The Road to Rebellion - Loudoun County Public Schools
Sept. 19/20, 2016 1. Unit I Test Review 2. Read Vision pages 123-156 and complete the questions on the Unit 2 packet 3. HW: Read Chapter 3 of Zinn Be prepared to discuss the conditions of the people in the colonies. Discuss in your groups: Is the America that Zinn describes in chapter 3 the same America we see today? What makes it the
same or different? Sept. 21/22, 2016 1. Discuss Zinn Chapter 3 2. Road to Rebellion Discussion 3. Reading and discussion over How Democratic were the Colonies 4. HW: Read Chapter 4 of Zinn 5. Quiz over the British Acts Sept. 27/28 The Road to Rebellion
Students will be able to describe: 1. The territory that was at stake during the war 2. Role Colonists played in the war 3. British view of the colonists performance in the war 4. Connection between the War and British taxes that were passed after the war 5. The reason for the Proclamation Line of 1763 and the colonial reaction New France French & Indian War/Seven
Years War (1756-1763) Where did it start? Ohio Valley, 1754 (modern western PA) Who was involved? Britain and its American colonies fighting against the French and their Indian allies. Why did it start? France expanded into the area which resulted in repeated conflicts with the British colonies, a
series of battles led to the official British declaration of war in 1756. Reaction in the colonies? Albany Plan of Union - B. Franklin - never really materializes - Importance? - 1st attempt at colonial cooperation
Reaction by Great Britain? - Sends over 1000 troops Led by Braddock They link up with another 1000 militia Mission = take Ft. Duquesne What happens with Braddocks expedition? - Braddock routed - HUGE disaster (over 900 killed, incl. Braddock)
What is the cause of Britains lack of success? - Guerilla warfare - Indian alliances - Not enough help from locals Solutions? - Recruit more militia - Pitt says Britain will pay for colonial force - Get Indians to switch sides or drop out What Happened?
After Braddocks expedition fighting would continue for three more year. The British seemed to be facing defeat on all fronts until: o 1758Iroquois and most Ohio Indians sensing the French were gaining too decisive an advantage, agreed to a treaty conference and abandoned their support of the French. o William Pitt took control of the military affairs in the British cabinet and reversed the downward turn. Pitt strengthened British patriotism throughout the empire. Became the colonists most popular hero, the symbol of what Americans and the English could accomplish when united. Mobilized colonial soldiers. To encourage the colonies to assume the military burden, he promised that if they raised the necessary men,
Parliament would bear most of the cost of fighting the war. (Britons were not happy about this, colonists were profiting from the war and some were still trading with the French West Indies) The colonies organized more than 40,000 troops. Far more soldiers than the crown sent to the mainland during the entire war. How did it end? 1758 The American troops captured Fort Duquesne and drove the French from northern NY the next year.
1759 Quebec fell 1760 Montreal surrendered 1763 At the peace conference How did it end? What are the terms of Treaty of Paris? - France loses almost all land claims east of Mississippi (except New Orleans) - Louisiana given to Spain - France effectively kicked out of North America What problems are created by the War?
- British debt (from war and the colonies violating the Navigation Acts) - Colonist desire to expand - Indians not done fighting What kind of opinion of the colonist did the British come away from the war with? Viewed the militia as being poorly trained Not happy that some colonies didnt contribute money or troops to pay for the war Viewed the colonist as unable and unwilling to defend the new frontiers of the British empire
What kind of opinion did the colonists come away from the war with? Not impressed with the British troops or their leadership British were defeated until the colonies sent 40,000 troops More confident in providing their own defense British Solutions How does Britain deal with the Indian problem? - Military force
- Pontiacs Rebellion - How does Britain plan to reduce conflict with Indians? - Proclamation of 1763 terms? - Prohibited further colonial settlement west of the App Mountains How does Britain plan to address the debt problem? - Taxes - Writs of Assistance to reduce smuggling why
controversial? What was Salutary Neglect? Salutary Neglect 1600s -1760s-- The policy of 'Salutary Neglect avoided strict enforcement of parliamentary laws - British officials in the colonies were basically allowed to turn a 'blind eye' to trade violations - they neglected to enforce the law. England's policy of salutary neglect on the colonies occurred in three time periods.
