The Progressive Era - Socorro Independent School District
The Progressive Era The Agrarian Movement How did farmers respond to their problems? 1870-1890: extension of farming to the Great Plains and the greater use of machinery led to an abundance of crops. More crops drove prices down but the cost of running a farm remained high. Bushel of corn in 1866 = .66$ to 1889 = .10$
The Grange Movement What was the Grange movement? 1867 the Grange Movement purpose was to serve as a social club for farmers and to spread information about new farming techniques. By 1877 Grangers had a million and a half members and began urging economic and political reforms. Tried forming farmers cooperatives to buy machinery and fertilizers in bulk for cheaper prices. Cooperatives sold crops directly to the city markets. Due to lack of experience many cooperatives failed.
The Grange Movement What was the Grange movement? Farmers blamed railroads mainly for their difficulties Felt they were being over-charged by railroads and grain storage operators In several Midwestern states Grangers elected candidates to state legislatures who promised reforms States passed laws regulating railroad and grain storage rates. Munn v. Illinois (1877) Supreme Court upheld the right of a state to regulate businesses that affected the public interest w/in a state
The Grange Movement What was the Grange movement? 1886 Supreme Court reversed itself in a case involving the state regulation of railroad rates. Court ruled only Congress could regulate rates on interstate commerce. Decision ended state regulation of railroads. Grangers turned to Congress for help Congress then passed the Interstate Commerce Act (1887) Prohibited railroads from charging more for short hauls than for long hauls
The Grange Movement What was the Grange movement? Interstate Commerce Commission created to investigate complaints and to enforce the act - first federal government agency to regulate unfair business practices. New regulations marked a change from the laissezfaire economy of past. The Populist Party: 1891 - 1896 What was the Populist Party? 1892 farmers gave their support to the Populist Party
A new national political party representing the common man farmers, industrial workers, and miners in the battle against banking and railroad interests Women played a prominent role in the Populist Movement as speakers and organizers. Convinced that rich industrialists and bankers and a stronghold on government Like the Grangers before them, the Populists wanted government to take a larger role, ending oppression, injustice, and poverty The Populist Party: 1891 - 1896 What was the Populist Party? 1892 populists held a national
convention at Omaha, Nebraska, where they chose a Presidential Candidate Drew up party platform that had several innovative proposals W/ strong support in the south, Northwest, and Mountain states the Populists turned their attention to getting candidates elected to office The Populist Party: 1891 - 1896 What was the Populist Party? Election of 1892 Populists elected 5 Senators and received over a million votes for their Presidential candidate
1893 economy collapsed in a depression Populists blamed the depression on the scarcity of currency Demanded unlimited coinage of silver to raise prices The Populist Party: 1891 - 1896 What was the Populist Party? Election of 1896 Democratic Party nominated William Jennings Bryan for President Delivered a speech at the convention Cross of Gold Speech praised farmers and denounced bankers for crucifying mankind on a cross of gold. Populist Party supported Bryan instead of
running another candidate. Bryan narrowly lost the election to William McKinley a pro-business candidate supported by wealthy Ohio businessman Mark Hanna Country divided regionally: Bryan won the South and West but McKinley won the Northeast and Midwest and with it the election The Populist Party: 1891 - 1896 What was the Populist Party? Election of 1900 4 years later Bryan ran against McKinley again McKinley won a second time this virtually brought an end to the Populist Party New gold discoveries, higher
farm prices, and rural migration to the cities weakened national interest in a separate farmers party in later years The Populist Party: 1891 - 1896 What was the Populist Party? The Populist Party appeared suddenly in the 1890s and disappeared just as fast. It left its mark on American history third parties often have an impact on the political process Provide an outlet for minorities to voice grievances and generate new ideas. Many proposals such as graduated income tax and direct election of Senators were later
adopted by one of the larger political parties If a third party attracts significant numbers of voters one of the major parties will often adopt its ideas The Progressive Movement: 1900 - 1920 What was the Progressive Movement? Progressive Movement flourished between 1900 and the start of WWI Progressives were mainly middle class city dwellers, rather than farmers and workers. Activities reflected the rising influence of the middle class. Writers, lawyers, ministries and college professors provided their leadership
Primary goal was to correct the political and economic injustices that had resulted from Americas industrialization The Progressive Movement: 1900 - 1920 What was the Progressive Movement?
