THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM HOMEOSTASIS male & female reproductive organs work together to produce offspring female reproductive organs also contribute to sustaining the growth of embryos and fetuses
Sexual Reproduction process by which organisms produce offspring by making germ cells (gametes) fertilization: when male gamete (sperm) unites with female gamete (secondary oocyte) fertilized egg males & females have anatomically distinct
reproductive organs that function to 1. produce gametes 2. facilitate fertilization 3. sustain growth of embryo & fetus (female) Reproductive Organs Males Gonads: testes
Ducts store & transport gametes Accessory Sex Glands Supporting
Structures Penis Females Gonads: ovaries Ducts
transport gametes Accessory Sex Glands Supporting Structures:
Uterus Male Reproductive System Organs: 1. Testes 2. system of ducts 3. accessory sex glands 4. supporting structures:
scrotum penis Functions of the Male Reproductive System 1. Testes produces sperm & the male sex 2. 3.
4. 5. hormone Testosterone (T) Ducts transport, store, & assist in maturation of sperm Accessory sex glands secrete most of liquid portion of semen Penis contains the urethra, passageway for
ejaculation of semen & excretion of urine Scrotum protects temperature-sensitive testes from temperature fluctuations Scrotum a supporting structure for the testes features: loose skin & superficial fascia attached from
root of penis externally: raphe: median ridge that separates scrotum into right & left sides internally:
scrotal septum: divides scrotum into 2 sacs, each with 1 testes Scrotum - 2 features continued: dartos muscle: smooth muscle fibers contraction causes wrinkled appearance (reduces heat loss)
cremaster muscle: skeletal muscle 2 features regulate temp of testes: 1. location outside trunk keeps temp 2 3 C lower than core body temp 2. in response to cold temps, both muscles contract moving testes closer to body so can absorb body heat
Testes (plural)/ Testis (singular) aka testicles paired oval glands develop near kidneys begin descent into scrotum thru inguinal canals during latter half 7th month gestational age leading edge covered with peritoneum called tunica vaginalis
Hydrocele: serous fluid collects between this & testis (injury or inflammation of epididymis) Hydrocele Testes - 2
tunica albuginea: internal to tunica vaginalis dense irregular CT extends inward into testis forming septa: divide testis into series of 200 300 lobules (internal compartments) each lobule contains 1 3 coiled seminiferous tubules : *site of production of semen
spermatogenesis: process by which seminiferous tubules produce sperm Testes Seminiferous Tubules 2 types of cells: 1. spermatogenic cells
arise in yolk sac & enter testes during 5th wk of development: remain dormant until puberty 1 spermatocytes, 2 spermatocytes, spermatids, sperm cells (layers of progressively more mature cells) 2. Sertoli cells
function in supporting spermatogenesis Spermatogenesis Sertoli Cells aka sustentacular cells extend from basement membrane lumen of tubule
held together by tight junctions form obstruction known as the blood-testis barrier: all substances must pass thru Sertoli cells to reach developing sperm cells (after spermatogonia) Sertoli Cell
Functions of the Sertoli Cells 1. nourish spermatocytes, spermatids, & 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
sperm phagocytoze excess spermatid cytoplasm as they develop into sperm control movements of spermatogenic cells & release of sperm into lumen of seminiferous tubules produce fluid for sperm transport secrete hormone inhibin
mediate effects of T & FSH Leydig Cells interstitial cells (between seminiferous tubules) *secrete T Sperm
~300 million sperm complete spermatogenesis/d ~60 m m long once ejaculated last ~48 hours w/in female reproductive tract Hormonal Control of the Testes
Ducts of the Male Reproductive System fluid secreted by Sertoli cells generates pressure which pushes sperm & fluid along lumen of seminiferous tubule eventually released as ejaculate Epididymis epi = over or above / didymis = testis
aka: ductus epididymis plural:epididymides comma-shaped organ lies along posterior border of each testis 1. ductus epididymis 2. head 3. body 4. tail
Ductus Epididymis ~6 m in length pseudostratified columnar epithelium lined with microvilli called stereocilia increase surface area for reabsorbing degenerated sperm
surrounded by smooth muscle Function of epididymis: *sperm maturation (acquire motility & ability to fertilize an ovum) smooth muscle contraction propels sperm into ductus deferens sperm storage (viable up to several months)
Ductus Deferens/ Vas Deferens ascends along posterior border of epididymis inguinal canal entering pelvic cavity loops over ureter passes down posterior surface of urinary bladder terminal end is dilated = ampulla