1660s Navigation Acts: passed in the English parliament - but not enforced Salutary Neglect 1696-1763: Deliberate policy of Salutary Neglect to boost trade profits and ensure loyalty of the colonists Salutary Neglect 1763-1775: Great Britain attempts to reverse the policy of Salutary Neglect to pay for war debts, tightening their control, enforcing the Navigation Acts and other laws and imposing new taxes on goods The End of the British Policy of Salutary Neglect 1760s--The British begin to enforce the Navigation Acts and
impose new taxes including the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, and the Tea Act. What was the problem with ending Salutary Neglect? These measures enraged the American colonists. They had been allowed to ignore the Navigation Acts for years - it had become their custom and practice and a direct result of Salutary Neglect. The new taxes meant less profits for the colonists. 1. Explain the purpose of the Albany Plan of Union.
2.What was the cause of the French and Indian War? 3. What was a cause of Britains lack of success during the French and Indian War? 4. What was the Proclamation of 1763? Homework: You have been divided into Loyalists and Patriots. Complete the reading. Research your group, find out as much as possible to defend your position. Come in prepared to defend your position and try
to get the other group to agree with you. Every student will be required to speak at least once. Students will be able to: 1. Purpose of Quartering Act and its connection to the Boston Massacre 2. Purpose in propagandizing the Boston Massacre 3. Purpose and provisions of the Intolerable Acts (a.k.a. Coercive Acts) 4. Describe the Boston Tea Party and why it was
carried out Taxes What were the main taxation acts passed after the War? Sugar Act (1764) taxed foreign sugar, molasses Key goods req. to go thru British ports Unfair trials for those accused of violating act Trial outside jurisdiction Presumed guilty Vice-Admiralty Court Judges awarded 5% of confiscated cargo
Stamp Act (1765) Colonists must buy stamp for key paper items (newspapers, wills, licenses, cards, legal documents, etc.) Courts w/o juries for those accused of violating Quartering Acts Tax to pay for the occupation force Townshend Act (Duties) Taxed glass, lead, paint, paper, tea imported from Britain designed to raise revenue Also would create a fund to pay governors Why do this?
Taxation What about the British taxes made the colonists angry? - Double taxation - No representation in Parliament - Amounted to bribery (paying governors) Britains justification? - Virtual representation (each member in Parliament represented the entire empire)
What are the sources of colonists philosophical position? - Enlightenment thinkers Resistance! How did the colonists resist the Sugar Act? - Mostly didnt - Mostly affected shippers How did the colonists resist the Stamp Act?
Petition Parliament petition dismissed Some colonies pass resolutions vs. Stamp Act (started by Patrick Henry in VA) Violence/intimidation of stamp collectors Stamp Act Congress Boycott of goods in Oct. 1765 Aftermath of Stamp Act What was the most effective
form of resistance? Explain: What happens? - Repeal (1766) What does Britain pass next? - Declaratory Act - Terms? - Purpose? - Colonial reaction? Resistance! How did colonists resist the Townshend Duties?
- Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania by John Dickinson - Argued only people could approve revenue- raising tax - Circular Letters Started by Sam Adams and James Otis Condemned taxation w/o rep. VA drafted one w/ harsher wording Most colonies then drafted one - Boycott (non-importation) - How did Parliament react to Circular Letters? Viewed as act of rebellion Some royal governors dissolved legislatures What will the reaction be among colonists?