Wanted to use power of government to correct its evils so that all Americans, not just the wealthy, could enjoy better lives. Progressives felt they also had to reform government itself which had become corrupt by big business and political machines. Progressives often felt threatened by the rise of big business, large labor unions, and corrupt political bosses Acted out of sense of moral responsibility and often based upon their religious beliefs. Exalted science and placed a great confidence in the ability of using a scientific approach to solve social problems. They believed the government should take steps
to identify problems and promote progress. The Progressive Movement: 1900 - 1920 What was the Progressive Movement? Social Gospel Movement called for social reforms including the abolition of child labor and safer
working conditions They objected to harsh realities of unregulated free enterprise and emphasized the ancient idea that each man was is brothers keeper Instead of accepting the existence of social problems as Gods will, groups like the Salvation Army emphasized the Christian duty to help those who were less fortunate. Saw horrible condition of workers and their families as and believed Christians were called upon by God to perform acts of charity and goodness. Strongly supported the Temperance Movement aimed at banning alcoholic beverages. The Populist Party: 1891 - 1896 What was the Populist Party?
Abuses of the industrial society led some critics to demand an end to the free enterprise system known as capitalism. Socialists believed that the gov should take over basic industries Communists believed that workers should seize control by force and abolish all private property Progressives rejected these extremes but argued that some reforms were necessary if a social revolution was to be avoided. The Populist Party: 1891 - 1896 What was the Populist Party?
Newspapers and magazines reached larger audiences as cities expanded Investigative reporters, writers, and social scientists exposed the abuses of industrial society and government corruption. The spread of newspapers and magazines made this
new journalism popular. These writes became known as muckrakers because they raked up the muck or the dirt of American life. Examined the rise of industry and the abuses that had often led to the accumulation of large fortunes. Examined business practices affecting consumers and the lives of the poor Historians consider the muckrakers as the first Progressives Muckrakers Who were the muckrakers? Jacob Riis Journalist whose book How the Other Half Lives led to calls for government assistance to help the urban poor
This book gave a vivid look at the life for ethnic groups of New York City living in the tenement slums. Muckrakers Who were the muckrakers? Upton Sinclair In 1906, Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle to describe the conditions in the meatpacking industry Sinclair wanted to highlight the plight of the working class Instead, the book raised fears of what was in the meat that people were eating Muckrakers Who were the muckrakers? Impact of The Jungle Meat Inspection Act required federal inspection of meat
and required the Agricultural Department (USDA) to set standards of cleanliness in meat packing plants Pure Food and Drug Act banned the sale of impure or falsely labeled food or drugs Muckrakers Who were the muckrakers? Ida Tarbell One of the leading muckrakers of her day Wrote many notable magazine series and biographies Best-known for her 1904 book The History of the Standard Oil Company The Accomplishments of the Early Progressives Who were the social reformers? Progressives provided one of the best examples of
Americans attempting to overcome problems through reform Progressives were shaken by the abuses of industrial society Settlement houses were started in slum neighborhoods by progressives like Jane Addams. Settlement houses were an all purpose community center for poor people living in crowded city neighborhoods Provided childcare, nursing services, and English lessons to immigrants Most were staffed by volunteers, Jane Addams and her volunteers lived at Hull House (Chicago) The Accomplishments of the Early Progressives Who were the social reformers?
Another leading voice in the social reform movement was Ida B. Wells. Lynching (murder by hanging) was one of the main tactics used to terrorize African Americans in the South. When 3 of her friends were lynched for crimes they
didnt commit she organized a national anti-lynching crusade. Her research revealed 728 African Americans had been lynched in the previous year. Other Progressives formed associations to promote social change William Edward Burghardt (W.E.B.) Dubois was the 1st African American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard Dubios was the only African American founder of the NAACP The Accomplishments of the Early Progressives Who were the social reformers?
