The Periodic Table Can Help You Cheat on Your Next Exam!
TMI the periodic table is telling you more than you want to know. Development of the Periodic Table Was developed in 1869 by Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer. But Mendeleev got credit because he provide its value.
There are many different ways to organize the periodic table. Understand Periodic Trends When elements are arranged in increasing atomic number, we can see repeating patterns in chemical and physical properties. Many of an atoms properties depend on its electron configuration. Also depends on how strongly electrons
are attracted to the nucleus. Periodic Trends Atomic Number & Atomic Mass Atomic Radii and Ionic Radii Ionization Energy Electron Affinity Electronegativity Metal, Metalloids & Nonmetals Groups 1A, 2A, 6A, 7A & 8A
Atomic Number & Atomic Mass The number of protons in an atom. The mass of an atom. Atomic Radii Result of effective nuclear charge Increases top to bottom and right to left Ionic Radii Trends Depends on effective nuclear charge and number of electrons.
Cations are smaller then their neutral counterparts. Anions are large. Nuclear charge increases ionic radius decreases. Ions with the same charge, increase in size as we move down the column. Ionization Energy Depends on effective nuclear charge and electron configuration. Increase as we move to left to right and
bottom to top on the periodic table. Electron Configuration Electron Affinity measure the attraction of an atom to th electrons. Electronegativity The ability of an atom to attract electron.
Metals Shiny luster. Conduct heat and electricity well. Malleable and ductile. Solids at room temp. High melting temp. Low ionization energies they often exist as ions. Where are metals on the periodic table?
Mellatoids Have characteristics of metals and nonmetals. Where metalloids on the period table? Nonmetals Vary in appearance. Are poor conductor of heat and electricity. Low melting temps. Some exist as diatomic molecule.
Often gain electron due to their electronegativity. Where are nonmetals on the Periodic table? Group 1A the Alkali Metals Soft metallic solids. Reactive with waster. have a charge of plus one. Element
Electron configurat ion Melting Point (C) density Atomic Radius (A)
1st Ionization Energy Reactivity with Water Lithium
[He] 181 0.53 1.34 520 Least
reactive Sodium [Ne] 98 0.97 1.54
496 Potassium [Ar] 63 0.83
1.96 419 Rubidium [Kr] 39 1.53
2.11 403 Cesium [Xe] 28
1.88 2.25 376 Most reactive Group 2A The Alkaline Earth Metals
Have typical metallic properties. Harder more dense and melt at higher temps. Have a +2 charge. Group 6A The Chalogens As you move down in this groups you go from nonmetal to metalloid. Some are gases at room temp some are solids.
Have a -2 charge. Group 7A, The Halogens Nonmetal diatomic molecules. High electronegativity. Have a -1 charge. Group 8A the Noble Gases They are inert nonmetal gases. Have a complete valence shell of electrons.
Have no charge. Effective Nuclear Charge How strongly outer electron are attracted to the nucleus this determine many atomic properties. Depends on nuclear charge and distance between nucleus and electrons
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