The Strategic Position 4: Strategic Purpose

The Strategic Position 4: Strategic Purpose

Slide 4.1 The Strategic Position 4: Strategic Purpose Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.2 Learning outcomes Consider appropriate ways to express the strategic purpose of an organisation in terms of statements of purpose, values, vision, mission or objectives.

Identify the components of the governance chain of an organisation. Understand differences in governance structures and the advantages and disadvantages of these. Identify differences in the corporate responsibility stances taken by organisations and how ethical issues relate to strategic purpose. Undertake stakeholder analysis as a means of identifying the influence of different stakeholder groups in terms of their power and interest. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.3

Influences on strategic purpose Figure 4.1 Influences on strategic purpose Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.4 Who are the stakeholders? Stakeholders are those individuals or groups who depend on an organisation to fulfil their

own goals and on whom, in turn, the organisation depends. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.5 Mission statements A mission statement aims to provide employees and stakeholders with clarity about the overriding purpose of the organisation A mission statement should answer the

questions: What business are we in? How do we make a difference? Why do we do this? Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.6 Vision statements A vision statement is concerned with the desired future state of the organisation; an aspiration that will enthuse, gain commitment and stretch performance.

A vision statement should answer the question : What do we want to achieve? Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.7 Statement of corporate values A statement of corporate values should communicate the underlying and enduring core principles that guide an organisations strategy and define the way that the

organisation should operate. Such core values should remain intact whatever the circumstances and constraints faced by the organisation. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.8 Objectives Objectives are statements of specific outcomes that are to be achieved. Objectives are frequently expressed in:

financial terms (e.g. desired profit levels) market terms (e.g. desired market share) and increasingly social terms (e.g. corporate social responsibility targets) Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.9 Issues in setting objectives Do objectives need to be specific and quantified targets?

The need to identify core objectives that are crucial for survival. The need for a hierarchy of objectives that cascade down the organisation and define specific objectives at each level. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.10 Corporate governance Corporate governance is concerned with the structures and systems of control by

which managers are held accountable to those who have a legitimate stake in an organisation. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.11 The growing importance of governance The separation of ownership and management control defining different roles in governance.

Corporate failures and scandals (e.g. Enron) focussing attention on governance issues. Increased accountability to wider stakeholder interests and the need for corporate social responsibility (e.g. green issues). Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.12 The governance chain Figure 4.2

The chain of corporate governance: typical reporting structures Source: Adapted from David Pitt-Watson, Hermes Fund Management Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.13 The principal-agent model Governance can be seen in terms of the principal agent model Principals pay agents to act on their behalf

(e.g. beneficiaries/trustees pay investment managers to manage funds, Boards of Directors pay executives to run a company). Agents may act in their own self interest. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.14 Issues in governance (1) The key challenge is to align the interests of agents with those of the principals. Misalignment of incentives and control e.g.

beneficiaries may require long term growth but executives may be seeking short term profit. Responsibility to whom should executives pursue solely shareholder aims or serve a wider constituency of stakeholders? Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.15 Issues in governance (2) Who are the shareholders should boards respond to the demands of institutional

investment managers or the needs of the ultimate beneficiaries? The role of institutional investors should they actively intervene in strategy? Establishing the specific role of the board in particular the role of non-executive directors. Scrutiny and control statutory requirements and voluntary codes to regulate boards. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.16 Different governance systems

Table 4.1 Benefits and disadvantages of governance systems Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.17 The role of boards Operate independently of the management the role of non-executives is crucial. Be competent to scrutinise the activities of

managers. Have time to do their job properly. Behave appropriately given expectations for trust, role fluidity, collective responsibility, and performance. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.18 Corporate social responsibility Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the commitment by organisations to behave ethically and contribute to economic

development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as the local community and society at large.1 1 World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.19 Table 4.2

Corporate social responsibility stances Corporate social responsibility stances Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.20 Questions of corporate social responsibility internal aspects (1) Table 4.3

Some questions of corporate social responsibility Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.21 Questions of corporate social responsibility external aspects (2) Table 4.3 Some questions of corporate social responsibility (Continued) 21

Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.22 The ethics of individuals and managers Ethical issues have to be faced at the individual level : The responsibility of an individual who believes that the strategy of the organisation is unethical resign, ignore it or take action. Whistle-blowing - divulging information to the

authorities or media about an organisation if wrong doing is suspected. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.23 Texas instruments guidelines Is the action legal? . . . If no, stop immediately. Does it comply with our values? . . . If it does not, stop. If you do it would you feel bad? . . . Ask your own conscience if you can live with it.

How would this look in the newspaper? . . . Ask if this goes public tomorrow would you do it today? If you know its wrong . . . dont do it. If you are not sure . . . ask; and keep asking until you get an answer. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.24 Stakeholders of a large organisation Figure 4.3

Stakeholders of a large organisation Source: Adapted from R.E. Freeman, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach, Pitman, 1984. Copyright 1984 by R. Edward Freeman. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.25 Table 4.4 Stakeholder conflicts of expectations

Some common conflicts of expectations Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.26 Stakeholder mapping Stakeholder mapping identifies stakeholder expectations and power and helps in understanding political priorities. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011

Slide 4.27 Figure 4.4 Stakeholder mapping: the power/interest matrix Stakeholder mapping: the power/interest matrix Source: Adapted from A. Mendelow, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information Systems, Cambridge, MA, 1986 Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011

Slide 4.28 Stakeholder mapping issues Determining purpose and strategy whose expectations need to be prioritised? Do the actual levels of interest and power reflect the corporate governance framework? Who are the key blockers and facilitators of strategy? Is it desirable to try to reposition certain stakeholders? Can the level of interest or power of key stakeholders be maintained?

Will stakeholder positions shift according to the issue/strategy being considered. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.29 Power Power is the ability of individuals or groups to persuade, induce or coerce others into following certain courses of action. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011

Slide 4.30 Sources of power Table 4.5 Sources and indicators of power Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.31 Indicators of power

Table 4.5 Sources and indicators of power (Continued) Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.32 Summary (1) An important managerial task is to decide how the organisation should express its strategic purpose through statements of mission, vision, values or objectives. The purpose of an organisation will be influenced by

the expectations of its stakeholders. The influence of some key stakeholders is represented formally within the governance structure of an organisation. This can be represented in terms of a governance chain, showing the links between ultimate beneficiaries and the managers of an organisation. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011 Slide 4.33 Summary (2) There are two generic governance structures systems: the shareholder model and the stakeholder model

though there are variations of these internationally. Organisations adopt different stances on corporate social responsibility depending on how they perceive their role in society. Individual managers may face ethical dilemmas relating to the purpose of their organisation or actions it takes. Different stakeholders exercise different influence on organisational purpose and strategy, dependent on the extent of their power and interest. Managers can assess the influence of different stakeholder groups through stakeholder analysis. Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, Exploring Strategy, 9th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2011

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