The Mass Society in an "Age of Progress"

The Mass Society in an "Age of Progress"

The Mass Society in an Age of Progress Nathan Caldwell The Growth of Industrial Prosperity New Products New Methods of rolling and shaping steel in late 1800s French and German lead in chemical industry Electricity utilized as cheap power, spawned many advances, inventions Thomas Edison Lightbulb

Joseph Swan electric lights for commercial use Guglielmo Marconi radio waves across Atlantic, 1901 Alexander Graham Bell Telephone, 1876 Electric Railroads/Streetcars 1880s Growth of Industrial Prosperity New Products Internal Combustion Engine, 1878 Used to power ships and naval vessels Gottlieb Daimler invented the light engine, key to the invention of the automobile Henry Ford mass-produced his Model T Series (1916) to make construction quick, efficient, and cheap Internal combustion engines were also used to power early aircraft: the Zeppelin (1900), and the Wright Flyer, invented by Wilbur and Orville Wright in 1903.

Growth of Industrial Prosperity New Markets Tariffs High taxes on imports were put on foreign-manufactured products to encourage consumers to buy from manufacturers within the country to strengthen the domestic economy Cartels Independent enterprises worked together to control prices and fix production quotas. Cartels were essentially formed to eliminate the competition that reduced prices of goods, giving the cartels a higher selling price without worrying about competition. Cartels were very common in Germany. Larger Factories Formation of cartels led to increased factory sizes, especially in the iron and steel, machinery, heavy electrical, and chemical industries. Greater competition led some factories to streamline and rationalize production as much as possible, like cutting labor costs by employing machines instead of human labor. The assembly line system, pioneered

by Henry Ford, allowed interchangeable parts to be put together quickly, cleanly, and in large numbers by workers. Growth of Industrial Prosperity New Patterns in an Industrial Economy Although the years following 1870 were described as an era of material prosperity, recessions and crises were not uncommon. In fact, it is suggested that there was a depression from 1873 to 1895, however, some countries werent as affected. German Industrial Leadership After 1870, the leader in the Second Industrial Revolution was Germany Britain took longer to transition from older equipment and methods from the First Industrial Revolution British investors were reluctant to invest in new plants; cartels were eager to invest in more factories

Germany placed a higher emphasis on technology and science than did Britain Growth of Industrial Prosperity New Patterns in an Industrial Economy European Economic Zones Industrial Core Great Britain, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Germany, west Austria-Hungary, and northern Italy High standard of living, decent transportation systems, relatively healthy and educated population Agricultural Core southern Italy, most of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, Balkan kingdoms, and Russia Largely agricultural, provided food and raw materials to the Industrial Core Soon, industrialized countries would develop methods for agriculture that would enable them to provide their own food, like chemical

fertilizers and machines for harvesting and threshing. Growth of Industrial Prosperity New Patterns in an Industrial Economy Spread of Industrialization After 1870, Industrialization began to spread to beyond western and central Europe and North America. Development in Russia and Japan was rapid. Just as in the First Industrial Revolution, the early workers in Russia and Japan worked long hours in unsanitary and unpleasant conditions. A World Economy By 1900, the world economy was very prosperous because many countries that participated owned special resources that other countries wanted. This included the European importing of beef and wool from Argentina and Australia, coffee from Brazil, nitrates from Chile, iron ore from Algeria, and sugar from Java. European capital was also risked in investments in thirdworld countries. These risks were often rewarded with high rates of return.

Growth of Industrial Prosperity Women and Work: New Job Opportunities Early Jobs for Women Despite the argument made by men that women should be exclusively in the house, many women found it necessary to obtain a job to make ends meet. Some jobs such as sweating, the subcontracting of piecework as for a tailor, allowed women to earn wages while still working at home. White Collar Jobs After 1870, new jobs became available for women in the service, or white-collar, field. Some of these jobs included working as clerks, typists, secretaries, postal occupations, and teaching. Prostitution Desperate women who could not work a regular job tried to find economic refuge in prostitution. These prostitutes sometimes contributed to large parts of a citys population. In the 1870s and 1880s, the British government passed the Contagious Diseases Acts

which gave the government the right to examine prostitutes for diseases. These acts incited opposition from middle-class female reformers like Josephine Butler and her shrieking sisters who were known for discussing sexual matters in public. Growth of Industrial Prosperity Organizing the Working Class Socialist Parties German Socialism The two leaders, Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel, of the SPD (Social Democratic Party) in Germany, both organized the association around Marxist theories while campaigning for seats in the Reichstag. They claimed that they would negotiate for the working class. French Socialism Jean Jaures, the leader of the French Socialists, was independent and looked to the French revolutionary tradition rather than Marxism to justify socialism.

