THE 511 NEW TESTAMENT THEOLOGY CLASS XIII: ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY 1.1 Introduction to Eschatology in NT theology Eschatology is a multidimensional phenomenon in NT Beloved, Beloved, now now we we are are children children of of Futuristic eschatology God, God, and and itit has has not not appeared appeared as as 22 yet yet what what we we will will be. be. We
We know know that that when when He He appears, appears, we we will will Realized eschatology be be like like Him, Him, because because we we will will see see Him Him just just as as He He is. is. (1 (1 John John 3:1-2) 3:1-2) Presence of the future in the here-and-now Already-not-yet aspect & inaugurated eschatology Final Parousia
Gods future has already invaded the present but is not yet fully here ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGYY 1.2 Some important questions in NT eschatology Immediacy and/or delay of Parousia Judgment and rewards Amillennial, postmillennial, premillennial Rapture question Degrees of judgment and rewards Millennial Kingdom and Eternal state
Is there a development in eschatology within the NT? Symbolical OR pre-, mid-, post-tribulation rapture Sequence of events before the End ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY Millennial Kingdom Exegetical views of Rev 20 Arguments for two views based on Rev 20 Amillennial view Millennium is symbolical and spiritual OT prophecies fulfilled in Christ and church No specific plan for Israel (some exceptions) Augutine; Luther; Calvin etc. Pre-Millennial Millennium is a literal Kingdom Duration is exactly 1000 years OR Duration is a lengthy period of time OT prophecies are literally fulfilled in the Millennium
Some OT prophecies apply to Gods people in general Papias; Justin Martyr; Irenaeus; Tertullian What What is is the the context context During thethe 1000 yrs During 1000 yrs of Rev 20:1-10? of Rev 20:1-10? ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY What is Satans binding? What is Satans binding? Does Does is is have have any
any Who sit sit on on thrones? Who thrones? bearing bearing on on the the Who are raised? Who are raised? Satan the bound & the abyss Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding key of and a great chain in his interpretation? interpretation? Satan bound & Who reigns w/ w/ Christ? Who
reigns Christ? hand. 2 And he laid hold of the dragon, the serpent ofdisarmed old, who isfor the devil and Satan, and bound him disarmed for Who are rest of the dead? Whoitare rest ofso thethat dead? yrs. it and sealed for a thousand years; 3 and he threw him into the abyss,1000 and shut over him, he 1000 yrs. What is first resurrection? What is first resurrection? would not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were completed;
after these things What is the second death? What is the second death? Johns Johns visionary visionary experience experience I I saw saw he must be released for a short time. 4 Then I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony of Jesus and because of the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received the mark on their forehead and on their hand; and they came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. 5 The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were completed. This is the first resurrection. 6 Blessed and holy is the one who has a part in the first resurrection; over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ Satan released and will reign with Himreleased for a thousand years. 7 When the thousand years are completed, Satan will &Satan final
battle & final battle be released from his prison, 8 and will come out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together for the war; the number of them is like the sand of the seashore. 9 And they came up on the broad plain of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints 10 And the devil and the beloved city, and fire came down from heaven and devoured them. Satan Satan who deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false disarmed disarmed prophet are also; and they will be tormented day and night forever and& ever. (Rev 20:1-10) judged & judged MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 AMILLENIAL VIEW Millennium literal OR symbolical interpretation? 1) Arguments that support Amillenial view symbolical view* Revelation is arranged in cycles, not chronologically 6th Seal (6:12-17), 7th Trumpet (11:15, 18), 7th Bowl (16:18) Transition b/w Rev 19 and 20 is like Rev 11 and 12 And the nations were enraged, and Your wrath came, and the time came for the dead to be judged, and the time to reward (Rev 11:18) 18
Depiction of the End in Rev 11:18 (cf. Rev 11-14 and Rev 19-20) Rev 12:5 continues from the beginning (Women clothed w/ sun) And she gave birth to a son, a male child, who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron; and her child was caught up to God and to His throne. (Rev 12:2) 5 Transition b/w Rev 19-20 similar Rev 20 goes back to beginning MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 AMILLENIAL VIEW bound & disarmed for 1000 yrs. What is the meaning of Satan Satan bound & disarmed for 1000 yrs. Satans spiritual binding not able to bind/deceive nations so that he would not deceive the nations any longer, (Rev 20:3) Nations able to come to full knowledge of God & Christ And the great dragon was thrown down, the serpent of old who is called the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. (Rev 12:9) 9 Now judgment is upon this world; now the ruler of this world will be cast out. 32 if I am lifted upwill draw all men to Myself. (John 12:31-32) 31 Or how can anyone enter the strong mans house and carry off his property, unless he first binds the strong man [Satan]? And then he will plunder his house. (Matt 12:29) 29
