The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Engineering
Moving from Effective Teaching to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) Karl A. Smith Engineering Education Purdue University STEM Education Center/Civil Eng - University of Minnesota [email protected] - http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith/ Michigan State University Lilly Teaching Workshop September 22, 2011 Workshop Layout Welcome & Overview
Background Designing effective learning environments Boyer Scholarship Reconsidered Hutchings & Shulman Levels of Inquiry Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) Definition Participant Survey
Rationale Resources Practice Advancing Along the Levels of Inquiry Suggestions and Strategies Summary and Next Steps Workshop Objectives Participants will be able to Describe innovation cycle of educational practice and research and its role in designing effective learning environments Describe key features of SoTL and how it
differs from Scholarly Teaching and Discipline-Based Education Research Explain rationale for SoTL Identify SoTL opportunities in courses and programs Locate SoTL resources It could well be that faculty members of the twenty-first century college or university will find it necessary to set aside their roles as teachers and instead become designers of learning experiences, processes, and environments.
James Duderstadt, 1999 [Nuclear Engineering Professor; Dean, Provost and President of the University of Michigan] objectives for engineering practice, research, and education: To adopt a systemic, research-based approach to innovation and continuous improvement of engineering education, recognizing the importance of diverse
approachesalbeit characterized by quality and rigorto serve the highly diverse technology needs of our society http://milproj.ummu.umich.edu/publications/EngFlex%20report/download/EngFlex%20Report.pdf Celebration of Two Major ASEE Milestones 2011 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition Vancouver, British Columbia Monday,
One BIG Idea; Two Perspectives Jamieson & Lohmann (2009) Engineering Education Innovation ASEE Main Plenary, 8:45 a.m. 10:15 a.m. Vancouver International Conference Centre, West Ballroom CD Expected to draw over 2,000 attendees, this years plenary features Karl A. Smith, Cooperative Learning Professor of Engineering Education at Purdue University and MorseAlumni Distinguished Teaching Professor & Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Minnesota. Smith has been at the University of Minnesota since 1972 and has
been active in ASEE since he became a member in 1973. For the past five years, he has been helping start the engineering education Ph.D. program at Purdue University. He is a Fellow of the American Society for Engineering Education and past Chair of the Educational Research and Methods Division. He has worked with thousands of faculty all over the world on pedagogies of engagement, especially cooperative learning, problem-based learning, and constructive controversy. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Journal of Engineering Education and the release of ASEEs Phase II report Creating a Culture for Scholarly and Systematic Innovation in Engineering Education (Jamieson/Lohmann report), the plenary will celebrate these milestones and demonstrate rich, mutual interdependences between practice and inquiry into teaching and
learning in engineering education. Depth and range of the plenary will energize the audience and reflects expertise and interests of conference participants. One of ASEEs premier educators and researchers, Smith will draw upon our roots in scholarship to set the stage and weave the transitions for six highlighted topics selected for their broad appeal across established, evolving, and emerging practices in engineering education. Video: https://secure.vimeo.com/27147996 Slides: http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith/links.html http://www.asee.org/conferences-and-events/conferences/annual-conference/2011/program-schedule/conference-highlights SoTL Interests Describe your interest in SoTL and
what youd like to get out of the workshop. Individually identify a few interests and goals Please record them Report to the group Short Exercise ---- 4 min Think individually -------- ~1 min Discuss in your group ---- ~ 2 min Select a few ideas to share with virtual group ---- ~1 min 9 Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate Ernest L. Boyer
The Scholarship of Discovery, research that increases the storehouse of new knowledge within the disciplines; The Scholarship of Integration, including efforts by faculty to explore the connectedness of knowledge within and across disciplines, and thereby bring new insights to original research;