Results of Socialism As Socialist parties grew in many nations, an international organization founded to strengthen their position against capitalism called the Second International was created. The international labor holiday, May Day, was created by the Second International to justify organized labor strikes and demonstrations Growth of Industrial Prosperity Organizing the Working Classes Evolutionary Socialism or Revisionism Eduard Bernstein was a member of the SPD, who challenged Marxism, saying that the system was wrong. Because of the rapidly changing social environment in which the working and the middle classes grew closer and closer together, there was no need for a violent struggle or revolution between the two. Instead, the workers must combine and form political parties to be assured socialism through democratic means. Revisionist Marxists stated that socialism could be achieved through peaceful reforms from within a capitalist system.

The Problem of Nationalism Nationalism was a problem for Socialism because each Socialist system in each country had different issues and concerned. Because of this reason, Europe would never be able to fully unite under the Socialist flag. Growth of Industrial Prosperity The Role of Trade Unions Instead of joining Socialist parties, some workers united to form trade unions to better their working conditions. Although in Britain labor unions saw much success, they failed to develop as quickly on the continent. On the continent, trade unions were closely tied to socialist parties, each union having varying degrees of success. The Anarchist Alternative Some people who viewed Marxism as anti-radical became frustrated with the lack of revolutionary fervor and resorted to anarchism, the belief that true freedom could be achieved only after all state and social institutions had been abolished. Initially,

the movement was non-violent, however, some anarchists like Mikhail Bakunin and Lev Aleshker believed that well-trained revolutionaries could perpetrate so much violence that the state could be disintegrated. Because of this violent side of anarchy, many world leaders were assassinated including a Russian tsar (1881), a president of the French Republic (1894), the king of Italy (1900), and the president of the United States (1901). Emergence of a Mass Society After 1870, a new mass culture began to appear in Europe that included new patterns of industrial production, mass consumption, working-class organization, a larger and vastly improved urban environment, new patterns of social structure, gender issues, mass education, and mass leisure. Population Growth European population increased dramatically between 1850 to 1910, increasing from 270 million to 460 million inhabitants. Decline in death rate, increase in birth rate, as well as increased agricultural

production, better nutrition and food hygiene, cause increase in population. Emigration Terrible conditions in eastern and southern Europe and cheap fares to the Americas with the promise of a better life lured emigrants to America. Between 1846-1932, estimated 60 million Europeans left for America. Emergence of a Mass Society Transformations of the Urban Environment Urban dwellers made up more than half of European populations by 1914. By 1900, Londons population was over 6.5 million, and Berlins was 2.7 million. 147 cities had populations over 100,000 in 1900 compared to 21 in 1800. People driven to urban areas because of employment, improved health and living conditions.

Emergence of a Mass Society Transformation of the Urban Environment Improving Living Conditions Urban reformers like Edwin Chadwick, Rudolf Virchow, and Solomon Neumann pointed out that filthy living caused diseases. Public Health Act was an act passed in 1875 by Parliament that improved living conditions by prohibiting the construction of new buildings without running water and plumbing. Sewer systems began to appear in German cities in the 1860s. London constructed a large system of sewers that carried waste to a location outside of the city where it was chemically treated. However, many other sewer systems in other cities caused major pollution. Housing Needs Reformers such as V.A. Huber stressed the need for clean, affordable housing for urban dwellers, and Octavia Hill rehabilitated houses and built new buildings to create housing for 3,500 tenants. Lord Leverhulme constructed Port Sunlight, a special community for his soap factory workers.

Ebenezer Howard founded the garden city movement which advocated the construction of new towns separated by open country to provide recreational opportunities, fresh air, and sense of community. Letchward Garden City, founded in 1903, was the first garden city. Lawmakers tried to set and enforce building codes, however, they failed to meet the requirements of the working class. Emergence of a Mass Society Transformation of the Urban Environment Redesigning the Cities Cities were modernized and enlarged, replacing old defensive walls with parks and boulevards. Broad streets helped the military to quell civil disturbances and to beautify the cities. 1850 reconstruction of Paris under Napoleon III was most famous reconstruction, provided a model for other urban centers. Streetcars and Commuter Trains improved traffic flows

in cities. Emergence of a Mass Society Social Structure of the Mass Society Upper Class Divided into plutocrats and aristocrats; aristocrats had titles, but little money, and plutocrats were usually very wealthy because they were the owners of large businesses, but didnt have a title. As a result, many plutocrats and aristocrats intermarried, plutocrats for a title, and aristocrats for money, as was the case of Consuelo Vanderbilt marrying the Duke of Marlborough. Middle Classes The middle classes were divided into many groups, each of which was determined based on income. Most of the middle class members were well-off people who held good jobs. It was the middle class that stressed the importance of science and technology, as well as good conduct and