And He said to them, I was watching Satan fall from heaven like lightning. (Luke 10:18) 18 Binding + victory spiritual associated w/ Jesus life, death, resurrection MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 AMILLENIAL VIEW Binding and casting into Abyss in Rev 20 is Associated w/ Christs first coming & death and resurrection Spiritual binding enables Gospel-witness during last days 1000 yrs. is a symbol for lengthy time between 1 st & 2nd coming Gospel conquers nations spiritually Satans power limited Gospel influences nations and brings general blessings MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 AMILLENIAL VIEW Who sit on thrones? Who are raised? Who reign w/ Christ? Where Where does does this this reigning reigning take take place? place? Where does the reign take place? --- in heaven
Reigning happens where the thrones & Christ are in heaven Immediately I was in the Spirit; and behold, a throne was standing in heaven, and One sitting on the throne. (Rev 4:2; cf. 1:4; 5; 12) 2 He who overcomes, I will grant to him to sit down with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne. (3:21) 21 Reigning happens in heaven I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded (Rev 20:4a) disembodied state in heaven now Eternal state is when body is resurrected for ever and ever (22:5) MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 AMILLENIAL VIEW Reining and judging is in heaven with Christ now (Eph 2:5-6; John 5:25) Almighty, true and righteous are Your judgments. (16:7; 19:2) He who overcomes, I will grant to him to sit down with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne. (3:21) 21 They came to life as part of first resurrection whos they? Martyrs beheaded because of their testimony of Jesus (20:4)
All other believers thosenot worshiped the beast or his image (20:4) The rest of the dead didnt come to life until 1000yrscompleted. (20:5) Rest are the ungodly wicked not raised to life until final judgment First resurrection = heaven 2nd resurrection in NT, only implied Second death = final eternal death MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 AMILLENIAL VIEW Release of Satan and the Final Battle (Rev 20:7-10) Release of Satan final release of Satans spiritual forces Gog and Magog* the Final Battle (20:8) Analogous to Rev 16:12-16 and 19:19 one battle mentioned 3x the kings of the whole world, to gather them together for the war of the great day of God, the Almighty. they gathered them together to the place which in Hebrew is called Har-Magedon (16:12, 16) One final attack of the antichristian forces against the church camp of the saintsbeloved city reference to church firefrom heavendefeated sudden appearance of Christ** Not a specific military conflict but a spiritual battle MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 AMILLENIAL VIEW Evaluation of the Amillenial view Strengths and weaknesses Exegesis of the passages
Theological system, hermeneutics Relationship to other texts in the NT Relationship to the entire Bible Practical implications MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 PRE-MILLENIAL VIEW 1) Arguments that support Pre-Millenial view literal Millennium bound & disarmed for 1000 yrs. What is the meaning of Satan Satan bound & disarmed for 1000 yrs. Spiritual binding to completely disarm the Devil for 1000 yrs. 1000-yr. reign is a literal kingdom duration 1000yrs. OR lengthy time* Binding means complete inactivity not just hindering Compare binding of Sataninto Abyss loosedfor awhile Currently Satan is still very active (Lk 22:3; Acts 5:3; 2 Cor 4:3-4; 11:14; Eph 2:2; 1 Thess 2:18; 2 Tim 2:26; 1 Pet 5:8) 1000 yr. reign is a literal Kingdom during which Satan is inactive MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 PRE-MILLENIAL VIEW
Where Who sit on thrones? Who are raised? Who reign w/ Christ? Where does does this this Reigning takes place on earth by Christ and believers reigning reigning take take place? (5:9-10) place? I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them (20:4a) Who are they? Identical with martyrs* (beheaded 20:4b) OR believers in general? Most likely separate groups all believers** (3:21; 2:26; 1 Cor 6:1-2; Dan 7:9) And they sang a new song, saying, Worthy are You to take the book and to break its seals; for You were slain, and purchased for God with Your blood men from every tribe and tongue and people and nation. 10 You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to our God; and they will reign upon the earth. (5:9-10) 9 MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 PRE-MILLENIAL VIEW The nature of back to life in Rev 20 true resurrection and they came to life  and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. 5 The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years
