The cold war at home - Mr. Kraft's Social Studies Classes
THE COLD WAR AT HOME Day 1 Fear of Communist Influence In the early years of the Cold War many Americans believed that there was good reason to be concerned about the security of the United States. Communists were dominate in Eastern Europe and China. Americans were fearing that communism would spread.
At the height of World War II around 100,000 Americans claimed membership in the Communist Party People feared these Americans had more loyalty to the Soviet Union than America. Loyalty Review Board Strong anti-Communist Republicans started to accuse Truman of being soft on communism. In response to this in 1947 Truman set up the Federal Employee Loyalty Program.
Its purpose was to investigate government employees. They would fire those who were found to be disloyal. Between 1947-1951 3.2 million employees were investigated. 2,900 resigned because they felt like the investigations violated their constitutional rights. 212 were dismissed. HUAC Other agencies investigated possible Communist influence, both inside and outside the U.S. government.
The most famous of these was the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). HUAC first made headlines in 1947, when it began to investigate Communist influence in the movie industry. The committee believed that Communists were sneaking propaganda into films. Hollywood 10 HUAC subpoenaed 43 witnesses from the Hollywood film industry in
September 1947. Many of the witnesses were friendly, supporting the accusation that Communists had infiltrated the film industry. Ten unfriendly witnesses were called to testify but refused. These men, known as the Hollywood Ten, decided not to cooperate because they believed that the hearings were unconstitutional. Because the Hollywood Ten refused to answer questions, they were sent to prison. Blacklist
Announcement of Blacklist We will forthwith discharge or suspend without compensation those in our employ and will not re-employ any on the ten until such time as he is acquitted or has purged himself of contempt and declares under oath that he is not a Communist. On the broader issue of alleged subversive and disloyal elements in Hollywood, our members are likewise prepared to take positive action. We will not knowingly employ Communists or a member of any party or group which advocates the overthrow of the Government of the United States by force, or by any illegal or
unconstitutional methods. Blacklist In response to the hearings, Hollywood executives instituted a blacklist A list of people whom they condemned for having a Communist background. People who were blacklistedapproximately 500 actors, writers, producers, and directorshad their careers ruined because they could no longer work.
Victims of the Blacklist What are some of the reasons the people in the video were blacklisted? What were some things that happened to them because of the blacklist? Think back to the 1950s and how afraid everyone was of communism. Do you think it was fair to blacklist these people from Hollywood? THE COLD WAR AT HOME
Day 2 BellRinger What was the Hollywood Blacklist in the 1950s? The Day The Cold War Came Home Video Discussion
What was the American government hoping to accomplish with the HUAC? What were at least three of the costs of this plan? Describe what American society was like in the 1950s in relation to the communist hunt. WATCH THE VIDEO AND COME UP WITH MORE QUESTIONS.
Spy Cases Stun the Nation Two spy cases added fear that was spreading like an epidemic
across the country The case of Alger Hiss In 1948 a former Communist spy, Chambers, accused Hiss of spying for the Soviet Union. Chambers produced government documents he claimed had been typed on Hisss typewriter. A jury convicted Hiss of perjury for lying about the documents. Nixon was a congressman at the time and gained fame for pursuing charges.
Hiss claimed his innocence, but in the 1990s Soviet documents proved Hisss guilt. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Read about the case of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg individually. Begin working on the questions that correspond.
Was there ANY evidence against the Rosenbergs? The prosecution presented this JELL-O box during the trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg for espionage. The prosecution contended it was used to verify identities at secret meetings. The prosecution stated that Julius Rosenberg cut apart the side panel giving his brother-in-law and sister-in-law, David and Ruth Greenglass, one half and Harry Gold the other. Each would present their two sections upon meeting.
Was there ANY evidence against the Rosenbergs? This is a sketch of the high explosive lens mold from the atomic bomb drawn by David Greenglass at the espionage trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and Martin Sobell. It was filed as Government Exhibit 2. Was there ANY evidence against the Rosenbergs?
This Nominating Petition for New York City Councilman was signed by Ethel Rosenberg to nominate Peter V. Cacchione as the Communist Party candidate. Create a Case With your group you will have to use the article and the evidence we discussed to create an argument. You group will be given one of the two tasks:
Explain why the Rosenberg's WERE guilty of espionage. Explain why the Rosenberg's were NOT guilty of espionage. You must present your argument to the class. Your group must have your argument written out. Your group must have three reasons why they were or were not guilty.
Espionage: casually, spying involves a spy ring, government and company/firm or individual obtaining information considered secret or confidential without the
permission of the holder of the information. COLD WAR AT HOME Day 3 1. What organization does the car represent? 2. What does the cartoon imply about
the methods of this organization? The Dot Activity You will participate in an activity in which you will form groups based on your secret identities. You will each receive a piece of paper Some are blank Some have a dot drawn on them There are fewer dots than non-dots When you receive your piece of paper you must secretly
look at it. If you receive a dot you must not reveal it to anyone. When you are done looking hide it or put it in your pocket. Goal of Activity The goal of the activity is to form as large of a group of non-dot members as possible Points: The largest group of non-dot students will win points
The whole group will lose if there is one dot member in your group Dot members will win points for being that only dot in a group. Advice: Since everyone in the class will deny having a dot you must look for any indication of suspicion If you suspect someone has a dot you should say out loud, _________ is a dot!