living proper lives. Emergence of a Mass Society Social Structure of the Mass Society The Lower Class Almost 80% of the European population belonged to the lower class, many of them working as landholding peasants, agricultural laborers, and sharecroppers, especially in eastern Europe. The number of agricultural laborers in western Europe was not many, however, most of the lower classes resorted to urban labor, working as artisans, semi-skilled laborers, and factory workers. Also, a large part of the unskilled lower class worked as domestic servants, almost 1 out of every 6 workers in Britain. Most were women. Urban workers experienced a betterment of living in their material conditions after 1871, when wages began to rise, efforts were made to improve housing, and workdays became shorter.

Emergence of a Mass Society The Woman Question: The Role of Women The woman question was used to refer to the debate over the role of women in society. Women were still largely considered inferior (legally, in fact) as expressed in Alfred Lord Tennysons poem The Princess. Marriage and Domesticity For women, marriage was largely an economic necessity. Because it was necessary to marry to economically sustain oneself, marriage rates increased and illegitimacy rates decreased. Birthrates and Birth Control Birthrates dropped during the late 1800s because of more advanced forms of birth control like condoms and contraceptives. In 1882, Aletta Jacob established the first family planning center in Amsterdam. The idea of family planning came originally from the need to control the poverty of the lower class, but the idea soon spread to middle class families as well.

Emergence of a Mass Society The Woman Question: The Role of Women The Middle-Class Family The family was the central institution of middle class life. Men provided the family income, while women focused on household and child care. Later, the woman was supposed to devote more time to child care and domestic leisure, providing and fostering her children in a constructive manner. Mothers were seen as the most important force in protecting children from the adult world, and was responsible for determining the atmosphere of the household through her character. Toys and games also served to educate young children and encourage them to use their knowledge. Sports were also created in boarding schools where most boys were sent to toughen them up. An alternative to athletics was the Boy Scout organization, a program founded in Britain in 1908 by Lord Baden-Powell where boys were given adventure as well as taught discipline and knowledge of life.

The Emergence of a Mass Society The Woman Question: The Role of Women The Working Class Family As opposed to middle-class women, working-class women were expected to work from a young age to support their family, however working-class women were not expected to work as much after wages on industrial jobs increased, so they could spend more time in the home. Working-class families also followed the middle class in limiting the size of their families, as children were viewed more as dependents instead of potential wage-earners. Improvements in living conditions and public health made it easier to choose to have less children. Emergence of a Mass Society Education in the Mass Society

Universal Elementary Education Many Western countries established primary school systems throughout Europe and North America run through the government in order to create citizens with knowledge to be more successful in life and inculcate the middle-class virtues of hard work, thrift, sobriety, cleanliness, and respect. In states like France and Austria, primary education was provided free-ofcharge. Female Teachers Women were given job opportunities for teaching school because of the demand created by compulsory schools. Women were considered natural for this role because it reflected their role as nurturers of the family. Soon, colleges for women to learn how to teach were established, giving women a chance to make a large impact on their society. Emergence of a Mass Society Education in the Mass Society Literacy and Newspapers

An immediate result of compulsory schooling was a decreased illiteracy rate, eliminating illiteracy in much of western Europe and North America. However, illiteracy rates in eastern Europe, where little public schooling was available, were very high, ranging above 70%. Newspapers and magazines soon became popular after the 1870s after the dramatic increase in literacy. Yellow press was a popular form of journalism of the day. Written in easy-to-understand style, these newspapers featured articles for everyone, including details of crimes, gossip, and sports. Mass literature like pulp fiction and specialty magazines also became popular. Emergence of a Mass Culture Mass Leisure Mass leisure was what was considered fun while not at work. After the advent of the weekend, mass leisure became something that all people could enjoy, even the

working class. Places like Blackpool, Coney Island, athletic events, and beaches attracted workers from cities to take day-trips to relax and enjoy not working. Music and Dance Halls Music and Dance Halls became popular during the late 1800s, and even more popular by the 1900s. Music halls catered more to families and lower-class audiences, while dance halls were more oriented for adults. Emergence of a Mass Culture Mass Leisure Mass Tourism Because of increased wages, more families were able to afford vacations, often paid ones. Thomas Cook set up a company that offered railroad trips on regular bases by renting special trains and lowering prices to attract more people. He offered trips to

