The Age of Jackson

The Age of Jackson

Chapter 9: The Age of Jackson and Reform (18151855) I. The Adams (II) Presidency A. The Controversial Election of 1824 (Outline) * 4 Candidates Adams, Clay, Jackson Clay supported Adams in House Corrupt Bargain! B. Adams in Office (18251829) (Outline)

II.Era of the Common People A. Old Hickory * Election of 1828: Reflected sectionalism Personality of Jackson II.Era of the Common People B. Jacksonian Democracy & Rise of Mass Politics 1. Election of popular Jackson: stimulus for reforms

2. Mid 1820s: states dropped property / tax requirements to vote 28: voting increase 3x Jackson got support of common man 3. National Nominating Convention (1832): replace party leaders in picking president. 4. Modern Campaigns: rallies, slogans, attacks 5. Secret Ballots 6. Reforms in democracy reforms in social causes II.Era of the Common People

C. The Spoils System and Civil Service Reform 1. Spoils System & Patronage To the victor goes the spoils Positive & Negative aspects 2. Pendleton Act of 1883 * Party member assassinated Prez Garfield * Exams now required for govt jobs

III. Increasing Presidential Powers in Times of Sectionalism Sectionalism: Loyalty to states/section; viewing problems on a sectional/state level Jackson favored states rights; believed that the final authority rested w/ the Union A. In Support of States Rights 1. Maysville Road Veto (1830)

* Road w/in Kentucky: Maysville to Lexington III. Increasing Presidential Powers Sectionalism A. In Support of States Rights 2. Indian Removal Policy *Indian Removal Act (1830) * Worchester v. Georgia (1832) John Marshall has made his decision

* Trail of Tears (1838) III. Increasing A. In Support of States Rights 3. Limited Government (?) * Feared power of natl govt limit liberty * Used veto to restrict federal activity vetoed more acts than previous 6 prez * But actions increased power of prez vetoes

and actions earned nickname, King Andrew * Use of Kitchen Cabinet III. Increasing Powers B. In Support of the Union 1. Calhouns Doctrine of Nullification * Tariff of 1828: Tariff of Abominations * Reaction: SCs Exposition & Protest 2. Jacksons Reaction: Force Bill

IV. Jackson Declares War on the Bank *Re: Alexander Hamilton & National Bank *Henry Clay and the American System A. Powers: 1. Federal govt deposited all its revenue there 2. Used the money w/o paying interest

3. Controlled the amount of money in circulation by forcing state banks to maintain a certain level of specie reserves (money in coin) 4. Overall: stabilizing effect on the national economy B. Why did Jackson Hate the BUS? 1. Distrusted banks in general: lost money in state bank 2. Only trusted hard money: gold silver (Banks issued bank notes) 3. BUS: symbol of special privilege: seen as monopoly by the

rich and the business 4. Too much power: corrupting influence 5. Unconstitutional: Congress had no right to charter a bank (McCullough v. MD: yes!) C. The Big Veto Banks charter was up in the year 1836

Henry Clay: pushed renewal earlier (1832) to make it an election issue Jackson: vetoed renewing the bank Legally: be opened until 1836, but Jackson couldnt wait that long Jackson refused to deposit new funds and started to w/draw money from the bank New funds: deposited into state banks around the country

Opponents: pet banks D. The Effect on the Presidency Increased presidential power President: had power to do more than execute Congress policies Could make and change policy Independent actions set precedents for other presidents

to follow Critics: King Andrew E. The Effect on the Economy

Harmful effect on the economy Pet Banks: lent funds wildly w/o limitations Reckless spending lead to uncontrolled economy growth Western banks: issued bank loans w/o having the proper amount of adequate reserves Jackson: annoy at the spending Issued the Specie Circular : govt agents could only accept

gold and silver for public lands Land sales dropped; banks cut back on loans Plus bad farm years Panic of 1837. F. The Significance of the War Against the Bank 1.