were completed. This is the first resurrection [ ]. (20:4-5) back to life and resurrection used interchangeably Resurrection in the NT is always bodily not of the soul The rest of the dead ungodly wicked raised at final judgment First resurrection = bodily to the Millennial reign; 2 nd resurrection in NT, only implied the rest of the dead did not come to life until this happens after the Millennium for unbelievers for judgment Second death = final eternal death MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 PRE-MILLENIAL VIEW Release of Satan and the Final Battle (Rev 20:7-10) Satan literally released deceives the nations Final battle of Gog and Magog allusion to in Ezek 36-38* God intervenes no real battle camp of the saints/holy city most likely Jerusalem as the headquarter of the saints, probably all believers Final judgment of the people and Satan Eternal state MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 PRE-MILLENIAL VIEW Evaluation of the Pre-Millenial view Strengths and weaknesses
Exegesis of the passages Theological system, hermeneutics Relationship to other texts in the NT Relationship to the entire Bible Practical implications MILLENNIUN IN REV 20 PRE-MILLENIAL VIEW How does the Millennium fit into the rest of the NT? Where is a literal 1000 year reign mentioned elsewhere in NT? Key passages in the New Testament Jesus eschatological discourse (Matt 24/Mark 13/Luke 21) Acts (3:19-21) Paul (1 Thess 4:15-18; 5:1-11; 2 Thess 2:1-12; 1 Cor 15:23-28, 51-52) John (John 14:3; rest of Revelation) General Epistles (2 Pet 3:13) No NT passage clearly teach about the Millennium
OT prophetic writings (Isa 11; 65-66; Ezek 36-48 etc.) ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGYY As He was going out of the temple, one of His disciples said to Him, Teacher, behold what wonderful stones and what wonderful buildings! 2 And Jesus said to him, Do you see these great buildings? Not one stone will be left upon another which will not be torn down. 3 As He was sitting on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew were questioning Him privately, 4 Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign when all these things are going to be fulfilled? (Mark 13:1-4) What is the context and reference of the discourse? Many will come in My namewill mislead many. 7 When you Destruction of the 1) Beginning of birth pangsare(13:3-5) hear of wars...earthquakesfamines. These things merely the beginning of birth pangsyou will stand before governors10 The Temple (AD 70) or gospel must first be preached to all the nations14 But when you the End or both? see the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION standing where it Sings before the end should not bethosein Judea must flee to the mountains19 For 2) Temple & Tribulation AD 70 (13:14-23) those days will be a time of tribulation such as has not
Gospel preaching occurred since the beginning of the creation20 Unless the Lord had shortened those days, no life would have been saved; 24 But in those Temple Desecration days, after that tribulation, THE SUN WILL BE DARKENED AND THE MOON WILL NOT GIVE ITS LIGHT26 Then they will Suffering/tribulation see THE SON OF MAN COMING IN CLOUDS with great power and glory. 27 And then He will send forth the angels, and will gather after cosmic signs 28 together His elect from the four winds Now learn the parable from3) theSoM fig treewhen seeEnd these(13:24-27) things happening, recognize SoM coming w/ Glory Coming &you the 30 that He is near, right at the door. Truly I say to you, this generation This generation [ ] will not pass away until all these things take 31 place. Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will not pass away.32 But of that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in No-one knows heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone. 33 Take heed, keep on the alert; for you do not know when the appointed time will come 37 What I say to you I say to all, Be on the alert!(13:3-36) Vigilance ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGYY
Common scholarly views: 1) Reference to Destruction of the Temple, AD 70 Coming of the Son of Man exaltation & vindication* Gk. erchomai going/coming to God (cf. Dan 7:13-14) Kingdom & Gods rule came in power (esp. resurrection)** All preliminary signs occurred except the final coming of Son of Man (13:24-27) Answers the disciples question the Destruction of the Temple Solution to the this generation (13:30) Problems: Does it account for the dramatic language and prophetic perspective in Mark 13 par.? ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGYY 2) Reference to Temple Destruction (AD 70) and the End* Two events & prophetic perspective (prophetic foreshortening) AD AD 70 70 2nd 2nd Coming Coming Pros Pros & & cons: cons:
-- Answers Answers the the Q Q about about the the Temple Temple -- Assumes Assumes two two questions questions & & interval interval time time (cf. (cf. Matt Matt 24:3) 24:3) 1) Beginning of birth pangs (13:3-5) 2) Temple & Tribulation AD 70 (13:14-23) 3) SoM Coming & the End (13:24-27) ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGYY Timing of the Kingdom & restoration (1:6; cf. Lk 1-2) Eternal throne of David & rule over Jacob (Lk 1:32-33) He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David; 33 and He will reign over the
