Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Participation
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION Sponsorship Media Social and cultural aspects - Influences of local and national providers. Sponsorship Sponsorship exists to give good publicity to the sponsors. It can fund teams, sports or individuals in part or full. The more famous the sport, team or individual, the higher the sponsor. There are many different types of sponsorship: 1. Free transport 2. Free accommodation 3. Scholarships 4. Free equipment 5.
Free clothes and shoes 6. Event and league paid for 7. Free entrance fee, food, training Sponsors get a great deal out of sponsorship too 1. Free advertising see David Beckham wearing adidas football boots, and you will want a pair 2. Image Samsung will become associated with winning 3. Scholarships some universities offer places to students who excel in certain sport. In return, universities gain prestige for sporting excellence 4. Tax and hospitality sponsors dont usually have to pay tax on the money they spend on sponsorship. They also get free tickets to the event they are sponsoring, which they can use to impress clients or employees
POSITIVE Pays for full time sportspeople to train and compete Pays for events and leagues to compete in Promotes the development of up and coming sportspeople NEGATIVE Not everyone can get sponsorship, especially if you play an unpopular sport If you get injured, lose your form or get a bad reputation, sponsors could withdraw Abuse of power by associating alcohol and cigarettes with sport. This gives a false image of health
Media Sport is everywhere! 1. TV and radio 2. Cable and satellite pay-per-view events 3. Ceefax and teletext 4. Internet 5. Newspapers and magazines 6. Books and films 7. Mobile technology Media coverage depends a lot on technology. Apart from making the above forms possible, it also improves things with instant replays, photo finishes, underwater cameras, split times and timings. 1. 2.
3. 4. 5. POSITIVE EFFECTS MONEY media companies pay for the rights to show a sport. Sponsorship will increase massively if that sport is popularised by the media EDUCATION people learn about rules and tactics for a sport ROLE MODELS young people aspire to be like these INSPIRATION brings sports to people who may not otherwise experience it, which can encourage participation AID TO COACHING lets you study the performance of others 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. NEGATIVE EFFECTS BIAS only the really popular sports get much coverage, so smaller sports dont get much sponsorship LACK OF ATTENDANCE watching it on TV means you re not at the game, which reduces ticket sales. OVERLOAD some think there is too much sport on TV OPEN SEASON stars are hounded by the media DEMANDS TO COMPLY media impose rules on sports to make them more exciting. Golden goal in football, tie breaks in tennis Social and Cultural Aspects SPORTING BEHAVIOUR
Etiquette the unwritten rules In sport this means fair play and good manners Footballers often kick the ball out of play if an opponent is injured so they can be treated. At the throw in, the opposition give the ball back to the other team. At the end of a tennis match, players shake their opponents and umpires hand. Violence This is rare in non-contact sports, as there is no direct aggression Fights do break out in aggressive team sports, such as rugby Some people say violence among players causes spectator violence, but this is not been proved either way If a player has behaved in a violent manner, they can be fined or suspended, and their club may be fined. SPECTATORS Crowds can influence a match by cheering on their team and putting off the opposition. This is a reason why playing at home is an advantage They buy tickets and other merchandise, which brings money into the club However, there can be a downside to fans Facilities are needed, and stewards have to be there to supervise them The police may be needed to control large numbers of fans, and the clubs have to pay for this Hooliganism can be a problem Hooliganism has caused disasters, so action has been taken: Heysel Disaster in 1985, at the European Cup Final, 39 Juventus fans were killed =when Liverpool fans rushed towards them, making a wall collapse.
Hillsborough Disaster at the 1989 FA Cup semi-final, 96 fans were crushed to death against fences around the pitch, after too many people had been let into the stadium. The Taylor Report made the following recommendations 1. Stadiums had to have fences separating opposing fans 2. Stadiums had to become all-seater 3. Club membership schemes were introduced to stop known trouble makers entering the grounds 4. Perimeter fences between the crowds and the pitch were removed 5. CCTV was installed to monitor fans AMATEURS Dont get paid
Take part because the enjoy it Hockey is a sport that is totally amateur Clubs have to pay for the hire of facilities Players of the clubs pay membership fees Some clubs get sponsorship from small local businesses PROFESSIONALS Get paid for playing Their full time job TV and radio pay massive amounts for the rights to show the event They sell merchandise Sponsorship
Influences of Local and National Providers LOCAL SPORTS CLUBS CHAIRPERSON Top official who chairs the meetings and represents the club VICE-CHAIR Takes over if the chair is away TRESURER Manages the clubs finances SECRETARY Takes notes at meetings, lets members know what is going on
FIXTURE SEC Organises the clubs events MEMBERSHIP SECRETARY Tries to enrol new members COACH Helps the club members to train and coaches the teams A general structure of a sports club committee, which is elected by the club members SPORTING FACILITIES Outdoor facilities Include pitches (football, hockey, cricket), tracks (athletics, horse racing), pools (water sports), courts (tennis, netball) and natural features (canoeing) Indoor facilities
Usually purpose built buildings, such as swimming pools, sports halls, gyms (used for lots of different activities, like football, badminton, tennis) When you plan to build an indoor facility, there are many things needed to be taken into consideration: 1. Are people going to use it? 2. Can people park there? 3. Can it be used for other things? 4. Can people get to it? 5. What will it cost? 6. Is there any competition? Public Sector Facilities Owned by local authorities and councils Usually run at a loss Sports pitches, leisure centres, swimming pools Private Sector Facilities Owned by companies or individuals Run to make money
Sports stadiums, tennis clubs, golf clubs, health clubs Centres of Excellence Offer very good facilities for top class athletes Crystal Palace Bisham Abbey Lilleshall Holme Pierrepoint Plas-y-Brenin SPORTING BODIES AND ORGANISATIONS National Governing Bodies of sport have 4 main roles: 1. To maintain the rules of the sport and keep the discipline 2. To promote the sport 3. To organise international competitive events 4. To organise national competitions Examples of governing bodies are the FA
(Football Association), UKA (UK Athletics) SPORT ENGLAND Aims to: 1. Give the UKs world class performers excellent support 2. Improve the UKs profile and influence on the international stage 3. Promote ethical behaviour 4. Persuade governing bodies that the UK is the best place to hold major sporting events
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