The Scholarship of Application, which leads faculty to explore how knowledge can be applied to consequential problems in service to the community and society; and The Scholarship of Teaching, which views teaching not as a routine task, but as perhaps the highest form of scholarly enterprise, involving the constant interplay of teaching and learning. Boyer, Ernest L. 1990. Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities for the professoriate. Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Levels of Education Inquiry Level 0 Teacher Teach as taught Level 1 Effective Teacher Teach using accepted teaching theories and practices
Level 2 Scholarly Teacher Assesses performance and makes improvements Level 3 Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Engages in educational experimentation, shares results Level 4
Discipline Based Education Researcher Conducts educational research, publishes archival papers Source: Streveler, R., Borrego, M. and Smith, K.A. 2007. Moving from the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning to Educational Research: An Example from Engineering. Improve the Academy, Vol. 25, 139149. Levels of Inquiry Level 1: Excellent teaching Involves the use of good content and teaching and assessing methods Level 2: Scholarly Teaching Involves good content and methods and classroom assessment and evidence
gathering, informed by best practice and best knowledge, inviting of collaboration and review. Levels of Inquiry (contd) Level 3: Scholarship of Teaching and Learning The Instructor (a) Is aware of modern pedagogical developments and incorporates them in his/her teaching where appropriate, and (b) Reflects on, assesses, and attempts to improve his/her teaching (classroom research) Is public and open to critique and evaluation, is in a form that others can build on, involves question-asking, inquiry and investigation, particularly about student
learning. SoTL Experience Individually: Reflect on SoTL Activities Subscribe to teaching journals? Read/skim teaching journals? Attended teaching conferences/workshops? Published articles on teaching & learning?
Other activity in scholarship of teaching and learning? Attended a teaching effectiveness workshop Introduced new teaching strategy and/or content and assessed for improvement of learning Discuss in Groups of 3-4 Share SoTL experiences/activities Prepare 2-3 stories to share with the larger group Why should we care about SoTL? January 2, 2009Science, Vol. 323 www.sciencemag.org
One Reason - Calls for evidence-based promising practices Student Engagement Research Evidence Perhaps the strongest conclusion that can be made is the least surprising. Simply put, the greater the students involvement or engagement in academic work or in the academic experience of college, the greater his or her level of knowledge acquisition and general cognitive development (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005). Active and collaborative instruction coupled with various means to encourage student engagement invariably lead to better student learning
outcomes irrespective of academic discipline (Kuh et al., 2005, 2007). See Smith, et.al, 2005 and Fairweather, 2008, Linking Evidence and Promising Practices in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) 16 Undergraduate Education - http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bose/Fairweather_CommissionedPaper.pdf Cooperative Learning Research Support Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., & Smith, K.A. 1998. Cooperative learning returns to college: What evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 (4), 26-35. Over 300 Experimental Studies First study conducted in 1924 High Generalizability
Multiple Outcomes Outcomes 1. Achievement and retention 2. Critical thinking and higher-level reasoning 3. Differentiated views of others 4. Accurate understanding of others' perspectives 5. Liking for classmates and teacher 6. Liking for subject areas 7. Teamwork skills January 2005 March 2007
Book Ends on a Class Session Smith, K.A. 2000. Going deeper: Formal small-group learning in large classes. Energizing large classes: From small groups to learning communities. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 18 2000, 81, 25-46. [NDTL81Ch3GoingDeeper.pdf] Strategies for Energizing Large Classes: From Small Groups to Learning Communities: Jean MacGregor, James Cooper,
Karl Smith, Pamela Robinson New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 81, 2000. Jossey- Bass http://www.josseybass.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0787953377,descCd-tableOfContents.html Problem-Based Cooperative Learning January 13, 2009New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/13/us/13physics.html?em 20
23 24 http://www.udel.edu/pbl/ *Cooperative Learning Adopted The American College Teacher: National Norms for 2007-2008 Methods Used in All or Most Cooperative Learning
Group Projects All 2005 48 All 2008 59 Assistant 2008 66 33
36 61 Grading on a curve Term/research papers 19 17
14 35 44 47 25 http://www.heri.ucla.edu/index.php Why do SoTL? ?