pseudostratified columnar epithelium 3 layers smooth muscle (inner & outer layers longitudinal, middle layer circular) Function of Vas Deferens Function: 1. conveys sperm from epididymis urethra by peristaltic contractions
2. sperm storage (several months) sperm not ejaculated are reabsorbed Vasectomy main method for sterilization of males portion of each vas deferens is cut out & ends
ligated sperm production continues but do not reach exterior degenerate & destroyed by phagocytes Ejaculatory Ducts formed by union of duct from seminal vesicle
& ampulla of ductus deferens pass inferiorly & anteriorly thru prostate gland terminate in prostatic urethra where they eject sperm & seminal vesicle secretions just before the release of semen from urethra to exterior
Urethra shared terminal duct of reproductive & urinary systems passes thru: prostate deep muscles of perineum penis
portion thru corpus spongiosum of penis ends at external urethral orifice Parts of Male Urethra Accessory Sex Glands secrete most of liquid portion of semen Include:
1. Seminal Vesicles 2. Prostate 3. Bulbourethral Glands Seminal Vesicles aka seminal glands paired, convoluted, pouchlike structures posterior to base of urinary bladder (superior
surface) & anterior to rectum *secrete alkaline, viscous fluid: (~60% of vol of semen) fructose prostaglandins clotting proteins (different from those in blood)
Seminal Vesicles Fluid alkaline to neutralize acidic environment of male urethra & female vagina (acids inactivate or kill sperm) fructose:used for ATP production in sperm prostaglandins contribute to sperm motility & viability clotting proteins help semen clot after
ejaculation Prostate single, donut-shaped gland ~size of a golf ball inferior to urinary bladder surrounds prostatic urethra increases in size from birth to puberty when
it expands rapidly until ~ age 30, remains stable ~ age 45, further enlargement may occur after that Prostatic Fluid milky, slightly acidic ~25% of vol of semen empties urethra thru many prostatic ducts contains:
1. citric acid (ATP production in sperm) 2. several proteolytic enzymes PSA: prostate-specific-antigen 3. acid phosphatase (function unknown) 4. seminalplasmin: bacteriocidal Bulbourethral Glands aka Cowpers glands
pea sized, inferior to prostate gland on either side of membranous urethra ducts open into spongy urethra secrete 1. alkaline fluid (protects sperm from acidic environment of spongy urethra) 2. mucus lubricates end of penis & lining of urethra (decreases # of sperm damaged
during ejaculation) Semen mixture of sperm & seminal fluid (secretions of seminiferous tubules, seminal vesicles, prostate, & Cowpers glands) average vol: 2.5 5 mL with 50 150 million
sperm/mL <20 million sperm per mL probably infertile pH: 7.2 7.7 provides sperm with: 1. transportation medium 2. nutrients 3. protection from hostile acidic environment of male urethra & female vagina
Penis contains urethra passageway for urine & semen Parts: 1. Body 2. Glans Penis 3. Root
Body of the Penis Corpora Cavernosa: 2 dorsolateral masses Corpus Spongiosum: midventral mass spongy urethra
w/in Circumcision portion of prepuce (fore skin)surgical excised 3 4 days after delivery or 8th day for Jewish rite
Voltare invented electricity and also wrote a book called "Candy". Gravity was invented by Issac Walton. It is chiefly noticeable in the Autumn, when the apples are falling off the trees. Kids On Culture... Bach was the most famous composer...
A Level PE Coursework. Overview. The coursework is worth 15% of the total A Level PE qualification (exactly the same as the practical performance) ... Apply appropriate principles and methods of training and SMART(ER) targets to a plan designed to...
Identify how mindfulness can be used in TR practice to address a variety of diagnoses and apply to the Leisure Ability Model by providing at least one example. Mindfulness quiz. Count the number of these statements that apply to you....
While cosmetic surgery is generally not deductible, discretionary medical costs may be deducted where the procedure affects the structure or function of the body. Take, for example, procedures that facilitate pregnancy by overcoming infertility.
Neutrons are scattered by inhomogeneities in the scattering length density of a material Chemical contrast matrix "particle" And, by inhomogeneities in the magnetization (magnetic moment per unit volume) of a material Magnetic contrast
Middle Colonies Class System. Upper Class: Rich Farmers, Doctors, Lawyers, Mill Owners, Owners of large lands rented to tenant farmers. Entrepreneurs: risked their capital by buying land, equipment, and supplies and selling them for a profit
However, Italy became one nation only in 1861 and since then it includes the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. It was a kingdom until 1946 after the second World War, where Italy sided with the German Nazis. Italy is a...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!