Core Case Study: Reintroducing Gray Wolves to Yellowstone
Core Case Study: Reintroducing Gray Wolves to Yellowstone Around 1800 18501900: decline due to human activity
U.S. Endangered Species Act: 1973 19951996: relocation of gray wolves to Yellowstone Park 2008: Gray wolf no longer protected Natural Capital Restoration: the Gray Wolf In the news . . .
Science Focus: Effects of Reintroducing the Gray Wolf to Yellowstone National Park Doug Smith Gray wolves prey on elk and push them to a higher elevation Regrowth of aspen, cottonwoods, and willows Increased population of riparian songbirds Reduced the number of coyotes
Fewer attacks on cattle Video clips Wolf pups susceptible to parvovirus carried by dogs Haiti
Dominican Republic I There is no solution, I assure you, to save the Earths biodiversity other than the preservation of natural environments
in reserves large enough to maintain wild populations sustainably. Edward Wilson Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach Chapter 10
Forests Vary in Their Make-Up, Age, and Origins Old-growth or primary forest 36% of worlds forests Second-growth forest 60% of worlds forests Tree plantation, tree farm or commercial forest 4% of worlds forests
May supply most of the industrial wood in the future B Natural Capital: An Old-Growth Forest and an Old-Growth Tropical Forest B
Rotation Cycle of Cutting and Regrowth of a Monoculture Tree Plantation B Natural Capital: Major Ecological and Economic Services Provided by Forests
V Science Focus: Putting a Price Tag on Natures Ecological Services Forests valued for ecological services Nutrient cycling Climate regulation
Erosion control Waste treatment Recreation Raw materials $4.7 Trillion per year V Unsustainable Logging is a Major Threat to
Forest Ecosystems Increased erosion Sediment runoff into waterways Habitat fragmentation Loss of biodiversity T
Unsustainable Logging is a Major Threat to Forest Ecosystems Major tree harvesting methods: Selective cutting Clear-cutting Strip cutting T
Clear-Cut Logging in Washington State, U.S. T Fire, Insects, and Climate Change Can Threaten Forest Ecosystems
Surface fires Usually burn leaf litter and undergrowth May provide food in the form of vegetation that sprouts after fire Benefits? Crown fires Extremely hot: burns whole trees
Kill wildlife Increase soil erosion T U.S. Forest Invading Nonnative Insect Species and Disease Organisms
Bark Beetle - California http://www.californiareport.org/archive/R201102180850/bT Continued threats: Global warming
Rising temperatures Trees more susceptible to diseases and pests Drier forests: more fires More greenhouse gases T
We Have Cut Down Almost Half of the Worlds Forests Deforestation Lost 1/2 Tropical forests Especially in Latin America, Indonesia, and Africa Boreal forests Especially in Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Russia
Canadian Boreal Initiative T Map courtesy of Boreal Songbird Initiative Top intact forestslargest in red, followed by yellow and green,
representing forests undisturbed to date by humans Page 223 Natural Capital Degradation: Extreme Tropical Deforestation in Thailand T
Solutions: 1) Sustainable Forestry Science Focus: Certifying Sustainably Grown Timber Collins Pine Owns and manages protective timberland Forest Stewardship Council Nonprofit
Developed list of environmentally sound practices Certifies timber and products Collins Pine S Solutions: 2) We Can Reduce the Demand for
Harvested Trees Improve the efficiency of wood use Make tree-free paper Kenaf Hemp kudzu S
Individuals Matter: Wangari Maathari and Kenyas Green Belt Movement Green Belt Movement: 1977 Self-help group of women in Kenya Success of tree planting Nobel Peace Prize: 2004
Grasslands Some Rangelands Are Overgrazed Important ecological services of grasslands Soil formation Erosion control Nutrient cycling Storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in biomass
Maintenance of diversity Natural Capital Degradation: Overgrazed and Lightly Grazed Rangeland Some Rangelands are Overgrazed Overgrazing of rangelands Reduces grass cover