26 Why do SoTL? Fosters significant, long-lasting learning for all students Enhances practice and profession of teaching Brings facultys work as teachers into the scholarly realm. ? http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/publications/the-scholarship-teaching-andlearning-reconsidered-institutional-integration-and-impact Basic Features of Professional and
Scholarly Work It requires a high level of discipline-related expertise It is conducted in a scholarly manner with clear goals, adequate preparation, and appropriate methodology The work and its results are appropriately and effectively documented and disseminated. This reporting should include a reflective critique that addresses the significance of the work, the process that was used, and what was learned. It has significance beyond the individual context. It breaks new ground or is innovative. It can be replicated or elaborated on. The work both process and product or result is reviewed and judged to be meritorious and significant by a panel of
ones peers. Diamond, R., The Mission-Driven Faculty Reward System, in R.M. Diamond, Ed., Field Guide to Academic Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002 http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/scholarship-teaching-learning (Accessed 3/19/11) http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/publications/the-scholarship-teaching-andlearning-reconsidered-institutional-integration-and-impact http://fod.msu.edu/sotlsymposium/about.asp http://www.cfkeep.org/html/snapshot.php?id=72191394 (Accessed 3/19/11) http://academics.georgiasouthern.edu/ijsotl/conference/2011/
http://academics.georgiasouthern.edu/ijsotl/index.htm Faculty involved in SoTL frame and systematically investigate questions related to student learningthe conditions under which it occurs, what it looks like, how to deepen it, etc. and do so with an eye not only to improving their own classrooms but also to advancing practice beyond it. What differentiates SoTL from the ongoing selfassessment of our own teaching is that it is public, peer-reviewed and critiqued, and exchanged with other members of our professional communities. Pat Hutchings and Lee Shulman of the Carnegie Foundation
SoTL Practice Select a Setting (~3 minute videos) Physics Harvard Teaching through questioning Physics MIT Studio physics Biology UMN SCALE-UP Instructor emphasis (student learning outcomes): Conceptual understanding Systematic problem formulation and solving Watch video with viewing partner (faculty
focus & student focus) Identify potential questions for SoTL study Video Examples Mazur From Questions to Concepts Physics Harvard http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lBYrKPoVFwg Belcher Technology Enabled Active Learning Physics MIT http://web.mit.edu/edtech/casestudies/teal.html# video Wright Inside Active Learning Classrooms Biology University of Minnesota http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfT_hoiuY8w
Types of Questions Instructional Knowledgecomponents of instructional design Pedagogical Knowledgestudent learning & how to facilitate it Curricular Knowledgegoals, purposes & rationales for courses or programs 3 types of reflection within each form of knowledge ContentWhat should I do ProcessHow did I do PremiseWhy does it matter
Examples for process reflection: How did I (we) do at: Course design, methods & assessing effectively? (instructional) Facilitating student knowledge? Was I successful? (pedagogical) Arriving at goals & rationale for courses? (curricular) SoTL Futures Reflection Questions: Are you interested in developing a SoTL project? Why-why not? If yes, what question(s) would you explore?
