Tavelure du Pommier Stratégies en protection intégrée

Tavelure du Pommier Stratégies en protection intégrée

Bulls eye Rot in Europe Recent results of Research and in Experimentation Michel GIRAUD CTIFL (Technical Institute for Fruits & Vegetables) Centre de Lanxade, 24130 Prigonrieux FRANCE IV Orcharding International Seminar Vacaria (Brazil) 25-27 June 2019 Centre technique interprofessionnel des Fruits et Lgumes Creation : 1952 Staff : 270 Budget : 23 million / year Fund : 56% = professional contributions 28% = grants (government,

EU) 16% = deliveries, services, Lanxade Center : Staff = 68 70 ha + 7000 m2 greenhouses Applied Research and experimentation on pome fruits, walnut, chestnut, kiwi, strawberry, melon, Fruit certification & Virology French Apple Production 1 470 000 tons 37 000 ha (Agreste, 2017) Apple (and pear growers) are belonging to ANPP

(Association Nationale Pomme-Poire) 65% of national apple production is labeled "Vergers Ecoresponsables (Global Gap + IPM specifications) French Apple Production (2017) 1.0% 1.4% 1.5% 4.1% 3.0% 7.9%

3.2% 28.2% 3.8% 5.3% 9.9% 11.0% 19.7% Golden Delicious (group) Gala (group) Pink Lady (group) Granny Smith Braeburn

Fuji Red Delicious Chantecler Reinettes Jonagold Jazz Elstar Others Market request and public concern Market

4 residues of pesticides (German market) Residues < 33% MLR (Lidl,) No postharvest treatment (Casino, filire qualit Carrefour) Green campaign Organic Zero residue 20 18 Market request and public concern The challenge / storage rots

4 residues of pesticides (detected) Residues < 33% MLR Pre-harvest : 1 Bellis* + 1 Geoxe* = 3 residues Postharvest : +1 residue Treatments close to harvest Possible with less susceptible cvs (untreated in pre-harvest)

Organic No efficient solution in biocontrol against BER Some scab tolerant cvs are very susceptible to BER (Opal, Topaz, Pinova, Goldrush Hot water (pre-industrial development) * Bellis = boscalid + pyrachlostrobin * Geoxe = fludioxonil Bulls Eye Rot in the world Absent / Quarantine

Species of Neofabrae in Europe N. alba N. perennans N. kienholzii Source : COST 864 expert meeting, Bergen, Mars 2009, completed by recent literature Neofabraea vagabunda Desm. Ross. synonym N. alba (Guthrie) Verkley formerly : Pezicula alba Guthrie Anamorph : Phlyctema vagabunda Desm. = Phlyctaena vagabunda = Trichoseptoria fructigena

Usually called in Europe Gloeosporium Main species in Southern Europe Quiescent pathogen / long term storage Neofabraea vagabunda Neofabraea vagabunda False pycnidia : acervuli Neofabraea perennans / N. malicorticis = formerly Pezicula malicorticis Anamorph : Cryptosporiopsis perennans & C. curvispora = Cryptosporiopsis malicorticis Related to perennial canker

Main species in Northern Europe, rare in many countries of south Europe Quiescent pathogen / long term storage Neofabraea kienholzii New species, not reported in France Reported in UK, NL, Poland, America Artificial inoculation of a british strain (Lanxade, 2016) Symptoms similar to N. vagabunda, or intermediate with N. perennans (R. Saville, EastMalling, pers.comm.)

International WG Apple Lenticel Rots Includes Neofabraea and Colletotrichum Last meeting, Lige (Belgium), May 25th, 2019 (after the ISHS Postharvest Pathology Conference Bulls eye Rot : relative incidence in France All regions affected by BER, except Provence-Cte dAzur (Mediterranean climate) Susceptibility level of cvs to BER

Harvested apples France 2017 15% 39% Low 46%Modera te High Susceptibility of varieties Related to : - Storage time (long/short) - Shape, number lenticels, - Harvest date - Genetic, Low Gala (group)

Red delicious Granny Smith Braeburn Jonagold Idared Joya Cripps Red Jazz Scifresh Antares Medium Golden Delicious Fuji (group) Elstar Reinettes (all types) Honeycrunch High

Pink Lady Cripps Pink Pink Lady Rosy Glow Pinova / Evelina Goldrush Opal Tentation Topaz Chantecler Updated May 2019, French post-harvest WG Cycle (presumed) of N. vagabunda Infection of fruits Harvest conidia

conidia No teleomorphic stage ? Not harveste d fruits ? Storage Rots Inoculum Waste disposal, composted?

waste N. vagabunda epidemiology : few knowledge Inoculum ? Dissemination Infection

Incubation Latence Sporulation Symptoms V International Symposium on Postharvest Pathology Lige (Belgium) 19-24 May 2019 1. Inoculum sources in orchard N. vagabunda is known(1) to survive in existing cankers, dead materials, or bark splits It is also known to be unable to make canker naturally on apple tree, unlike N. perennans (1) Several authors

Washing artificial cankers (La Morinire) Evolution and healing of an artificial canker of N. vagabunda during 3 years. Inoculation in May 2013 (La Morinire). Possible source of inoculum in the environment : hedges ? Pome fruits others trees garden trees grass Malus domestica Malus pumila, M. sylvestris

Pyrus communis Pyrus pyrifolia Cydonia sp. Ilex aquifolium Fraxinus americana Olea europaea Quercus robur Rubus idaeus Rubus sp. Ruscus aculeatus Salix matsudana Sambucus canadensis Viburnum tinus Vitis vinifera Acer negundo Euonymus japonicus Kerria japonica Viburnum japonicum

