The Nervous and Endocrine Systems

The Nervous and Endocrine Systems

October 16 AP Psychology Good Morning Neuron Dance and Review /Video

Marks up to date Today: Nervous System and Endocrine System Homework: Mirror Neurons Article Response due Friday on Blog Quiz on Neuron and Nervous System next week (Monday) Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters (chemicals) released from the sending neuron travel across

the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action potential. Reuptake Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the

process of reuptake. This process applies the brakes on Lock & Key Mechanism Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors of the receiving neuron in a key-lock mechanism. Types of Neurotransmitters

Acetylcholine (ACh) Released at the neuromuscular junction Plays an important role in arousal and attention Loss of ACh producing cells is linked to Alzheimers Disease Too much = Spasms / Too Little = Paralysis Dopamine Affects neurons associated with voluntary

movement and pleasure Plays a role in learning, memory, and emotions Implicated in Parkinsons Disease and Schizophrenia Types of Neurotransmitters Serotonin prozac Found throughout the brain Appears to sets an emotional tone Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

Low serotonin levels are implicated in depression Some antidepressant drugs raise serotonin Endorphins Natural Opiates Shield the body from pain

Reduce pain by inhibiting or turning down neurons that transmit pain information runners high Types of Neurotransmitters Oxytocin Love and Social Bonding Hormone released when mothers give birth that stimulates lactation and breast feeding.

Released during sexual orgasm and plays a role in pleasure and emotional attachment to romantic partners. Can be a stress mechanism in women tend and befriend response Glutamate involved in learning and memory, as its key role is exciting neurons to fire Too much can cause migraines and seizures A factor in anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer, Parkinsons Types of Neurotransmitters

Norepinephrine (Adrenaline) Helps control alertness and arousal Undersupply can depress mood Oversupply leads to hyperactivity GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory

Oversupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia Agonists Antagonists The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Biological Foundations of Psychology Nervous System

Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord 99% of all nerve cells Peripheral Nervous System Network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to the other parts of the body. Brings info to and from the brain

The Peripheral Nervous System The Somatic Nervous System Consists of neurons that communicate between the body and the brain Motor Neurons Neurons that carry messages from the

spinal cord or brain to muscles and glands The Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic division Most active when you are angry, afraid, or aroused Increases heart

rate and breathing Stops digestion Fight-or-flight The Autonomic Nervous System Parasympathetic division Calms body Produces effects opposite to those

of the sympathetic division Reduces heart rate and breathing Restores digestion Rest and Digest Divisions of the Nervous System http:// 0E0s

The Hypothalamus Has Central Control of the ANS The hypothalamus is involved in the coordination of ANS responses One section of the hypothalamus seems to control many of the "fight or flight" responses; another section favors "rest and digest" activities

The Endocrine System The Endocrine System Controlled by the Hypothalamus

Helps coordinate and integrate complex psychological reactions Endocrine glands (organs of tissue) secrete hormones into the bloodstream Hormones are chemical substances (similar in function to neurotransmitters) that help regulate bodily activities. The Endocrine System

Thyroid gland Secretes hormones (primarily thyroxin) that control metabolism How alert an energetic or how fat and thin you are Overactive Thyroid can mean insomnia, reduced attention span, agitation Too little thyroxin can mean feeling constantly tired Parathyroid glands

Control levels of calcium and phosphate which in turn controls levels of excitability The Endocrine System Pineal gland Secretes melatonin which regulates the sleep-wake cycle Disturbances in melatonin are responsible

for jet lag Pancreas Located under the stomach Regulates blood-sugar levels Secretes insulin and glucagon (hormones)

Related to metabolism, body weight The Endocrine System Pituitary gland Referred to as the master gland because it regulates many other glands Influences blood pressure, thirst, contractions of the uterus during childbirth, sexual behavior and interest, body growth etc.

Gonads Ovaries and testes secrete estrogens and androgens (testosterone) We know they play a role in sexual development, aggression and sexual drive but dont have the whole story. Adrenal glands

Secretes hormones in reaction to stress Activates (via epinephrine) the sympathetic nervous system. How much do you remember? You are to sketch a picture of the human body while highlighting the glands of the endocrine system. Label the glands and define what each does. Assignment

Answer the questions in your study guide package Complete the fill in the blanks and Neurotransmitter Scramble I will show you test marks and your

test Homework: Mirror Neuron

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