops of Edom, Moab, the sons of Ammon, the [Amalekitesl, Philistia, and
the troops of the Kittim of Asshur. Supporting them are those who have violated the covenant. 3 Defining the Sons of Darkness Army of Belial Edom Moab Sons of Ammon Sons of the East/ Amalekites Philistines
Bands of Kittiym 4 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 1-2) 11Q13 And concerning what Scripture says, "In this year of Jubilee you shall return, everyone of you, to your property" (Lev. 25;13) And what is also written; "And this is the manner of the remission; every creditor shall remit the claim that is held against a neighbor, not exacting it of a neighbor who is a member of the community, because God's
remission has been proclaimed" (Deut.15;2) 5 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 3-6) the interpretation is that it applies to the Last Days and concerns the captives, just as Isaiah said: "To proclaim the Jubilee to the captives" (Isa. 61;1) (...) just as (...) and from the inheritance of Melchizedek, for (... Melchizedek) , who will return them to what is rightfully theirs.
He will proclaim to them the Jubilee, thereby releasing them from the debt of all their sins. He shall proclaim this decree in the first week of the jubilee period that follows nine jubilee periods. 6 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 8-9) Then the "Day of Atonement" shall follow after the tenth jubilee period, when he shall atone for all the Sons of Light, and the people who are predestined to
Melchizedek. (...) upon them (...) For this is the time decreed for the "Year of Melchizedek`s favor", and by his might he will judge God's holy ones and so establish a righteous kingdom, as it is written about him in the Songs of David ; "A godlike being has taken his place in the council of God; in the midst of divine beings he holds judgment Ps. 82;1)." 7 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 4) Scripture also says about him ; "Over
it take your seat in the highest heaven; A divine being will judge the peoples" (Ps. 7;7-8) 8 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 11-12) Concerning what scripture says; "How long will you judge unjustly, and show partiality with the wicked? Selah" (Ps. 82;2) ,the interpretation applies to
Belial and the spirits predestined to him, because all of them have rebelled, turning from God's precepts (chuqqah) and so becoming utterly wicked. 9 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 13) But, Melchizedek will carry out the vengeance of Go[d's] judgments, [and on that day he will fr]e[e them from the hand
of] Belial and from the hand of all the sp[irits of his lot.] Allied with him will be all the "righteous divine beings (Isa. 61;3). 10 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 15-16) (The ...) is that whi(ch ...all) the divine beings (lit: benay El.) The visitation is the Day of Salvation that He has decreed through Isaiah the prophet concerning all
the captives, inasmuch as Scripture says, "How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of the messenger who announces peace, who brings good news, who announces salvation, who says to Zion "Your divine being reigns"." (Isa. 52;7) 11 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 17-18) This scriptures interpretation : "the mountains" are the prophets, they who
were sent to proclaim God's truth and to prophesy to all Israel. "The messengers" is the Anointed of the spirit, of whom Daniel spoke; "After the sixty-two weeks, an Anointed shall be cut off" (Dan. 9;26) 12 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 19) The "messenger who brings good news, who announces Salvation" is
the one of whom it is written; "to proclaim the year of the LORD`s favor, the day of the vengeance of our God; to comfort all who mourn" (Isa. 61;2) 13 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 20) This scripture's interpretation: he is to instruct them about all the periods of history for eternity (... and in the statutes)
of the truth. (...) (.... dominion) that passes from Belial and returns to the Sons of Light (....) (...) by the judgment of God, just as t is written concerning him; "who says to Zion "Your divine being reigns" (Isa. 52;7) 14 The Coming of Melchizedek (column 21) "Zion" is the congregation of all the sons of righteousness, who uphold the covenant
and turn from walking in the way of the people. "Your divine being" is Melchizedek, who will deliver them from the power of Belial. Concerning what scripture says, "Then you shall have the trumpet sounded loud; in the seventh month . . . " (Lev. 25;9) 15 The Wicked and the Holy 4Q181 for guilt with the congregation of His people, for it has wallowed in the sin of
the sons of men; (and it was appointed) for great judgments and evil diseases in the flesh according to the mighty deeds of God and in accordance with their wickednesseach man according to his lot which he has cast foreternal life. 16 The Thanksgiving Hymn - 1QH, 1Q36, 4 Q427-32 Violent men have sought after my life
because I have clung to your covenant. For they, an assembly of deceit, and a horde of Belial, know not that my stand is maintained by you 17 The Thanksgiving Hymn - 1QH, 1Q36, 4 Q427-32 And they, teachers of lies and seers of falsehood, have schemed against me a devilish scheme, to exchange the
