The Policy-Making Process ESD 11 December 8, 2000 History of the Issue Problem Definition Policies and Methods of Analysis Policy Formulation What can we do? Policy Implementation How do we make it work Stakeholders/ Politics
The Policy-Making Process Policy Instruments Analyst's Frame Cast of Characters Stakeholder Frames Historical Why, How Analytic Methods Decision Makers
Current Conditions Identify the Options Influence Brokers Definition of Options &Means Definition of Strategy Identification of Impediments Evaluation of Impediments Negotiations Regulation
Legislation Enforcement Implementation Tactical Plan Definition of Constituency Formulation Definition of Needed Change Analysis Problem Definition Identify
Issues Problem Definition Issue Identification and Knowledge Base Lung and heart disease Evidence 400,000 + deaths per year attributable to Tobacco Addiction Young smokers Intentional nicotine blending Industry knowledge When (early) What (everything) Current Conditions
Political and Popular movement against tobacco Increasing fear of Cancer Definition of Needed Change Kessler Proposal Prohibit sales to < 18 yr olds Prohibit sales in vending machines Prohibit free samples Prohibit brand name advertising at sporting events
Prohibit advertising on clothing, tote bags, etc Prohibit any advertising within 1000 feet of a school Require any advertising to be black and white text Make distributors responsible for under age sales Create a $150 million fund for anti-smoking Policy Instruments Analysts frame Federal and State Public Health official Analytic methods available Epidemiology Health Causation: Hypothesis If you are a smoker you have a higher than normal probability you will die of respiratory cancer or heart disease
Economic Costs: Hypothesis Smoking is a societal ill. Persons who smoke place an unacceptably high burden on society in terms of loss of productivity and increased medical care requirements Rationale for Action FDA job description Interpretation or fact? Definition of the Means Legal -- State and Federal Courts Administrative -- Issue regulatory orders Assume the authority exists
Legislative -- Propose a change in the law Negotiation -- Bring all the parties to the table Political -- Create an alliance with the President Press -- Feed the media with consumable science Inertia -- do nothing and let the process go forward on its own momentum Cast of Characters On side of greater regulation Stakeholders Health Community Families of dead and dying smokers
Academic / Scientific Community (truth ) Some members of Congress Tax revenues Decision makers Some members of Congress Influence Brokers The President Ex senator Goldwater Why? Bastion of the ultra conservative right Cast of Characters On side of the Tobacco Industry Stakeholders Tobacco Companies
Smokers (tax) Advertising Companies Convenience Store Owners Billboard Owners Some members of Congress Tobacco States Contributions Decision makers Some members of Congress Influence Brokers Some members of Congress Specific members of the Scientific Community Definition of Constituency
Health Community Attorneys General Plaintiffs Bar (?) Families of dead and dying smokers Academic / Scientific Community Some members of Congress interested in increased tax revenues Definition / Evaluation of Impediments Tobacco $ and legal expertise
Insufficient funds Ability to remain at FDA Kessler specifically Congressional resistance Legal / administrative basis for position FDA does / does not have the authority Development of Strategy Attack the industry from as many sides as possible Continuous harassment Move as though the agency has the authority and the resources to enforce it
Force them onto your playing field Develop a coherent policy position on actions required of the industry Get them down and then kick them while they are down Tactical Plan Define required response by industry and assure that their actions are monitorable and enforceable within the resource base (or expected resource base) of the Agency Support (intellectually not financially) plaintiff suits against the industry
Provide information to the media Sway the influence brokers, particularly the President Negotiation / Regulation / Legislation Negotiate Move toward most acceptable position with industry Legislation Write / assist in writing any required change in laws Regulation Write the rules to be implemented and be certain that they are enforceable
Enforcement If all in the industry were to get together and not perform as agreed Anti-Trust Triple damages! RICOH (anti racketeering) Further control as a drug Single Player Fines (large) Imprisonment of executives (unpleasant) Back to the Top...
Arial Times New Roman Copperplate Gothic Bold TET12e_PPT_Tempate 1_TET12e_PPT_Tempate 2_TET12e_PPT_Tempate Equation Slide 1 The Keynesian Cross The Consumption Shortfall The Consumption Shortfall Non-consumer Spending Aggregate Expenditure Aggregate Expenditure A Recessionary Gap Recessionary Gap A Single Equilibrium Expenditure Equilibrium ...
Scalable Transactional Memory Scheduling. Gokarna Sharma (A joint work with Costas Busch) Louisiana State University. Agenda. Introduction and Motivation. Scheduling Bounds in Different Software Transactional Memory Implementations. Tightly-Coupled Shared Memory Systems.
Self-Organizing Map (SOM) (Teuvo Kohonen, 1982) Umí se učit bez dozoru. (unsupervised learning) Backpropagation (Arthur Bryson a Yu-Chi Ho, 1969) algoritmus učení vícevrstvé neuronové sítě Vyžaduje, aby neurony sítě neměly ostrý práh. Protože byl nepovšimnut, byl potom ...
However, cyclobutadiene is so reactive that it dimerizes before it can be isolated. And cyclooctatetraene adds Br2 readily. Look at MO's to explain aromaticity. => MO Rules for Benzene Six overlapping p orbitals must form six molecular orbitals. Three will...
Oliver Twist: the novel's protagonist. He was born into nothing but still is a great kid, and many people like him. Fagin: criminal that takes in children so he can make them do his bidding; he never commits his own...
Blue Onyx Deluxe, Blue Pearl Deluxe: Generally for 'customer-facing' presentations - Blue Pearl Deluxe is useful for one-on-one laptop presentations and for easy printing. Textures on the opening screen carry through the blue bands on text slides. - Blue Onyx...
Several months may be sufficient with sophisticated modelling (e.g. Cowling 2006) Difficult in tropical areas or areas with many different causes of ILI E.g. a sudden jump in influenza-like illness diagnoses in a population might be caused by an increase...
Tähtimalli (Kimball), 3nf (Inmon), Data Vault (Linstedt) Modulaarisuus, myös kuutiot ym raportoinnin tietomallit. Virta-malli tietojen keruu voisi olla oma modulinsa. Partitiointi historiatiedot omiin paikkoihin hidas levy tms.
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!