The Heart - Grey Parrot

The Heart - Grey Parrot

Homeostatic imbalances Pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium Endocarditis bacterial infection of the endocardium can lead to valvular stenosis Myocardial infarction heart attack/coronary Heart block any damage to the AV node results in irregular beating of ventricles Murmurs abnormal or unusual hearts sounds

ECG: normal and abnormal Alterations in Electrocardiogram Clinical Cardiology Concepts for V 20-3 Cardiac Output Cardiac Output - the amount of blood

pumped by a ventricle per minute. Units may be in milliliters or Liters per minute. Heart Rate - number of cardiac cycles per minute. Average for males = 64-72/min. Average for females = 72-80/min. Stroke Volume - amount of blood pumped out of a ventricle each beat. Average resting stroke volume = 70 ml. Cardiac Output CO (mL/min) =SV (70 mL/beat) X HR (75 beat/min)

Cardiac output = stroke volume X heart rate = 5250ml/min SV= EDV - ESV Stroke volume = end diastolic volume end systolic volume Cardiac reserve is the difference between a persons maximum cardiac output and cardiac output at rest. Frank Starling Law of the Heart

The more cardiac muscle is stretched within physiological limits, the more forcibly it will contract. Rubber band analogy Increasing volumes of blood in ventricles increase the stretch & thus the force generated by ventricular wall contraction. Greater stretch means more blood volume is pumped out, up to physical limits. Regulation of stroke volume Preload is the degree of stretch on the

heart. Contractility is the force of ventricular contractions. Afterload is the pressure that must be exceeded to eject blood from the ventricles. The Frank-Starling law of the heart preload is the critical factor controlling SV (stroke volume). Regulation of heart rate When blood volume drops or the heart is

weakened, SV drops and the HR increases. Positive chronotropic factors increase HR. Negative chronotropic factors decrease HR. Extrinsic regulation by the ANS Sympathetic nervous system increases firing of the pacemaker and enhances Ca2+ entry into heart cells. Parasympathetic nervous system reduces heart rate through ACh which opens K+ channels. Under resting conditions the PNS is dominant

Chemical Regulation Hormones Epinephrine enhances HR and contractility Thyroxine enhances effects of Epi and NE and leads to slower more sustained increase in HR Ions Hypocalcemia (Ca2+)depresses the heart; Hypercalcemia prolongs the plateau phase and lead to heart irritability

Hyperkalemia (K+) may lead to heart block and cardiac arrest; hypokalemia leads to arrhythmia and weakened contractions. Excess Na+ blocks Ca2+ inflow, decreasing contractile strength Other Factors Exercise leads to a reduced HR when at rest. Working large body muscles for at least 20 minutes elevates cardiac output and accelerates metabolism.

Athletes have a larger heart and a resting HR of 40-60 beats per minute Increased temperature increases heart rate; decreased temperatures reduce heart rate and oxygen needs. Homeostatic imbalances Congestive heart failure Caused by Coronary artherosclerosis Caused by Persistent high blood pressure Caused by Multiple myocardial infarcts

Left side failure Pulmonary congestion Rights side failure Peripheral congestion Angina Pectoris Medical term for chest pain due to coronary heart disease. It occurs when the myocardium doesnt get as much blood (Oxygen) as it needs. Insufficient blood supply is called ischemia. May initially occur during physical exercise, stress, or extreme temperatures. It is a sign of increased risk of heart attack.

Cardiac Arrhythmias Arrhythmias irregular heart rhythms that may lead to fibrillation Tachycardia: Heart rate in excess of 100bpm Bradycardia: Heart rate less than 60 bpm Sinus arrhythmia: Heart rate varies 5% during respiratory cycle and up to 30% during deep respiration Premature atrial contractions: Occasional shortened intervals between one contraction

and succeeding, frequently occurs in healthy people Aneurysm Weakness of the wall of an artery causing an abnormal enlargment or bulge. The aorta or the arteries that supply the heart, brain, legs or kindeys are most commonly affected. Atherosclerosis (Arteriosclerosis)

Narrowing and hardening of arteries and impairment of blood flow due to the deposition of fatty materials and calcium in their walls. Risk factors include: smoking inactivity diabetes high blood cholesterol personal or family history of heart disease Atherosclerosis Animation

Resources Heart Sounds & Cardiac Arrhythmias Live Cardiac Exam Video

Anatomy Links Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Cycle Graphics Interactive Physiology Review AP II Notes Homepage Conducting System of Heart

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