Leads to erosion of soil by water and wind Soil becomes compacted Enhances invasion of plant species that cattle wont eat Malpai Borderlands Management success story We Can Manage Rangelands More Sustainably Solutions:
Rotational grazing Suppress growth of invasive species Herbicides Mechanical removal Controlled burning Controlled short-term trampling Replant barren areas Apply fertilizer
Reduce soil erosion Restoration of Grazing Lands National Parks Face Many Environmental Threats Worldwide: 1100 major national parks Parks in developing countries
Greatest biodiversity 1% protected against Illegal animal poaching Illegal logging and mining S p i
k Case Study: Stresses on U.S. Public Parks US National Parks 58 Major national parks in the U.S. Biggest problem may be popularity
Noise Congestion Pollution Damage or destruction to vegetation and wildlife S p
i k Repairs needed to trails and buildings California State Parks Solutions: National Parks
S p i k Nature Reserves Occupy Only a Small Part of the Earths Land
Conservationists goal: protect 20% of the earths land Cooperation between government and private groups Nature Conservancy Eco-philanthropists Developers and resource extractors opposition Designing and Connecting Nature Reserves Large versus small reserves
The buffer zone concept United Nations: 529 biosphere reserves in 105 countries Habitat corridors between isolated reserves Advantages Disadvantages Solutions: A Model Biosphere Reserve
Case Study: Costa RicaA Global Conservation Leader 19631983: cleared much of the forest 19862006: forests grew from 26% to 51% Goal: to reduce net carbon dioxide emissions to zero by 2021 Eight zoned megareserves Designed to sustain around 80% of Costa Ricas biodiversity
We Can Use a Four-Point Strategy to Protect Ecosystems 1. Map global ecosystems; identify species 2. Locate and protect most endangered species p i
k 3. Restore degraded ecosystems S 4. Development must be biodiversity-friendly
Are new laws needed? Protecting Global Biodiversity Hot Spots Is an Urgent Priority 1988: Norman Myers Identify biodiversity hot spots rich in plant species Not sufficient public support and funding 2% Land Surface
50% Flowering sps 42% Terrestrial Vertebrates sps Drawbacks of this approach May not be rich in animal diversity People may be displaced and/or lose access to important resources
Endangered Natural Capital: 34 Biodiversity Hotspots Endangered Natural Capital: Biodiversity Hotspots in the U.S. Protecting Ecosystem Services Is Also an Urgent Priority
U.N. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: 2005 Identify key ecosystem services Human activities degrade or overuse 62% of the earths natural services Identify highly stressed life raft ecosystems We Can Rehabilitate and Restore Ecosystems That We Have Damaged
Study how natural ecosystems recover Restoration Rehabilitation Replacement Creating artificial ecosystems How to carry out most forms of ecological restoration and rehabilitation Identify what caused the degradation
Stop the abuse Reintroduce species, if possible Protect from further degradation Bolsa Chica? Timeline Will Restoration Encourage Further Destruction?
Preventing ecosystem damage is cheaper than restoration About 5% of the earths land is preserved from the effects of human activities We Can Share Areas We Dominate With Other Species Win-Win Ecology: How Earths Species Can Survive in the Midst of Human Enterprise, by Michael L. Rozenweig, 2003 5. Reconciliation or applied ecology
Community-based conservation Belize and the black howler monkeys Protect vital insect pollinators Bluebird protection with special housing boxes Berlin, Germany: rooftop gardens San Francisco: Golden Gate Park
Case Study: The Blackfoot Challenge Reconciliation Ecology in Action 1970s: Blackfoot River Valley in Montana threatened by Poor mining, logging, and grazing practices Water and air pollution Unsustainable commercial and residential development S
p i k Community meetings led to Weed-pulling parties Nesting structures for waterfowl
Developed sustainable grazing systems What Can You Do? Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity
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