Torah engraved on my heart by you for the smooth things (which they speak) to your peopleBut thou, O God, do despise all Belials designs. 18 Apocryphal Psalms - 4Q88 Rejoice, rejoice and be glad with gladness! Celebrate your feasts and pay your vows for there is no Belial in your midst. Behold the enemy shall perish and all the workers of iniquity
shall be dispersed. 19 Pesher on Habakkuk 1:6 - 1QpIHab For behold I rouse the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation Interpreted, this concerns the Kittiym who are quick and valiant in war, causing many to perish. All the world shall fall under the dominion of the Kittiym, and the wicked shall not
believe in the laws of God. 20 Damascus Document Column 19 line 5-6 But all those who despise the ordinances and statutes, the evil ones will be repaid their due when God visits the land. 21
The War Scroll "The hand of the might of God in battle so as to bring down all the slain because of unfaithfulness." On the trumpets of ambush they shall write, "Mysteries of God to wipe out wickedness." On the trumpets of pursuit they shall write, "God has struck all Sons of Darkness 22
The War Scroll For they are a wicked congregation, all their deeds are in darkness; it is their desire. They have established all their refuge in a lie, their strength is as smoke that vanishes, and all their vast assembly is as chaff which blows away [ . . . ] desolation, and shall not be found. Every creature of greed shall wither quickly away like a flower at harvest time 23
1 Samuel 2: 9-10 He will keep the feet of his saints, and the wicked shall be silent in darkness; for by strength shall no man prevail The adversaries of YHWH shall be broken to pieces (chatat); out of heaven shall he thunder upon them: YHWH shall judge the ends of the earth; and he shall give strength unto his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed. 24
Mishlei 2:12-14 To deliver thee from the way of the evil man, from the man that speaketh froward things; Who leave the paths of uprightness, to walk in the ways of darkness; Who rejoice to do evil, and delight in the frowardness of the wicked; 25 Mishlei 4:18-20 But the path of the just is as the
shining light, that shineth more and more unto the perfect day. The way of the wicked is as darkness: they know not at what they stumble. My son, attend to my words; incline thine ear unto my sayings. 26 Hitgalut 16:10 And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness; and
they gnawed their tongues for pain, 27 Belial beliy/balah waste, consume, wither yaal to profit, to flourish Translated as Belial, wicked, ungodly men 28
1st occurrence Devariym (Deuteronomy) 13:13 Certain men, the children of Belial (Gk: paranomos), are gone out from among you, and have withdrawn the inhabitants of their city, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which ye have not known; 29
1 Samuel 2:12 Now the sons of Eli were sons of Belial; they knew not YHWH. 30 2 Samuel 23:6 But the sons of Belial (Gk: akantha)shall be all of them as thorns thrust away, because they cannot be taken with hands:
31 Ivriym 6:8 But that which beareth thorns (akantha) and briers is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to be burned. 32 Matityahu (Matthew) 13:7 And some fell among thorns (akantha);
and the thorns sprung up, and choked them: 33 2 Corinthians 6:14-18 Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Messiah with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an
infidel? Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith YHWH, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you 34 In the War Scroll Belial is equivalent to: Wickedness Darkness Outside of the covenant Seven vainglorious nations
Reprehensible rule Lawlessness 35 Edom Edom from the earth - from adam or a man 36
Bereshiyt 25:30 And Esau said to Jacob, Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red pottage; for I am faint: therefore was his name called Edom. 37 Ovadeyah 8 Shall I not in that day, saith YHWH, even destroy the wise men out of Edom, and understanding out of the
mount of Esau? 38 Moab Moab from a father one of the two sons of Lot and his own daughter 39 Shemot 15:15
Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed; the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them; all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away. 40 Bemidebar 25:1-3 And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab. And they called the
people unto the sacrifices of their gods: and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods. And Israel joined himself unto Baalpeor: and the anger of YHWH was kindled against Israel. 41 Sons of Ammon Ammon from am a group of people 42
Shoftiym (Judges) 3:13 And he gathered unto him the children of Ammon and Amalek, and went and smote Israel, and possessed the city of palm tree. 43 Melakhiym Aleph 11:7 Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of
Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon. 44 Zephanyah (Zephaniah)2:8-9 I have heard the reproach of Moab, and the revilings of the children of Ammon, whereby they have reproached my people, and magnified themselves against their border.Therefore as I