house of Jacob forever, and His kingdom will have no end. (Luke 1:32-33) 32 ly IIss tthhee hheeaavveennly And so, because he was a prophet and esurrrreecctitioonn r esu knew that GOD HAD SWORN TO r oneem tthhrron meenntt n e n e HIM WITH AN OATH TO SEAT one inaall th thee ffin OF HIS DESCENDANTS ON HIS lmeenntt ooff fulflfilillm THRONE, 31 he looked ahead and fu :322--3333?? L Luukkee 11:3 spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that HE WAS NEITHER ABANDONED TO HADES, NOR DID His flesh SUFFER DECAY. 32 This Jesus God raised up again, to which we are all witnesses. (Acts 2:30-32; cf. 2:36)
Messiahs enthronement (ascension & resurrection) ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY Time of refreshingand restoration of all things (3:19-26) Therefore repent and return, so that your sins may be wiped away, in order that times of refreshing may come ( *) from the presence of the Lord; 20 and that He may send Jesus, the Christ appointed for you, 21 whom heaven must receive until the period of restoration of all things ( **) about which God spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets from ancient time. (3:19-21) Final restoration and Christs coming does it indicate Millennium? Moses, prophets & covenant w/ Abraham announced these days Does this include/exclude political/national restoration? (cf. 2:30-36; Rom 11:1-12, 28-29) ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGYY if we believe Jesus died and roseGod will bringIs with Jesus those fallen the movement asleep in Him (1 Thess 4:14) up (to heaven?) 15 For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are OR down (to alive and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not earth?)
precede those who have fallen asleep. 16 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17 Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord. 18 Therefore comfort one another with these words. (4:15-18) ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY Day of the Lord and parousia (1 Thess 4:13-18) Lord will descend shout, voice of archangel & trumpet Sounds loud and looks visible Dead rise first and then the living to meet in the air Be with the Lord forever Is this a public or secret event? (4:17) After meeting in the air come down or go up? (4:17) Gk. eis apantesin kyriou honorable escort (cf. Matt 25:6; Acts 28:15)
Timing of the parousia like a thief in the night (5:2) Paul gives few details context is pastoral ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY Parousia and its development in 2 Thess 2 False teaching or rumors (2:2) not be quickly shakento the effect that the day of the Lord has come. 3 Let no one in any way deceive you (2:2-3) Overly eager expectation of parousia (2:2) Signs before the end(2:1-12; cf. 1 Thess 5:2) Apostasy & the mystery of lawlessness already working (2:3, 7) Will be destroyed by the Lord with breath of his mouth (2:8) Restrainer (2:6-7)
Present affliction not the end ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY What/who is the lawless one? who opposes and exalts statue/alike) Events in recent history (e.g. Caligulas himself above every so7; Rev 13:1-18) Antichrist/beast (1 John 2:18; 4:3; 2 John called god11:7; or object of worship, so that he takes What/who is the restrainer? his seat in the temple of God, Holy Spirit; Satan God, displaying himself as 9; RevGod. 12:7) Angel Apollyon (Rev 9:11) or Michael (Judebeing 44
Church or prominent leader Gentile mission (cf. Mark 13:10) Roman law and order (Rom 13:1-7) Implies a literal Millennium? Augustine: the meaningcompletely escapes me (City of God 20.19) ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY 1) Christs a literal Millennium in2)1Resurrection Cor 15?* Does Paul talk about (or imply) resurrection of believers But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, after that those who are 3) Christ hands Christs at His coming, 24 then comes the end, when He hands over the Kingdom to Father kingdom to the God and Father, when He has abolished all rule and all 4) Final 25 authority and power. For He must reign until He has put all His enemies resurrection & death under His feet. 26 The last enemy that will be abolished is death. 27 For HEabolished HAS PUT ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION UNDER HIS FEET. But when He says, All things are put in subjection, it is evident that He is excepted who put all things in subjection to Him.28 When all things are subjected to Him, then the
Son Himself also will be subjected to the One who subjected all things to Him, so that God may be all in all. (1 Cor 15:23-28) Is literal Millennium implied ? 23 Alternatively the sequence of no: 2-4 happen simultaneously** ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY Resurrection body (15:35-58) Continuity & discontinuity b/w earthy body & resurrection body Seed and plant different types of bodies Perishable imperishable; Glory dishonor; weakness power Sin/death power & glory Physical [psychikon] body spiritual [pneumatikon] body Mortal body immortality Adam (living being & from earth) Christ (life-giving spirit & heaven) Man of dust man of heaven --- resurrection & heaven-image Mystery of the last trumpet, transformation & defeat of death/evil ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY Life after death (2 Cor 5:1-10) Intermediate state (Phil 1:21-23) OR resurrection body (1 Cor 15)?
