Social Psychology - University of Massachusetts Lowell

Social Psychology - University of Massachusetts Lowell

Prosocial Behavior: Why Do People Help? Chapter 11 If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. If you want to be happy, practice compassion.

The Dalai Lama Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior: Why Do People Help? Prosocial Behavior Altruism

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and Genes Evolutionary Psychology The attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Psychology: Instincts and Genes Kin Selection Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

The Reciprocity Norm Norm of Reciprocity The expectation that helping others will increase the likelihood that they will help us in the future. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Learning Social Norms Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Social Exchange: The Costs and Rewards of Helping Social exchange theory

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Empathy and Altruism: The Pure Motive for Helping Empathy Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Personal Qualities and Prosocial Behavior: Why Do Some People Help More Than Others? Individual Differences:The Altruistic Personality Altruistic Personality

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Individual Differences: The Altruistic Personality We need to consider several other critical factors as well, such as: Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Gender Differences in Prosocial Behavior Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Cultural Differences in Prosocial Behavior People in all cultures are more likely to help anyone they define as a member of their

in-group than those they perceive in out-groups. In-Group Out-Group . Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Cultural Differences in

Prosocial Behavior A particular cultural value that strongly relates to prosocial behavior is simpata. Religion and prosocial behavior Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. The Effects of Mood on

Prosocial Behavior Effects of Positive Moods: Feel Good, Do Good Being in a good mood can increase helping for three reasons: Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

The Effects of Mood on Prosocial Behavior Negative-State Relief: Feel Bad, Do Good Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. The Effects of Mood on Prosocial Behavior

Negative-State Relief: Feel Bad, Do Good Negative-State Relief Hypothesis Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Situational Determinants of Prosocial Behaviors: When Will People Help?

Environment: Rural versus Urban Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Environment: Rural versus Urban Urban Overload Hypothesis

The theory that people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Residential Mobility

Living for a long time in one place leads to: Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. The Number of Bystanders: The Bystander Effect Dozens of other studies, conducted in the laboratory and in the field, have found what they

found: The greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help the victim. This is known as the bystander effect. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Noticing an Event

Interpreting the Event as an Emergency Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Interpreting the Event as an Emergency Pluralistic

Pluralistic Ignorance Ignorance Bystanders Bystanders assuming assuming that that nothing nothing is is wrong

wrong in in an an emergency emergency because because no no one one else

else looks looks concerned. concerned. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Assuming Responsibility Diffusion of Responsibility

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Knowing How to Help Deciding to Implement the Help Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. The Nature of the Relationship:

Communal vs. Exchange Relationships Communal relationships are those in which peoples primary concern is with the welfare of the other person (e.g., a child), whereas exchange relationships are Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

How Can Helping Be Increased? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Increasing the Likelihood that Bystanders Will Intervene Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Positive Psychology and Prosocial Behavior Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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