The Passive Voice Relevant terminology Subject Judy the house love we etc. Object direct vs. indirect Direct object: The dog chased the cat. Indirect object: The dog chased the cat up the tree. Indirect objects are introduced with a preposition (in, on, at, etc.) Verbs eat want love do develop etc. Transitive verb: The bird ate the bread on the ground. direct object D . indirect object Transitive verbs have a direct object (and possibly an indirect object) Intransitive verb: The children are sleeping. Intransitive verbs do NOT have a direct object. They may have an indirect object. Therefore, they cannot be used in the passive voice. Ex: The children are sleeping in the living room. . preposition + indirect object
Auxiliary verbs can could would should will may might etc. have / hasEx: They have gone home. be Ex: They are studying English. . . How to Form the Passive Voice Active voice Gerry hit the student. Passive voice The student was object + be Gerry hit subject + verb
the student + object The student was hit by Gerry. hit by Gerry. + main verb in past participle + (by subject) Only transitive verbs can be used in the passive voice. The accident occurred yesterday. OCCUR is an intransitive verb; there is no object. The cat killed the bird. The bird was killed by the cat. The bird died. DIE is an intransitive verb; no passive possible Other intransitive verbs: happen agree sit stand occur result stay belong Common intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs cannot be used in passive voice agree stand fall belong
arrive lie go consist occur live depend smile remain exist swim appear result wait cry sleep die happen stay laugh look become vanish respond cost
sit The Passive Voice - Uses When the subject is unimportant or understood James was given a promotion. (by the boss) To describe a process We are going to learn how beer is made. To avoid responsibility / to avoid identifying the subject Many mistakes were made. To describe a general truth Rice is grown in many countries. Forming the Passive Voice in different tenses Someone makes this car in Japan. subject verb object indirect object tense of the main verb = simple present BE must be in the simple present object + BE verb + past participle (+ by) + indirect object
This car is made in Japan. Someone is following her. tense of the main verb = present continuous BE must be in the present continuous object + BE verb + past participle (+ by) She is being followed. The police stopped him for speeding. tense of the main verb = simple past BE must be in the simple past object + BE verb + past participle (+ by) He was stopped by the police + indirect object for speeding. The teacher was marking the tests when I entered the room. tense of the main verb = past continuous BE must be in the past continuous
object + BE verb + past participle (+ by) The tests were being marked when I entered the room. Someone has hired Tina to be the new marketing director. tense of the main verb = present perfect BE must be in the present perfect object Tina + BE verb + past participle (+ by) has been hired to be the new marketing director. We will announce our decision at the meeting. tense of the main verb = future BE must be in the future object + BE verb + past participle (+ by) + indirect object Our decision will be announced at the meeting.
They are going to install the new computer system this afternoon. tense of the main verb = future with going to BE must be in the future with going to object + BE verb + past participle (+ by) The new computer system is going to be installed + indirect object this afternoon. The janitor hadnt locked the door. tense of the main verb = past perfect BE must be in the past perfect object The door + BE verb + past participle (+ by)
hadnt been locked by the janitor. Someone must do something immediately. Form of the main verb = must + infinitive BE must be in the form of must + infinitive object + BE verb Something must be + past participle (+ by) done immediately. Something could have hurt you. Form of the main verb = could + have + past participle BE must be in the form of could + have + pp object You + BE verb could have been
+ past participle (+ by) hurt. Sally totally agreed with me. subject verb indirect object Where is the object? There is no object; therefore, we cannot make the passive voice with this sentence. Im bored? Im boring? Im bored = feeling Something bores me Im bored (by something). The movie is boring = experience The movie is boring (me). Lets practise 1. My sister cut my hair. 2. Someone saw him running from the murder scene. 3. We must stop inflation now. 4. Someone stole my car. 5. Someone has fired John.
6. Someone wrote this book 200 years ago. 7. Someone fed the dog about an hour ago. 8. Our company built this bridge. 9. Who composed this symphony? 10. Someone should call the police. 11. People all over the world know Mickey Mouse. 12. The Czechs defeated the Brazilians in the final. 13. We must consider 2 factors. 14. Pollution has caused climate change. 15. Someone had murdered him. 16. Bad weather delayed our flight. 17. She arrived about an hour ago. 18. A car must have hit my cat. 19. Someone hasn't stolen my bicycle. 20. Has someone eaten all the cake already? 21. Someone smuggled the drugs across the border.
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