Earthly tent (groaning) building from God/heavenly dwelling Naked clothed (cf. 4:16) Mortality (eternal) life through the Spirit In the body home with the Lord Earthly tent, naked, in the body = present life Building/dwelling, life, home w/ Lord = heaven OR resurrection What is the meaning of these phrases? How to combine w/ other Pauline texts (1 Cor 15; 1 Thess 4; Phil 1:20-26; 3:20-21) ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY Resurrection body only at parousia (cf. 1Cor 15; 1 Thess 4; Phil 3:20-21) being with the Lord as intermediate non-bodily state (Phil 1:20-26) Most viable option Resurrection body received at death (2 Cor 5:1-10)
No intermediate states (cf. Phil 1:21-23) Soul sleep and resurrection at parousia (1 Cor 15) Practical exhortation to live godly life because Judgment seat of Christ ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY Book of Revelation Seals (6:1-8:1), trumpets (8:6-11:15), and bowls (15:5-16:21) Parallel, successive (chronological) or telescopic*? Consummation** Present age Great tribulation stars stars fell fell of of the the sky sky Silence 8:1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 great great day day Interlude I arrived arrived Seals Suspense
(6:12-17) The Kingdom The Kingdom (6:12-17) Ti of of the the world world No No more more me 4 5 6 Interlude II; 1 2 3 kingdom of our 7 delay delay mystery mystery Int kingdom of our Rev 12-14 Lordtime Lordtime of of God God fulfilled fulfilled Trumpets en for the dead to (10:6-7) (10:6-7)
sit for the dead to be be judged judged (11:15, (11:15, y 18) Interlude III; 18) 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 ItIt is is done done Rev 17-18 Bowls (16:18) (16:18) THEOLOGY OF REVELATION Number 7 complete and final judgment Progressive nature of judgments: 1/4th , 1/3 [trees burned], 100%  (6:8; 8:7-12; 9:18) BUT The End mentioned at least three times 6th Seal (6:12-17) stars fellsky vanished + vision of the victors in heaven (7:1-17)* 7th Trumpet (10:6-7; 11:15-19) mystery of God fulfilled + The Two Witnesses + time of judgment has comegreat and small 7th Bowl (16:17-21) It is doneevery island fledno mountains Parousia or manifestation of Christ depicted in Rev 19:11-21 The Rider on the White Horse and gory carnage (19:11-21) For the purpose of judgment Destruction of the existing world order
Christs reign THEOLOGY OF REVELATION Millennium (20:4-6) Literal Millennium 1000 yrs. or extended period Who will take part? Only martyrs or all believers? (20:4-5)* Symbolical reign of Christ in heaven OT promises for national Israel fulfilled Christs rule & Satans binding facilitates evangelism Satans release and doom (20:7-10) Final Judgment (20:11-15) New heaven and earth, heavenly Jerusalem (21-22)
Unification of heaven and earth Gods dwelling with people final state But But the the day day of of the the Lord Lord will will come come like like aa thief, thief, in in which which the the heavens heavens will will pass pass away away with with aa roar roar ESCHATOLOGY IN and NT THEOLOGY and the the elements elements will will be be destroyed destroyed with
with intense intense heat, heat, and and the the earth earth and and its its works works will will be be burned burned up. up. 13 13 But according to His promise we Parousia in 2 Peter But according to His promise we looking and a are looking for for new new heavens heavens deliberately ignore (3:5)and a Delay of parousia by mockers are new new earth, earth, in in which which righteousness righteousness Where is the promise of His coming? For ever dwells.
since the(2 fathers fell asleep, Pet 13) dwells. (2 Pet 3:10, 3:10, 13) all 10 10 continues just as it was from the beginning of creation. (3:4) Peters defense of parousia AND the Christian message Gods timetable 1 day like 1000yrs. (3:8-9) Destruction of the old order* and new heavens and new earth (3:1013) delay is demonstration of Gods mercy & patience not deception Stand firm and remember the words of prophets, Lord, and apostles Milennium? ESCHATOLOGY IN NT THEOLOGY
Conclusion of Eschatology in NT Rev 20 the only place in NT that clearly teaches a literal Millennium 1 Cor 15:23-28 implies a Kingdom that may be a literal Millennium Some see OT prophecies concerning national Israel fulfilled within the Millennium Is Rev 20 sufficient to establish a doctrine of Millennium? Is symbolical/spiritual interpretation a better alternative? What are the practical implications of the doctrine of Millennium?
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