What organizational resources and or support is available? What organizational challenges do you face? Thoughts on helping prepare the next generation of faculty for SoTL work? Discuss in Groups of 3-4 Share responses Prepare 2-3 responses to share with the larger group Workshop Resources Handouts
Streveler, R., Borrego, M. and Smith, K.A. 2007. Moving from the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning to Educational Research: An Example from Engineering. Silver Anniversary Edition of To Improve the Academy, Vol. 25, 139-149. Wankat, P.C., Felder, R.M., Smith, K.A. and Oreovicz, F. 2001. The scholarship of teaching and learning in engineering. In Huber, M.T & Morreale, S. (Eds.), Disciplinary styles in the scholarship of teaching and learning: A conversation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Websites International Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning http://academics.georgiasouthern.edu/ijsotl/index.htm Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (CASTL) http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/scholarship-teaching-learning Collaboratory for Engineering Education Research - cleerhub.org Books
Booth, W.C., G.G. Colomb, and J.M. Williams. 2008. The craft of research. 3rd ed. Chicago, Il: The University of Chicago Press National Research Council. 2002. Scientific research in education. R.J. Shavelson and L. Towne, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10236&page=R1 The research process and reasoning Practical Problem and helps motivates Research
Answer Research Question leads to informs Research Problem Research Process Warrant
Claim Reason Evidence Acknowledgment and Response Research Reasoning Guiding principles for scientific research in education 1. Pose significant questions that can be investigated empirically
2. Link research to relevant theory 3. Use methods that permit direct investigation of the question 4. Provide coherent, explicit chain of reasoning 5. Replicate and generalize across studies 6. Disclose research to encourage professional scrutiny and critique Source: Scientific Research in Education, National Research Council, 2002 Workshop Resources Recommended Benson, L., Becker, K., Cooper, M. Griffin, H. & Smith, K. 2010. Engineering
Education: Departments, Degrees and Directions. International Journal of Engineering Education, 26 (5), 1042-1048. Borrego, M., R.A. Streveler, R.L. Miller, and K.A. Smith. 2008. A new paradigm for a new field: Communicating representations of engineering education research. Journal of Engineering Education 97 (2): 147-162. Duderstadt, J. J. 2008. Engineering for a changing world: A roadmap to the future of engineering practice, research, and education. The Millennium Project, The University of Michigan. (http://milproj.dc.umich.edu/) Jamieson, L.H. and Lohmann, J. R. 2009. Creating a culture for scholarly and systematic innovation in engineering education. Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education. Paulsen, M. B. 2001. The relation between research and the scholarship of teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning: No. 86, pp. 19-29. Streveler, R.A., and K.A. Smith. 2006. Conducting rigorous research in engineering
education. Journal of Engineering Education 95 (2): 103-105. Streveler, R.A. and Smith, K.A. 2010. From the Margins to the Mainstream: The Emerging Landscape of Engineering Education Research. Journal of Engineering Education, 99(4), 285-287. Workshop Resources Additional
Adams, R., L. Fleming, and K. Smith. 2007. Becoming an engineering education researcher: Three researchers stories and their intersections, extensions, and lessons. Proceedings, International Conference on Research in Engineering Education; http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith/docs/Adams-Fleming-Smith-Becoming_an_engineering_education _researcher-ICREE2007.pdf Booth, W.C., G.G. Colomb, and J.M. Williams. 2008. The craft of research. 3rd ed. Chicago, Il: The University of Chicago Press. Boyer, Ernest L. 1990. Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities for the professoriate. Princeton, NJ:
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education; http://www.nae.edu/nae/caseecomnew.nsf Diamond, R., The Mission-Driven Faculty Reward System, in R.M. Diamond, Ed., Field Guide to Academic Leadership, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002 Diamond R. & Adam, B. 1993. Recognizing faculty work: Reward systems for the year 2000. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Journal of Engineering Education; http://www.asee.org/publications/jee/index.cfm Hutchings, P., and Shulman, L.S. 1999. The scholarship of teaching: New elaborations, new developments. Change, 31 (5), 10-15. http://www.carnegiefoundation.org/publications/sub.asp?key=452&subkey=613 National Research Council. 2002. Scientific research in education. R.J. Shavelson and L. Towne, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10236&page=R1
Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17. Smith, K.A. 2006. Continuing to build engineering education research capabilities. IEEE Transactions on Education 49 (1): 1-3; http:// www.asee.org/conferences/international/2008/upload/Continuing-to-Build-Eng-Education-Researc h-Capabilities.pdf Contact Information: Karl A. Smith, Ph.D. Cooperative Learning Professor of Engineering Education School of Engineering Education Purdue University (Part Time) https://engineering.purdue.edu/ENE/Morse-Alumni Distinguished Teaching Professor Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering
STEM Education Center Technological Leadership Institute University of Minnesota (Part Time) http://www.ce.umn.edu/people/faculty/smith/ E-mail: [email protected] Skype: kasmithtc Thanks for your participation! To download a copy of the presentation - go to: http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith/links.html Please complete the assessment
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