live, saith YHWH of hosts, the God of Israel, Surely Moab shall be as Sodom, and the children of Ammon as Gomorrah, even the breeding of nettles, and saltpits, and a perpetual desolation: the residue of my people shall spoil them, and the remnant of my people shall possess them. 45 Yesheyahu (Isaiah) 11:12-15 And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. The
envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim. But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the children of Ammon shall obey them. And the LORD shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make men go over dryshod. 46
Shoftiym (Judges) 6:3 And so it was, when Israel had sown, that the Midianites came up, and the Amalekites, and the children of the east, even they came up against them; 47 Philistia
Philistia/Philistines/Palestine from palash lit: to dive into the dust, to invade land Son of Cush, Nimrod and Mitzraim 48 Yechezkel (Ezekiel) 27:30 And shall cause their voice to be heard against thee, and shall cry bitterly, and shall cast up dust upon their heads, they shall wallow
themselves in the ashes: 49 Zephanyah (Zephaniah) 2:5 Woe unto the inhabitants of the sea coast, the nation of the Cherethites! the word of YHWH is against you; O Canaan, the land of the Philistines, I will even destroy thee, that there shall be no inhabitant. 50
Mizmor (Psalm) 108:9 Moab is my washpot; over Edom will I cast out my shoe; over Philistia will I triumph. 51 Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 9:12 The Syrians before, and the Philistines behind; and they shall devour Israel with open mouth. For all
this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still. 52 Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 14:29 Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken: for out of the serpent's root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent.
53 Kittiym Kittiym from katat = to crush or beat as in crushing olives Children of Javan (Greece) and from Japhath 54 Shemot 27:20
And thou shalt command the children of Israel, that they bring thee pure oil olive beaten for the light, to cause the lamp to burn always. 55 Zekareyah (Zechariah) 11:6 For I will no more pity the inhabitants of the land, saith YHWH: but, lo, I will deliver the men every one into his neighbour's hand, and into the hand
of his king: and they shall smite the land, and out of their hand I will not deliver them. 56 Bemidebar (Numbers) 24:24 And ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, and shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict Eber, and he also shall perish for ever. 57
Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 23:1,12 The burden of Tyre. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in: from the land of Chittim it is revealed to themAnd he said, Thou shalt no more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin, daughter of Zidon: arise, pass over to Chittim; there also shalt thou have no rest. 58
Yechezkel (Ezekiel) 27:6 Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars; the company of the Ashurites have made thy benches of ivory, brought out of the isles of Chittim. 59 Daniel 11:30 For the ships of Chittim shall come
against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant. 60 Pesher on Habakkuk For behold, I rouse the Chaldeans, that [bitter and hasty] nation Interpreted, this concerns the Kittiym
[who are] quick and valiant in war, causing many to perish. [All the world shall fall] under the dominion of the Kittiym, and the [wicked] they shall not believe in the laws of [God]. 61 Pesher on Habakkuk They are fearsome and terrible; their justice and granduer proceed from fear [and dread]. All their evil plotting is done with intention and they deal
with all the nations in cunning and guile. 62 Pesher on Habakkuk Their horses are swifter than leopards and fleeter than evening wolves. Their horses step forward proudly and spread their wings; they fly from afar like an eagle avid to devour: All of them come for violence; the look on
their faces is like the east wind 63 Pesher on Habakkuk [Interpreted, this] concerns the Kttiym who trample the earth with their horses and beasts. They come from afar, from the islands of the sea, to devour all the peoples like an eagle which cannot be satisfied, and they address [all the peoples] with anger and [wrath and fury] and indignation. For it is as He said, The
look on their faces is like the east wind. 64 The Violators of the Covenant Violators rasha - those who do wickedly 2 Sam 22:22, Daniel 11:32, 12:10, Mizmor 1:1, Yesha 11:4 65
The Temple Scroll Behold, I will make a covenantTake care not to make a covenant with the inhabitants of the country so that when they whore after their gods and sacrifice to them and invite you, you may not eat of their sacrifices and take their daughter for your sons 66 Thanksgiving Psalms Psalm 8
I thank you, O Lord. You illumined my face by your covenant. I seek you, As sure as the dawn you appear as perfect light 67 Thanksgiving Hymns Column VII They have despised your covenant and their souls have loathed your truth;
they have taken no delight in all your commandments and have chosen that which you hate. 68 Thanksgiving Hymns Column VIII Grant me the place of your loving-kindness which you have chosen form them that love you and keep your commandments, that they may stand in your presence for ever.