If you are a dot then you must bluff to convince others that you are not a dot. Ready? What questions do you have? On GO: You have 5 minutes to talk to each other and form groups with non-dot members. When I flash the lights, you must freeze in your place and talking must end immediately. No exceptions.
So, what? Raise your hand if you accused someone of being a communist? Why did you think they were one? Were they doing anything specific? Were you right? Were they a communist? Raise your hand if you were accused of being a
communist? How did you convince the person who accused you that you werent a communist? If you were accused of being a communist and were not raise your hand. How did it feel that people were basically calling you a liar? What were you doing to prove that you were telling the truth? So, what?
This activity was designed to allow you to experience the anti-communism hysteria and suspicion of the McCarthy Era in U.S. History during the 1950s During this ear, American turned on their fellow citizens and denounced them as Communist sympathizers based on little to no evidence. Who is Joseph McCarthy? Republican Senator Famous anti-Communist activists Why did he do this?
He wanted to be reelected, so he needed a good issue. He claimed that Communist were taking over the government Claimed he had a list of 205 know Communists working in the U.S Department of State (never produced a name) His tactics: Sensationalism Bullying
McCarthys Tactics McCarthyism: The practice of publicizing accusations of political disloyalty with little to no evidence Taking advantage of peoples concerns about communism He also charged the Democratic Party was guilty of 20 years of treason for allowing Communist infiltration into the government. He was careful to do his name-calling only in the Senate, where he had legal immunity that protected him from being sued for slander.
McCarthys Downfall The Republican Party did little to stop him because they thought it would help them win the 1952 presidential election. Margaret Chase Smith- led a group of six senators who spoke out against McCarthy. 1954- McCarthy made accusations against the U.S. Army Led to televised Senate investigation
McCarthys bullying of witnesses became center stage Public support was lost and the Senate condemned him for improper conduct. What commentary is this cartoon making on the actions of Senator Joe McCarthy?
Who is the Communist? We are going to practice using McCarthyism. You are given a picture of a person who was alive during the 50s and some information about them. You will have to decide with only the information you were given if that person is a Communist and why. Whos the Communist? SECRETARY OF STATE DEAN ACHESON Parents were immigrants (FROM CANADA).
Responsible for the loss of China to Communism (CRITICS FELT THAT HIS CONTAINMENT POLICY WAS TOO SOFT ON COMMUNISM AND HELPED LEAD TO A COMMUNIST VICTORY IN CHINA) Critics said he was soft on communism (THIS IS TRUE) Whos the Communist SENATOR MARGARET CHASE SMITH
Investigated the War Department during World War II (INVESTIGATED WHERE THEY WOULD PUT NEW US MILITARY BASES IN THE US) Nicknamed Moscow Maggie (SHE OPPOSED CERTAIN TACTICS TO ROOT OUT COMMUNISTS IN GOVERNMENT; SUPPORTERS OF THESE TACTICS SAID SHE WAS SOFT ON COMMUNISM AND GAVE HER THAT NICKNAME.) She stated the basic principles of "Americanism" were:
The right to criticize; The right to hold unpopular beliefs; The right to protest; The right of independent thought. (THESE ARE FROM A SPEECH SHE GAVE Declaration of Conscience-DENOUNCING SCARE TACTICS TO ROOT OUT COMMUNISTS) Whos the Communist JOURNALIST EDWARD R. MURROW Lived abroad during World War II
(TO REPORT ON WAR) Constantly clashed with his bosses (OVER CONTENT SHOWN ON NEWS PROGRAM THAT UPSET HIS BOSSES) Criticized US government officials (PART OF A JOURNALISTS JOB. FAMOUS FOR HIS CLASHES WITH SEN. JOE MCCARTHY) Whos the Communist?
BASEBALL PLAYER JOE DIMAGGIO Parents were Italian immigrants and were classified as enemy aliens during WWII (AS WERE MANY ITALIAN IMMIGRANTS REGARDLESS OF ANYWRONG DOING. THEY BECAME US CITIZENS AFTER WWII.) Grew up in San Francisco One of his wives divorced him for inflicting mental cruelty. (MARILYN MONROE)
Identifying Communists People were identified as communists for at times very silly reasons. Once a person was identified as a communisteven if not true their reputations were often destroyed. The information that was given about each person during the activity were sometimes the only pieces of information the public were given about a person. McCarthys Speech
You will be reading a speech McCarthy gave in 1950. Tips for reading the speech Read the questions first Annotate the speech in a way that will help you answer the questions. THIS WILL BE HOMEWORK IF YOU DO NOT FINISH. DO NOT RUSH. YOU WILL BE CREATED ON DEPTH OF YOUR ANSWERS.
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