Sectional victory: West/ South over North W & S: want more money in circulation: easy loans Also resented national bank control over state banks N: want more stability and control that comes w/ national bank 2. Supporters: Victory of democracy: common people over wealthy elite Democrats over Republicans 3. Legacy: distrustful of a national bank 4. Increased presidential powers

Martin Van Buren US Senator & VP of Jackson President during depression, Panic of 1837 Defeated in re-election William Henry Harrison

Nickname: Old Tippecanoe: fight against Tecumseh End to Indian resistance Slogan: Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too First really modern presidential campaign, w/ songs, slogans, and political rallies Died from pneumonia: April 1841

John Tyler First VP to be elevated to presidency by death of the president Was he to be an acting president or a true leader? Sectionalism marked his term and the admission of slave states James Polk Endorsed the concept of Manifest

Destiny Mexican War and Cession 5440 or Fight! Bitter quarrels b/w North and South over expansion of slavery Zachary Taylor Southern plantation owner, soldier, Indian fighter, hero of Mexican War Died after 16 months in office of

food poisoning Only son would serve in the Civil War as a general for the Confederate Army Millard Fillmore Born in a log cabin in rural NY Became prez after death of Taylor Signed controversial: Fugitive Slave Act (1850)

Marked the end of his political career. Franklin Pierce Two months before taking office, Pierce and his wife saw 11 year old son killed in a train wreck Cast a shadow over the White House during his presidency Signed : Kansas-Nebraska Act;

Bleeding Kansas VI. Spirit of Reform *Opportunities/ problems of Industrial Revolution/ National economy Second Great Awakening Civic virtue: good citizen for common good Spirit of Age of Jackson A. Temperance Movement

1. Issues Behind the Movement 2. Successes of the Movement VI. Spirit of Reform B. Womens Rights 1. Restricted Rights *World Anti-Slavery Convention (1840) 2. Gains (18281860) *State, not federal: divorce laws, control over property and children

*1869: Wyoming Territory: full suffrage VI. Spirit of Reform B. Womens Rights 3. Seneca Falls Convention (1848) *Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott *Declaration of Sentiments VI. Spirit of Reform We hold these truths to be selfevident: that all men and women are

created equal The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward women to establish absolute tyranny over herDeclaration of Sentiments VI. Spirit of Reform C. Care of the Mentally Ill * Early treatment Dorothea Dix If I inflict pain upon you, and move you to horror, it

is to acquaint you w/ suffering which you have the power to alleviate Lincoln: A woman in a cage. Medford: One mentally ill person chained, one in a closed stall for 17 years. Pepperell: One doubly chained, hand and foot; another violent. Granville: One often closely confined; now losing the use of his limbs from want of exercise VI. Spirit of Reform D. Public Education

* Voting required education Horace Mann * Wesleyan College: first college for women * Oberlin College: first coed college VI. Spirit of Reform D. Abolition Movement As country expanded, slavery issue more urgent

1. Abolitionist Activities * Spirit of Jacksonian Democracy * Emancipation w/o compensation * W.Lloyd Garrison: Liberator VI. Spirit of Reform On this subject, I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, w/ moderation. No! Tell a man whose house is on fire, to give a moderate alarm to tell the mother to

gradually [pull out] her babe from the fire into which it has fallen but urge me not use moderation in a cause like the present. I am in earnest I will not retreat a single inch AND I WILL BE HEARD! --Garrison, The Liberator VII. Spirit of Reform E. Abolition Movement 2. Leaders

* Frederick Douglas * Harriet Tubman * Sojourner Truth * Angelina & Sarah Grimke Underground Railroad Map of Underground Railroad Routes VII. Spirit of Reform Follow the drinking gourd! Follow the drinking

gourd! For the old man is awaiting to carry you to freedom If you follow the drinking gourd. When the sun comes back, and the first quail calls, Follow the drinking gourd The riverbank makes a very good road, The dead trees will show you the way Left foot, peg foot, traveling on, Follow the drinking gourd.

VII. Spirit of Reform E. Abolition Movement 3. Reaction in the North 4. Reaction in the South * Homework Questions: American Colonization Society; Divisions among Abolitionists

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