Let no scourge come near him lest he stagger aside from the laws of your covenant. 69 Pesher on Habakkuk 1:5 Interpreted, this concerns those who were unfaithful together with the Liar, in that they did not listen to the word received by the Teacher of Righteousness from the mouth of God. And it concerns the unfaithful of the New Covenant in that
they have not believed in the Covenant of God and have profaned His holy Name. 70 Pesher on Habakkuk 1:5 And likewise, this saying is to be interpreted as concerning those who will be unfaithful at the end of days. They, the men of violence and the breakers of the covenant, will not believe when they hear all that is to happen to the final generation from the Priest in
whose heart God set understanding that he might interpret all the words of His servants the prophets, through whom He foretold all that would happen to His people and His land. 71 Pesher on Psalm 37:7 Be silent before [the Lord and] long for Him, and be not beated against the successful, the man who [achi]eves his plans. Its interpretation concerns the
LIAR who has led astray many by his lying words so that they chose frivolous things and heed not the interpreter of knowledge in order to 72 Pesher on Psalm 37:8-9 Relent from anger and abandon wrath. Do not be angry; it tends only to evil, for the wicked shall be cut off. Interpreted, this concerns all those who return to the
Law, to those who do not refuse to turn away from their evil. For all those who are stubborn in turning away from their iniquity shall be cut off. 73 Pesher on Psalm 37:12-13 The wicked plots against the righteous and gnashes his teeth at him. The Lord laughs at him, for He sees that his day is coming. Interpreted, this concerns the violent of the
Covenant who are in the House of Judah, who have plotted to destroy those who practise the law, who are in the Council of the Community. And God will not forsake them to their hands. 74 The Damascus Document Column 8 - line 1-3 But the backsliders were handed over to the sword. And such is the judgment of all who entered his covenant, who
will not hold firmly to these statutes: they will be visited unto destruction by the hand of Belial. That will be the day when God will visit the arrogance of the princes of Judah (Hosea 5:10). 75 The Erev Rav? Matityahu 8:11-12 And I say unto you, That many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and
Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 76 Mizmor 83:1-2 A Song from a Psalm of Asaph (gathering). Keep not thou silence, O God: hold not thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult: and they that hate
thee have lifted up the head. 77 Mizmor 83:3-5 They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, and consulted against thy hidden ones. They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. For they have consulted together with one consent: they are
confederate against thee: 78 Mizmor 83:6-8 The tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes; Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre; Assur also is joined with them: they have holpen the children of Lot. Selah. 79
The Sons of Light The sons of Levi, the sons of Judah, and the sons of Benjamin, those exiled to the wilderness, shall fight against them with . . . against all their bands, when the exiles of the Sons of Light return from the Wilderness of the Peoples to camp in the Wilderness of Jerusalem. 80 Devariym 27:12
These shall stand upon mount Gerizim to bless the people, when ye are come over Jordan; Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Joseph, and Benjamin: 81 Ezra 1:5 Then rose up the chief of the fathers of Judah and Benjamin, and the priests,
and the Levites, with all them whose spirit God had raised, to go up to build the house of YHWH which is in Jerusalem. 82 Sons of Light Mizmor (Psalm) 119:105 "Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path." Mizmor 119:130 "The entrance of thy words give light; it gives
understanding to the simple." Mishlei (Proverbs) 6:23 "For the commandment is a lamp; and the law is light; and reproofs of instruction are the way of life:" Yesha'yahu (Isaiah) 8:20 "To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them." 83 Sons of Light
Yesha'yahu 51:4 "Hearken unto me, my people; and give ear unto me, O my nation: for a law shall proceed from me, and I will make my judgment to rest for a light of the people." Yesha'yahu 5:20-21 "Woe unto them who call evil, good, and good, evil; who put darkness for light, and light for darkness; who put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter. Woe unto them who are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight!" Hoshea (Hosea) 6:5 "I have slain them by the words of my mouth; and thy judgments are as the light that goeth forth."
Mishlei 4:18-22 "But the path of the just is like the shining light, that shineth more and more unto the perfect day. The way of the wicked is like darkness; they know not at what they stumble. My son, attend to my words; incline thine ear unto my sayings. Let them not depart from thine eyes; keep them in the midst of thine heart. For they are life unto those that find them, and health to all their flesh." 84 Sons of Light Mattityahu (Matthew) 5:14
"Ye are the light of the world ..." Yochanan (John) 12:46 "I am come a light into the world ..." 1 Thessalonians 5:5 "Ye are all the children of light, and children of the day ..." Yochanan 11:10 "But if a man walk in the night, he stumbles, because there is no light in him." Acts 13:47 "... I have set thee to be a light of the gentiles." Acts 26:18 "... To turn them from darkness to light ..."