Paris as well as to Switzerland later on. These trips were affordable to every social class, allowing even the lower class to take weekend excursions. Thomas Cook's legacy lives on in the form of a charter service mainly dealing with air charters. Team Sports Playing and watching sports was also considered mass leisure. As well as the benefit of fun, sports offered training for adolescents and adults alike. Professional Sports Leagues like the Football (Soccer) Association in Britain, and the American and National Leagues (Baseball) in America allowed workers to experience cheap mass leisure. The National State Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy Reform in Britain By 1871, Britain had a functioning two party system that was pushed along by the expansion of suffrage. Reform Act of 1867 was a precursor to the Reform Act of 1884, which

gave the right to vote to all males who paid regular rents and taxes, however females were excluded. The Irish Home Rule was a proposal by Charles Parnell that would give the people of Ireland a parliament, but not complete independence. A bill was drafted in 1886 by William Gladstone to give these demands to Ireland, however they never were passed by Congress and the Ireland question remained unsolved. The National State Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy The Third Republic in France After fighting broke out after Bismarck forced France to become more liberalized, a new constitution was drafted, establishing the Third French Republic, complete with universal male suffrage, bicameral legislature, as well as a president with a term of seven years. This Republic lasted 65 years.

The Commune An independent republican government formed after the monarchists gained control of the National Assembly that attempted to rule France, but was put down French troops after a short war that gave women the opportunity to show that they could do men's work: fight. However, these actions were in vain, ending the deaths of thousands of Commune defenders and the deportation of more than ten thousand to the penal colony of New Caledonia. General Georges Boulanger A popular military leader who attempted to lead a coup d'etat with the support of those disgruntled by the Third Republic. By 1889, he had gained enough power and support to the point where he could overthrow the government, however he feared for his life and fled to Britain. The National State Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy

Spain In Spain, a parliamentary system was created under King Alfonso XII in 1875. After the loss of the Spanish American War, in which Spain lost the territories of Cuba and the Philippines to the United States, a group of intellectuals called the Generation called for political and social reforms. After violence erupted in 1909, the military brutally suppressed the rebels. The revolt and repression made it clear that reform would not be easy in Spain. Italy By 1870, Italy had emerged as a geographically united state, however, loyalties to towns and families were placed above loyalty to the state. Also, sectional differences between the poverty-stricken South and the industrial North weakened any sense of unity. Also, less than 10% of the population was able to vote. The National State Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order

Germany The creation of the Reichstag, a German parliament based on universal male suffrage, did little to improve democracy in Germany largely because of the policies of Bismarck, the chancellor Bismarcks policies Kulturkampf A series of acts passed by Bismarck that limited the power of the Catholic Church in Germany. He was supported by the liberals in the Reichstag. Bismarck, with the aid of the Reichstag, created a social security system with sickness, accident, and disability benefits as well as pensions. He was stopped from trying to quell socialism in 1890 when he was fired by Emperor William II. The National State Central Europe: Persistence of the Old Order Austria-Hungary In order to unify the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, a combination of religious and bureaucratic force was used. In Hungary, there was an ethnicity problem, only

temporarily solved by Magyarization, an action taken by the people of Hungary in order to provoke a sense of nationalism, the Magyar language was taught in schools, and was the only language used by government and military officials. Russia Tsar Alexander III allowed no democratic reforms because he believed that reforms were what got his father, Alexander III, assassinated. He used a strict bureaucracy in conjunction with a strong military to ensure the unity of his country. He also implemented Russification, a social program that limited the public schools in Russia to speak strictly Russian, a policy that angered many social groups in Russia, considering that true Russians made up a minority. SPRITE Social Weekend, Coney Island, Blackpool, mass transit, day-trippers, population growth, white-collar jobs, domestic servants, prostitution, Contagious Diseases Act, SPD, Liebknecht and Bebel, Jean Jaures, May Day, evolutionary socialism, Bernstein, mass society, emigration, urban populations, V.A. Huber

and Octavia Hill, Port Sunlight, Garden City movement, plutocrats, Consuelo Vanderbilt, the woman question, family planning, sports, Boy Scouts, mass education, female teachers, yellow press, mass leisure, music and dance halls, Thomas Cook, team sports, Magyarization, Russification Political Revolutionary socialism, anarchy, Michael Bakunin, Reform Act of 1884, Irish Home Rule, Third French Republic, Commune, General Georges Boulanger, Spanish-American War, Cuba and Philippines, Reichstag, Bismarcks welfare legislation Religious Christian and Catholic trade unions, kulturkampf Ideas Edison, Marconi, Daimler, Swan, Ford, Wright Brothers, evolutionary socialism Technology Steel, electricity, chemicals, internal combustion engine, airplane, assembly line

Economic Tariffs, cartels, larger factories, depression, German factories, agriculture, Asian factories, trade unions

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