What is the philosophical criticism of British actions? Colonial Agitators Who were the major groups? - Sons of Liberty - Loyal Nine Key individuals? - Samuel Adams - Patrick Henry What role did women take? - Non-consumption
- Spinning bees - Homespun Take a stand: British or Colonist - Defend and justify your position Boston Massacre March 1770 1. Read the article on the Boston Massacre
2. Divide into the correct number group and discuss the events of the article 3. Return to your original group and discuss the differences in the events that occurred http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/boston-massacre/vide os/boston-massacre?cmpid=mrss_int_taboola_video_his Paul Revere based his engraving on Henry Pelhams original drawing of the event. Reveres print went on sale on April 2, 1770, just weeks after the incident. The image contains exaggerated details such as Captain Preston ordering his men to fire as well as a musket shooting out from the Customs Office, labeled Butchers
Hall. The colonists are portrayed as innocent bystanders, although witnesses mentioned weapons such as sticks, clubs, ice, and clam shells. Even the title given by Revere, The Bloody Massacre is meant to incite emotion against the British troops. Revere includes a woman (reports say at least one woman was present), the moon in the correct place, the lion and unicorn which were symbols of British authority on the State House; and a dog which has been interpreted as the innocence of the colonists out walking a dog or that events in Boston had deteriorated to the dogs.. Captain Preston was said to be standing in front of his men, but Revere has him beside them ordering them to fire. Sept. 27/28, 2016
1. Bell-ringer Questions 2. British Tax Acts Quiz 3. Discuss Zinn Chapter 4 5. Boston Tea Party and The start of the Revolution 6. HW: Reading A History of the World in 6 Glasses and Zinn pages 77-89 7. Unit II test Oct. 5/6 Long Essay Oct. 7/11 Thesis Statement due Oct. 6/7 Renewal of the Conflict
Samuel Adams called the shooting in Boston a massacre. It was used to inflame anti-British feeling. Samuel Adams and others kept alive the view that the British were deliberately conspiring against colonial liberties. They would spread the anti-British propaganda through the Committees of Correspondence. Boston Tea Party 1773 http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/b oston-tea-party
Due to boycotts and protests, the Townshend Act taxes on all commodities except tea were repealed in 1770. In 1773, the Tea Act was passed and granted the British East India Company a monopoly on tea sales in the American colonies. Organized by the Sons of Liberty 92,000 lbs. of tea dumped into the Harbor. In todays money, it was worth more than $1,700,000 dollars. Intolerable Acts/Coercive Acts 1774 Created by the British government as a
punishment for the Boston Tea Party Colonists called them the Intolerable Acts Boston Port Bill closed the Boston Harbor until the tea is paid for Expanded the Quartering Act enabled British troops to be quartered in private homes The Massachusetts Government Act reduced the power of the Massachusetts legislature while increasing the power of the royal governor The Administration of Justice Act allowed royal officials to be tried for crimes in England instead of the
colonies. First Continental Congress 1774 Served as the government of the 13 American colonies Was comprised of delegates from the colonies Met at Carpenters Hall in Philadelphia. Fifty-six delegates from all the colonies except Georgia drafted a declaration of rights and grievances and elected Virginian Peyton Randolph as the first president of Congress. Patrick Henry, George Washington, John Adams, and John Jay were among the delegates.
Met in reaction to the Coercive Acts Met to discuss their relationship with Britain, and how to assert their rights with the British government. They wanted to appear as united colonies in their reply to Britain. The purpose of the First Continental Congress was not to seek independence from Britain. Three objectives: 1. Compose a statement of colonial rights 2. Provide a plan that would convince Britain to restore those rights, agreed to boycott British goods and passed resolutions asserting colonial rights.
3. They also agreed to meet again in May1775, if the British did not change their policies. Fighting Begins April 19, 1775 General Thomas Gage, commander of British troops in Boston sent troops to seize military supplies in Concord. Paul Revere and William Dawes warned Concord of the British march. The militia (minutemen) of Lexington were ready to face the British. Americans were forced to retreat under heavy British fire. The "the shot heard round the world."
Americans were forced to retreat under heavy British fire. The British killed seven Americans in Lexington and marched off to Concord with new regiments who had joined them. But American militias arriving at Concord stopped the British advance. As the British retreated toward Boston, new waves of Colonial militia intercepted them. The British had over 125 casualties, including several officers. Bunker Hill June 17, 1775 First major battle (bloodiest) Battle fought on the outskirts of Boston Americans were defeated by the British, but the
inexperienced colonial forces inflicted significant casualties against the enemy. Exposes Cont. Army weaknesses Poorly supplied Untrained Militia unreliable Why was Bunker Hill a confidence boost for the Americans?
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