Dubois was also the editor of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) journal, The Crisis. Booker T. Washington argued that African Americans should seek gradual equality, focus on job training, and not be too demanding Dubois disagreed he toured the country delivering speeches in favor of achieving immediate racial equality
DuBois supported open protests and criticized Booker T. Washington for not being forceful enough in his goals The Anti-Defamation League a Jewish organization opposed to religious prejudice organized charities, clubs, and other associations such as the YMCA and the YWCA. The Accomplishments of the Early Progressives Who were the social reformers? Progressives focused their attention on correcting abuses found at the municipal (town or city) level of government Sought to prevent corruption and make local government more efficient Expanded city services to deal with urban
overcrowding, fire hazards, and the lack of public services Municipal governments took direct ownership of utilities such as water, electricity and gas. Progressives even introduced new forms of municipal government to discourage corruption such as governance by a city manager or commissioner The Accomplishments of the Early Progressives Who were the social reformers?
At the state level Progressive governors like Robert LaFollette in Wisconsin and Theodore Roosevelt in New York similarly took steps to free their state governments from corruption and the influence of big business LaFollette challenged big business and reduced the influence of railroad owners Progressives also introduced important political reforms to many state, such as initiative, referendum, and recall. The purpose of these reforms was to end corruption and to make state government more directly accountable to
the people Reforms sought to raise the level of public participation in the political process and to give citizens more of a direct voice in state governments The Accomplishments of the Early Progressives Who were the social reformers? States also enacted their own laws to overcome some of the worst effects of industrialization Laws regulated conditions in urban housing and abolished child labor Regulated safety and health conditions in factories, limiting the number of hours women could work and forcing employers to give compensation to workers injured on
the job Other Progressive laws conserved state natural resources and created wildlife preserves The Accomplishments of the Early Progressives Who were the social reformers? Corruption had been widespread in the federal and state governments traced back to the spoils system in which government jobs were used to reward people who made contributions to politicians or who helped in their campaigns As federal government grew larger a need for a more qualified group of permanent civil servants arose. When President Garfield was assassinated by a disappointed office-seeker in 1882, Congress decided
it was time to act. 1883 Congress passed the Pendleton Act created a Civil Service Commission Commission gave competitive exams and selected appointees based on merit. The Accomplishments of the Early Progressives Who were the social reformers? When the act first passed only 10% of the federal civilian employees were part of the civil service. Today 90% are covered by the merit system 1889 Theodore Roosevelt became US Civil Service Commissioner He sought to reform the civil service system to attract the best people believed
that appointments to federal jobs should be based on merit not party views The Progressive Presidents Who were Progressive Presidents? 1901 1919 three Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson launched a series of Progressive reforms from the White House that affected the entire nation In the late 19th century the Presidency had been relatively weak, leaving direction of the countrys affairs mainly to Congress Theodore Roosevelt reversed this trend He was the Police Commissioner of New York City, a rancher in Dakota, a cavalry commander,
and the Governor of New York Became President after William McKinley was assassinated in Buffalo, NY The Progressive Presidents Who were Progressive Presidents?
Roosevelt believed that the President represented all Americans and that the President should exercise vigorous leadership in their interest. President acted as the steward or manager of the peoples interests He put his views of the Presidency to the test when the Coal Miners Strike of 1902 threatened the nation with a winter w/out coal. Acted to protect the public interest he brought representatives to the white House from both sides of the dispute When mine owners refused to negotiate, Roosevelt threatened to use federal troops to run the mines This convinced the owners to compromise the main victory went to Roosevelt who showed he meant to protect the public interest
The Progressive Presidents Who were Progressive Presidents? Roosevelt was suspicious of big business Revived the use of the Sherman Anti-trust Act against some business consolidations known as trusts. Roosevelt stood for fair play he opposed unfair, anti-competitive practices Large business for example might lower its prices to put smaller competitors out of business, then when it had a monopoly it raised its prices again. Consumers could no longer buy the product elsewhere another unfair practice was when a group of businesses raised their prices together
The Progressive Presidents Who were Progressive Presidents? Roosevelt tried to stop these practices he did not attack all trusts instead he distinguished good trusts from bad trusts He broke up Rockefellers Standard Oil Company which he saw as a bad trust acted against the public interest Before the Progressive Era, manufacturers could make wild and unsupported claims for medicines no government agencies checked the purity and safety of food or drug products In Laissez-faire consumers were to look out for themselves Roosevelt promised Americans a Square Deal launched new laws to protect consumer health and
