Text Comprehension - Michigan's Mission: Literacy

Text Comprehension - Michigan's Mission: Literacy

Literacy in Action Module 2 Protocol for Looking At Writing Tracker Evidence and Content-Area Text Comprehension Literacy in Action Analysis of Classroom Data for Writing Tracker How many students met the writing fluency criterion ten times during the ten writings? 125 wpm for 5 minutes (middle school) 150 wpm for 5 minutes (high school) How many students met the criterion fewer than five times? How many students did not meet the criterion?

Reviewing the Student Writings During the next ten minutes read some of the writings from each of the folders. Jot down your observations. How are the writings from the three folders alike and different? What will you do to help students who are in the lower category write like the middle category? What will you do to help students who are in the middle category write like the higher category? Goals and Action Write down goals I have for the next ten Writing Tracker writes.

What kind of prompts? What accommodations must be made? How can I differentiate? Text Comprehension Participants will learn how to use Guided Highlighted Reading for two purposes. 1. Answer multiple-choice questions 2. Write summaries with evidence Your turn At your table talk about strategies, activities, and protocols you use to help your students comprehend text. Share

Common Core Reading Anchor Reading Standards (1 3) Key Ideas and Details 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. THE HISTORY OF JAZZ Historically the journey that jazz has taken can be traced with reasonable accuracy. That it ripened most fully in New Orleans seems beyond

dispute although there are a few deviationists who support other theories of its origin. Around 1895 the almost legendary Buddy Bolden and Bunk Johnson were blowing their cornets in the street and in the funeral parades which have always enlivened the flamboyant social life of that uncommonly vital city. At the same time, it must be remembered, Scott Joplin was producing ragtime on his piano at the Maple Leaf Club in Sedalia, Missouri; and in Memphis, W.C. Handy was evolving his own spectacular conception of the blues. Exactly why jazz developed the way it did on the streets of New Orleans is difficult to determine even though a spate of explanations has poured forth from the scholars of the subject. Obviously, the need for it there was coupled with the talent to produce it and a favorable audience to receive it. During those early years, the local urge for musical expression was so powerful that anything that could be twanged, strummed, beaten, blown, or stroked was likely to be exploited for its musical usefulness. For a long time the washboard was a highly respected percussion instrument, and the nimble, thimbled fingers of Baby Dodds showed sheer genius on that workaday, washday utensil. The story of the twentiesin Chicagois almost too familiar to need repeating here. What seems pertinent is to observe that jazz gravitated toward a particular kind of environment in which its existence was not only possible but, seen in retrospect, probable. On the South Side of Chicago during the twenties the New Orleans music continued an unbroken development. The most sensationally successful of all jazz derivatives was swing, which thrived in the late thirties. Here was a music that could be danced to with zest and listened to with pleasure. (That it provided its younger auditors with heroes such as Shaw, Sinatra, and Goodman is more of a sociological enigma than a musical phenomenon.) But swing lost its strength and vitality by allowing itself to become a captive of forces concerned only with how it could be sold, not how it could be enriched. Over and over it becomes apparent that jazz cannot be sold even when its practitioners can be

bought. Like a truth, it is a spiritual force, not a material commodity. During the closing years of World War II, jazz, groping for a fresh expression, erupted into bop. Bop was a wildly introverted style developed out of a certain intellectualism and not a little neuroticism. By now the younger men coming into jazz carried with them a GI subsidized education, and they were breezily familiar with the atonalities of Schonberg, Bartok, Berg, and the contemporary schools of music. The challenge of riding out into the wild blue yonder on a twelve-tone row was more than they could resist. Some of them have never returned. Just as the early men in New Orleans didn't know what the established range of their instruments was, so these new musicians struck out in directions which might have been untouched had they observed the academic dicta adhering even to so free a form as jazz. The shelf on jazz in the music room of the New York Public Library fairly bulges with volumes in French, German, and Italian. It seems strange to read in German a book called the Jazzlexikon in which you will find scholarly rsums of such eminent jazzmen as Dizzy Gillespie and Cozy Cole. And there are currently in the releases of several record companies examples of jazz as played in Denmark, Sweden, and Australia. Obviously, the form and style are no longer limited to our own country. And jazz, as a youthful form of art, is listened to as avidly in London as in Palo Alto or Ann Arbor. Arnold Sungaard, "Jazz, Hot and Cold Your turn 1. Read A History of Jazz

1. Answer the multiple choice questions. Your turn 1. Write a summary of A History of Jazz 2. Use the scoring rubric to guide your thinking. rubric 3. Tally your score. Rubric for Scoring Summary CC Reading Anchor Standard 2 2. Determine central

ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3 Complete CCSS Reading Anchor #2 Response summarizes using: clearly identified central or main ideas. (3 points )

supports central ideas well with key details and ideas from the text. (evidence) (3 points) 2 Partial CCSS Reading Anchor #2 Response summarizes using: partially or ineffectively identified central or main ideas. (2 points) supports central ideas with

some details and ideas from the text. (evidence) (2 points) 1 Minimal Score CCSS Reading Anchor Response summarizes using: inaccurately identified central or main ideas. (1 point) supports central ideas with few details and ideas

from the text. (evidence) (1 point) __/6 6 Guided Highlighted Reading for Answering Multiple-Choice QuestionsMatch to Questions The teacher reads the following: #1 In lines #2, #6, and #7: Find and highlight the three cities in which jazz might have been born that the author names to show that the origin of jazz is difficult to trace. (New Orleans, Sedalia, Missouri, and Memphis) #2 In line #4: Find and highlight where early jazz was heard. (in the street and in the funeral parades) #6 In lines #9 and #10: Find and highlight the words that show that New Orleans with its musical tradition was the perfect place for jazz to grow. (the need for it there was coupled with the talent to produce it and a favorable audience to receive it.)

#4 In line #12: Find and highlight five words that show the importance of rhythm in jazz. (twanged, strummed, beaten, blown, or stroked) #4 In line #13: Find and highlight the name of the percussion instrument that further reinforces the importance of rhythm in jazz. (washboard) #5 In line #19: Find and highlight the name of the popular music that resulted or was derived from jazz. (swing) #9In line #21: Find and highlight the two words that mean the author thinks it was a mystery of society that young people made musical heroes of the older jazz performers, Shaw, Sinatra, and Goodman. (sociological enigma) #3 In lines #22 and #23: Find and highlight the reason swing lost its strength and vitality. (by allowing itself to become a captive of forces concerned only with how it could be sold) #5 In line #26: Find and highlight the name of another form of music that was a reaction to jazz. (Bop) #8 In line #27: Find and highlight the description the author gives of Bop to show that it was a reaction to jazz not a result of jazz. (a wildly introverted style developed out of a certain intellectualism and not a little neuroticism.) #2 In lines #30 and #31: Find and highlight the words the author uses to show that returning GI jazz musicians based Bop on more modern or contemporary music. (the atonalities of Schonberg, Bartok, Berg, and the contemporary schools of music.) #7 In lines #40 and #41: Find and highlight the sentence that shows that jazz is no longer a uniquely American art form.

(Obviously, the form and style are no longer limited to our own country.) Multiple-Choice Post Test This is a chance to raise your score. Retake the test or review your answers with the new information from the Guided Highlighted Reading strategy. Guided Highlighted Reading for Summary with Evidence The teacher reads the following: In line #3: Find and highlight the words the author uses to let the reader know that there were other explanations for the beginnings of jazz. (other theories of its origin.) (detail/evidence, CC2) In lines #6 and #7: Find and highlight two other forms of jazz being developed at the same time as New Orleans jazz. (ragtime and blues) (detail/evidence, CC2) In line #19: Find and highlight the name of the popular music that resulted or was

derived from jazz. (swing) (central idea, CC2) In lines #22 and #23: Find and highlight the reason swing lost its strength and vitality. (by allowing itself to become a captive of forces concerned only with how it could be sold) (detail/evidence, CC2) In line #26: Find and highlight the name of another form of music that was a derivative of jazz. (Bop) (detail/evidence, CC2) In lines #30 and #31: Find and highlight the words the author uses to show that returning GI jazz musicians based Bop on more modern or contemporary music. (the atonalities of Schonberg, Bartok, Berg, and the contemporary schools of music.) (detail/evidence, CC2) Your turn 1. Read through your summary. 2. How would you modify your summary because of the Guided Highlighted Reading?

3. Tally your new score. Rubric for Scoring Summary CC Reading Anchor Standard 2 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3 Complete

CCSS Reading Anchor #2 Response summarizes using: clearly identified central or main ideas. (3 points ) supports central ideas well with key details and ideas from the text. (evidence) (3 points) 2 Partial CCSS Reading Anchor #2

Response summarizes using: partially or ineffectively identified central or main ideas. (2 points) supports central ideas with some details and ideas from the text. (evidence) (2 points) 1 Minimal Score CCSS Reading Anchor

Response summarizes using: inaccurately identified central or main ideas. (1 point) supports central ideas with few details and ideas from the text. (evidence) (1 point) __/6 6 Tally your score and record your success Name

Topic History of Jazz MultipleChoice Test Pre Post Summary Pre Post Recommendations

Next steps Date To Review Four Essential Questions In Close & Critical Reading What does it say? (a summary with evidence) How does the author say it? What does it mean? So what? Whats the connection to me?