Althaea officinalis Althaea rosea Amaranthus retroflexus Aristolochia sipho Cucurbita sp. Dictamnus albus Erigeron sp. Linaria vulgaris Melilotus albus Tamus communis Source: Farr & Rossman Fungal Databases http://nt.ars-grin.gov 22 species / 3 hedges in

2014 Few collected spores : 1-3/rain Canker s Apple Leaf litter Mummi es Weeds N = no data N. vagabunda is abundantly present on necrotic tissues of apple and

pear: mummies, cankers and dead leaves, and also on necrotic tissues of other plant species present on the orchard floor such as various weeds and grasses 2. Dissemination : spore flying in orchard 12.7 % Spore flying is not the only way of dissemination 20% 2. Dissemination : sporulation in orchard

2 peaks of sporulation (Bompeix, 1973) Artificial cankers cv. Pinova Pear cv. Bosc 2. Dissemination : washing by rain cv. Rosy Glow, planted 2014 Anti-rain plastic protection When avoiding rain, infection by N. vagabunda is drastically

reduced Rain is playing a major role 3. Fruit infection process Infection occurs mechanically by rain, washing bark, to the fruit Incidence of the shape of lenticels (susceptibility of cv.) and of their receptivity (related to fruit maturity) Germination of several spores in the lenticel : anastomosis of mycelium and haustoria : short incubation, and then become latent. From Gilbert Bompeix, Marta Mari (pers. comm.) Neri et

al. 2019 V International Symposium on Postharvest Pathology Lige (Belgium) 19-24 May 2019 Incidence of temperature on spore germination Observation of germination of conidia in free water, in Petri dishes, no replicate, each in a climatic chamber 3. How to study the incidence of climatic parameters on N. vagabunda ? Artificial inoculation Natural infection

Needs no infected fruits prior to inoculation Impossible in oceanic climate Windows / covering trees (La Morinire Experimental Station, Loire Valley, trials in progress) My method : Selected picking fruits before / after a rain event and store 6-7 months (trials from 2006, 3 cvs) Example : 2015, cv. Goldrush

Few rain, poor effect Receptivit y of lenticels N. vagabunda potential on Tentation (2006-2014) Infection may occur before 1 month before harvest Significant reduction of

N.vagabunda infection potential after a dryer period Survival of conidias in lenticel? Incidence of rainfall on N. vagabunda (2006-2016) Tentation 2006-2014 and Goldrush 20122016 Storage 6-7 months Assessment of incidence of

one (rainy) period on BER : % of increasing fruit infection potential - 0% : no effect - <5% : few effect, not significant - 5-10% : significant effect - >10% : high incidence Research : climatic data having an incidence on BER infection Data collected during 9 years (2006 2014) in Tentation orchard Best correlated parameters: - Rain duration - Wetness duration when associated with rain - Wetness > 5 hours

- Cumulative degree-days during wetness To be checked / continued with other varieties (Pink Lady,) N. vagabunda Infection potential for Tentation (Lanxade 2006-2014) The level of receptivity of lenticels is an important parameter having incidence on infection rate How to assess the infection risk by Neofabraea alba in orchard?

Rain Quantity and duration: enough for a best washing of the trees Wetness associated with this rain event Minimum 4-5 hours Incidence of temperature

Maturation of fruits before harvest: Cool temperature (Tmini<10C) favorable to sporulation (ref. Marta Mari, CRIOF Bologna) Warmer temperature (20-25C) optimal for infection Relation ethylene (data from Italy) Receptivity of lenticels Volatile organic compounds (Neri et al., 2019)

No infection without rain, and in dry period Susceptibility of varieties N. vagabunda Control Efficacy of chemicals, alternatives and biocontrol Pre-Harvest Fludioxonil Boscalid+pyrachlostrob ine

fluazinam + tebuconazol Methyl-thiophanate* Captan, dithianon Copper Sulfur, lime sulfur Myco-Sin : >3 traitments Boni-protect (Aureobasidium pullulans) Phosphites Laminarin Calcium chloride

K bicarbonate Post-Harvest Thiabendazole * 1-MCP (secondary Pyrimetanil /thermofog effect) * except if resistant strains Yeasts (all types) Hot Water commercial machines : by dipping Burg Machinefabriek (NL) Inconvenient : max 20 bins /hour Xeda (France)

Hot Water commercial machines : drencher Austria : hot water + cooling (stop heat damages) 40 bins (13 T) / hour Cost = 0.025 / kg Treatment of Austrian organic apples, from 2011 France : new machine made by Crovara (MAFRoda group) : 2018 Recycling system for water 2 bins / treatment Prototype : no conveyor

belt Hot water in practice Temperature / exposure time : Efficacy against N. vagabunda : >50C / 2-3 mn Susceptibility to heat damage of cvs adapt temperature for: Golden Delicious : 48C / 2-3 mn poor efficacy (50%) Pinova : 50C / 3 mn 80-90% efficacy Topaz : 52C / 2 mn 90-95% efficacy Dipping is better for efficacy than drencher (contact points between fruits) Drencher is better for work in chain Hot water is efficient against N. vagabunda, N. perennans, Phytophthora, Colletotrichum acutatum, Monilia fructigena, Phacidiopycnis, Cladosporium, superficial scald Variable with Neonectria ditissima No effect on Penicillium expansum, Mucor, Rhizopus

Unknown : storage scab Incidence of some storage technics on N. vagabunda CA ULO (3% O2) (1,5% O2) ILOS (0,5% O2 then ULO) cv. Pink Lady Harvest : 28.10.2009 + Storage 6

m. XULO Dynamic CA (extrem ULO) (< 0,7% O2) (0,7-0,9% O2) cv. Tentation Storage 7 months + 10 days in Reg.Atm. Thank you for your attention

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