prevent false advertising and protected natural resources. The Progressive Presidents Who were Progressive Presidents? Although Roosevelt was young and popular no President had ever run for more than two terms 1908 Roosevelt refused to break w/ tradition to run again He helped his friend William Howard Taft win the Republican nomination Conservative Progressive Taft was elected President with Roosevelts endorsement Taft continued many of Roosevelts policies such as trustbusting Taft was not a skilled politician and alienated Progressives He promised a lower tariff but was unable to get it passed He returned to public sale some of the federal lands Roosevelt had withdrawn to protect the environment
The Progressive Presidents Who were Progressive Presidents? Roosevelt became infuriated w/ Tafts performance and he decided to challenge Taft for the Republican nomination in 1912 but Taft won his partys nomination Roosevelt decided to accept the nomination of a new third party known as the Bull Moose Party This split w/in the Republican Party helped Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson a professor of government, President of Princeton University, and Governor of New Jersey to win the election. Wilson was cool and logical and shared Roosevelts belief in a strong Presidency Wilson promised Americans a New Freedom taming big business, encouraging greater competition, and eliminating
special privileges The Progressive Presidents Who were Progressive Presidents? During the Progressive Era public attitudes towards unions began to change One event that contributed to this was the fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in 1911 Killed 146 garment workers and sympathy for the workers grew when it was learned that the factory doors had been bolted shut from the outside The building lacked a sprinkler system and it had an inadequate fire escape Soon after this tragedy Congress soon passed legislation sympathetic to unions
The Progressive Presidents Who were Progressive Presidents? Wilson especially focused his attention on attacking the tariff, the banking system, and trusts. Once elected Wilson quickly pushed several major reforms through Congress. Wilson was a strong believer in protecting Americas natural wonders. One of his most important pieces of legislation was the establishment of the National park Service in 1916 This measure brought 40 existing parks and monuments under federal protection Purpose of the National Park Service was to conserve the natural scenery, historic objects and wildlife for the enjoyment of the American people
The Progressive Presidents Who were Progressive Presidents? Department of Labor (1913) Congress created a separate Cabinet post to study problems of labor, collect statistics and enforce federal labor laws Purpose of the department was to promote and develop the welfare of working people, and to improve their working conditions Clayton Anti-trust Act (1914) provision of this act prevented courts from applying anti-trust laws to restrict unions. Also banned the use of federal injunctions (court orders) to prohibit strikes in labor disputes Child Labor Act (1916) Wilson passed a law prohibiting the sale if goods created by child labor in interstate commerce. This law was overturned by the US Supreme Court two years
later The Progressive Presidents Who were Progressive Presidents? The Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve Board a government agency that controls monetary policy. Sets the interest rates at which it lends $$ to banks decides how much of their money banks can lend buys government bonds to affect the amount of money in circulation Womens Suffrage Movement What was the impact of womens suffrage? In the early 19th century the US was a patriarchal society men held positions of authority and women were considered to be inferior.
Women lacked the right to vote, serve on juries, hold public office and were excluded from public life Left in charge of the home and children In most states once a woman married she lost control of her property and waged to her husband Mid 19th century some women began to organize 1848 they held a convention in Seneca Falls, NY. Passed a resolution paraphrasing the Declaration of Independence proclaimed that women were equal to men and deserved the right to vote. Womens Suffrage Movement What was the impact of womens suffrage? After the Civil War women reformers hoped that freed slaves and women would be enfranchised at the same time Women reformers were bitterly disappointed when the 14th and
15th Amendment gave citizenship and the right to vote, or suffrage, tom ale freedmen but not to women. 1872 Susan B. Anthony a prominent reformer attempted to vote in Rochester, NY on the grounds that she was a citizen and had that right under the 14th Amendment Judge refused to grant her the right to vote 1874 the Supreme Court then ruled that although women were citizens they could not vote Voting, according to the court, was not necessarily a privilege of citizenship Womens Suffrage Movement What was the impact of womens suffrage? The fact that women did not have suffrage continued to be seen as a symbol of their inferior status and a violation of basic
democratic principles Anthony and other women reformers were able to obtain suffrage in a number of western states but they could not succeed in introducing a constitutional amendment requiring all states to give women the vote By 1890 the failure to achieve womens suffrage led to several womens groups to merge together into the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Womens Suffrage Movement What was the impact of womens suffrage? During WWI as men went off to Europe to fight
for democracy, millions of women took their places working in factories, mills, and mines. It seemed odd tom any to fight for democracy in other countries but to oppose it at home During WWI it became hard for opponents of womens suffrage to deny that women were the equals of men Shortly after Americans entry into the war, a proposed amendment (1919) established that no state could deny a citizen the right to vote in the basis of sex Ratified as the 19th Amendment to the constitution in 1920 Womens Suffrage Movement What was the impact of womens suffrage?