Example of a Detailed Summary (What does the text say? (Restatement: Briefly summarize The History of Jazz at the literal level.) The origin of jazz is difficult to pinpoint because jazz was developing in New Orleans at the same time ragtime was developing in Sedalia, Missouri and the blues were being played in Memphis. (central idea, CC2) As jazz developed, there were a number of derivatives such as swing and bop. In the late 30s, swing became very popular, but its popularity waned because it was over commercialized. (detail/evidence, CC2) GIs coming home from World War II wanted a fresh kind of jazz, and Bop, a more introverted and intellectual form of jazz that was influenced by contemporary schools of music, was born. (detail/ evidence, CC2)

Diminishing the GHR Scaffold 1. Read students the prompts, have them highlight the response, show them the correct responses on an ELMO or overhead projector, or have them check with peers. 2. Tell the students how many prompted responses there will be in the first paragraph and let them underline what they think will be prompted, and then read the prompts. Go through the passage paragraph by paragraph. 3. Tell the students how many prompted responses in the passage and they determine what would be prompted. When they are finished, read the prompts and have them check their responses. Discuss differences. 4. Have students work in partners to determine what is important to the particular task: multiple- choice questions or summary. 5. Students work alone to determine the

information. Your turn With your content-area group: Read your content passage. Read and answer the multiple-choice questions. Preparing for Guided Highlighted Reading Multiple Choice Questions From Guided Highlighted Reading: A Close-reading Strategy for Navigating Complex Text Weber, Nelson, & Schofield Maupin House, 2012 If you are asking students to read to answer multiple-choice questions, analyze the questions to determine how you can prompt students to find the answers to the questions. Prepare prompts that will scaffold students to be able

to identify and analyze the following: main ideas supporting details, examples, facts, claims, arguments, evidence vocabulary important to the understanding of the text Your turn The content-area groups select two or three questions and write prompts that will help students select the correct choice (answer) for the question. Example from The History of Jazz 7. That the author finds it "strange" (line 37) to read foreign books about jazz and to hear recordings of jazz from abroad implies that: A. non-Americans lack the spirit and soul for jazz. B. jazz played abroad is an imitation of the real thing. C. future developments in jazz may come from unexpected places. D. jazz is a uniquely American art form.

Guided Highlighted Reading for Multiple Choice question # 7 In lines #40-#42: Find and highlight the sentences that shows that jazz, once thought to be a distinctly American form, is popular in other countries. (Obviously, the form and style are no longer limited to our own country. And jazz, as a youthful form of art, is listened to as avidly in London as in Palo Alto or Ann Arbor.) Share Content-area groups will share some of their prompts with the other groups. Preparing for Guided Highlighted Reading Summary with evidence From Guided Highlighted Reading: A Close-reading Strategy for Navigating Complex Text Weber, Nelson, & Schofield Maupin House, 2012

Choose a complex text. Prepare the text by numbering the paragraphs or lines in a text or the stanzas or lines in a poem. Determine which purpose(s) you want the students to practice: summary, authors craft, vocabulary, and/or answering multiple-choice questions. Prepare the prompts based on the text and the purpose(s) chosen. If you are reading for summary write a short summary to help you frame the prompts. Prepare prompts that will scaffold students to be able to: restate in their own words what the text says explicitly. make logical inferences. cite specific textual evidence to support conclusions drawn from the text. determine central ideas. summarize the key supporting details and ideas. From Common Core Reading Anchor Standards #1 and #2

Your turn With your group. Review the summary for your content-area text. Practice writing one or two prompts to alert students to the pertinent information in the text necessary to write a summary. Share your prompts with other groups. Getting Student Achievement Evidence with Guided Highlighted Reading The following is a plan to use GHR to support student achievement on text comprehension and document their growth in the following areas: answering multiple-choice questions

writing a summary with evidence Chart of Evidence of Text Comprehension Success Student Name Topic Multiple-choice Test Pre Post Pre Summary Post

Recommendations Next steps Date of Review Evidence of Text Comprehension 1. Select a text that is too difficult for your students to comprehend without teacher support. 2. Give the students a pretest that includes the following: The multiple-choice assessment (optional) Tally the data in the pre-assessment column. Answer the question, What does the text say? in a summary with evidence. Read to the students the scoring rubric for summary and have the students score their summary.

Tally the data. Instruction/Scaffolding for Text Comprehension and Post Assessment 1. Wait a few days and then have the students respond to the Guided Highlighted prompts you read to them for multiplechoice questions. Have students answer the multiple-choice questions and give the option to revise their original answers Tally the data from the pre and post assessment. 2. Next, read the Guided Highlighted prompts for summary. Students will modify their summary to better answer the question, What does the text say? Have the students assess their summaries with the scoring rubric. Tally the data. Four Essential Questions In Close &

Critical Reading What does it say? How does the author say it? What does it mean? So what? Whats the connection to me? The last three questions will be developed in LIA Module, Close and Critical Reading

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_i-r2GCNVjWA/SWe7r5bnm9I/ AAAAAAAABDs/kJ-h594W4PU/S1600-R/deeply.png Your Evidence for Credit Using 1 text selection, develop prompts: 4 for multiple choice 4 for summary Bring prompts back with you to share at the next session. Thanks for your professionalism. Good luck with your project. We will see you at the next session which is Module 3 Vocabulary

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