1 Yochanan 1:7 "But if we walk in the light as he is in the light ..." 85 1 Thessalonians 5:1-5 But of the times and the seasons, brethren, ye have no need that I write unto you. For yourselves know perfectly that the day of YHWH so cometh as a thief in the night. For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and
they shall not escape. But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief. Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness. 86 The War Scroll Who is like You, O God of Israel, in heaven and on earth, that he can perform in accordance with Your great works and
Your great strength. Who is like Your people Israel, whom You have chosen for Yourself from all the peoples of the lands; the people of the saints of the covenant, learned in the statutes, enlightened in understanding. 87 The Wilderness of the Peoples 88
War Scroll Kings of the North 89 Reorganization of temple worship and program for 40 years of war Column 2 1. 2.
3. 4. 12 roshiym (chiefs, leaders) to serve. One for each tribe Take up their stands for their festivals, for their new moons and for their sabbaths 50 years and older All to be arranged during the year of release (shmittah) They are not to war in the 7th year.
90 The Trumpets and banners Column 3- 4 1. Chatzotzerah silver trumpets Bmid 10:2 alarm, ambush, pursuit, gathering, summoning, enrollment, men of renown, fixed times of God, withdrawal etc
2. on the banner which is at the head of the whole people they shall write People of God and the name of Israel and Aaron and the names of the twelve tribes. 91 Weapons and movements Column 5-6 1. 2.
3. And on the of the nasiy of the whole haeydah they shall write the name of Israel and Levi and Aaron and the names of the twelve tribes of Israel according to their generations. Describes in detail the way they should march, how many in a line and the precise design and material of the weapons. (seems to be Romanslike) Seven shows up quite frequently (7 lines/formations/javelins/700 horseman
92 Age of the soldiers and the camp column 6-9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Men of rule 40-50 Who order the camps 50-60 Officers 40-50 Background work 25-30 No blind, cripped, lame, permanent blemishes, uncleaniness Because holy angels are with them Priest will be with them to continually blow the trumpets until they have thrown to them 7 times 93
Prayers and thanksgiving column 10-14 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Who is like you O God of Israel
Many references to the God of the circuits and cycles of creation Column 2 line 5-6 The battle is yours and the strength is from younot ours. Neither our power nor the force of our hands have done worthily except by your power and with the vigor of your great worth. So have you told us long ago, saying, A star shall rise from Jacob, a scepter shall rise from Israel. It shall smite the forehead of Moab, and destroy all the sons of Seth. (THORNS?) You will act against them (Belial and the seven nations of vanity) as against the Pharaoh and the officers of his chariots in the Red Sea.
After the victory the sons of light will return and sing (ranan) the hymn (tehillah) of return (shuv). Sheol shall burn in a fire. 94 The Battle against the Kittiym Column 15-19 1. 2. 3.
4. This is a time of tribulation (tzarah) for Israel, but destruction for all the wicked nations. The king of Kittiym and the army of Belial are all together now. All involving the blowing of trumpets. Michael is involved in this battle* Last column finishes with Daughters of my people, burst into a voice of jubilation. Deck yourselves with glorious ornaments. Have dominion over the kingdoms of [to] your
[camps] and Israel shall reign forever. 95 Major themes of the Scroll 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
It is clear that the difference between the sons of light and the sons of darkness is the difference between those who keep the covenant and those who do not. The sons of darkness are destroyed from among the sons of light. At the end the location shifts from the wilderness of the peoples (Hosea 2:14) to the wilderness of Jerusalem (wedding supper) where there will be much jubilation and wedding like joy. All twelve tribes seem to be reunited. There is a comparison to the Exodus
Sons of darkness seem to be a mingling of the east and the west coming together at the end of days. 96 Bemidebar 24:16-20 He hath said, which heard the words of God, and knew the knowledge of the most High, which saw the vision of the Almighty, falling into a trance, but having his eyes open: I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not nigh: there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of
Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth. And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also shall be a possession for his enemies; and Israel shall do valiantly. Out of Jacob shall come he that shall have dominion, and shall destroy him that remaineth of the city. And when he looked on Amalek, he took up his parable, and said, Amalek was the first of the nations; but his latter end shall be that he perish for ever. 97
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