The 19th Amendment was a step forward in making the US a true democracy a system of government by the people. The fear that men would be swept out of office and replaced by women did not materialize The amendment also failed to bring about the equality of economic opportunity between the sexes that some of its sponsors had hoped for Most women continued to face discrimination and were paid less for the same work than their male counterparts. Womens Suffrage Movement What was the impact of womens suffrage? The passage of womens suffrage was the last notable reform
of the progressive era By 1920 the force of the Progressive Movement had spent itself Americans had met many of the challenges posed by industrialization and were once again poised for economic growth Temperance Movement What was the impact of Prohibition? Some progressives believed that a lot of the nations problems were tied in with the consumption and sale of alcohol The movement to rid the nation of alcohol was known as the temperance movement Three groups led the call for temperance: womens groups, business owners and
Christians Women led the call for temperance because alcoholism led to abusive men and loss of jobs The leader of the movement was a hatchet wielding woman by the name of Carrie Nation Temperance Movement What was the impact of Prohibition? 18th Amendment Passed The 18th amendment made the sale or consumption of alcohol illegal throughout the United States. American Literature and Art How were art and literature impacted? Late 19th century was one of the most fertile periods of American literature
Increasing rates of literacy, the rapid growth of urbanization, a rising population, and an increase in middle-class affluence provided a fertile environment for readers interested in understanding these rapid shifts in culture. Newspapers, magazines, and cheap dime novels created a market for literary works Improvements in transportation and communication made it easier to travel and to share experiences During these years realism defined as nothing more or less than the truthful treatment of material was the leading literary fashion American Literature and Art How were art and literature impacted? Realists described life with as much detail as they could Provided and opportunity to show the impact of
industrialization and social change on people Just after the Civil War the novels of Horatio Alger (18341899) praised hard work and discipline and saw wealth as a sign of divine favor. The story of each novel was simple a poor boy w/ few prospects significantly improves his position in life due to hard work and help from adults. Mark Twain (1835-1910) reflected the differences between pre-Civil War society and afterwards. His greatest work Huckleberry Finn treated the moral conflicts created by slavery American Literature and Art How were art and literature impacted? William Dean Howells (1837-1920) was an important magazine editor who promoted realism Jack London (1876-1916) wrote adventure stories, he wrote
about the conflict between civilization and nature. Henry James (1843-1916) his stories often depicted Americas wealthy upper class. Focused on the differences b/t American and Europe. Katie Chopin (1851-1904) notable woman novelist. Depicted conflict b/t our inward and outward lifestyles. Her book The Awakening (1899) was banned from many libraries across the nation. American Literature and Art How were art and literature impacted? Realism was the main style in the visual arts as well during these years James McNeill whistler (1835-1933) moved to Europe where he was influenced by modern French painters. Created some of the finest paintings in American art such as his
portrait of his mother. Winslow Homer (1836 1916) known for paintings featuring scenes of the sea, boats, and coastlines. Thomas Eakins (1844 1916) made portraits of friends, family, and people in the arts, sciences, and medicine. Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859 1937) was one of the most important African-America painters in this period. Paintings focused on everyday scenes, like banjo lessons. American Literature and Art How were art and literature impacted? Other painters in this period focused on the American West. Frederick Remington (1861 1909) and Charles Russell (1864 1926) painted and sculpted cowboys, Native American Indians and landscapes in romanticized scenes of life in the American West
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headright. system. 1690 - rice or "Carolina gold " introduced from Madagascar & slaves needed to grow and harvest it. NC was less successful as it didn't attract rich planters from VA, but poor frontiersmen who farmed.
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