Document and Handwriting Analysis Chapter 15 To become

Document and Handwriting Analysis Chapter 15 To become

Document and Handwriting Analysis Chapter 15 To become a document examiner

Bachelors degree followed by an internship under a recognized examiner. 2-3 more years of independent document work Certification by the American Board of Forensic Document Examiners (ABFDE)

Natural or corrected 20/20 vision in each eye Cannot be form or color-blind A document examiner can determine

whether a signature or writing is authentic by analyzing 12 characteristics of the writing sample and

comparing it to known samples (exemplars). Handwriting can be individual evidence.

ACE process Analyze Compare Evaluate Using

microscopy, photography, Analyze wills, checks, contracts, drivers licenses, voter registrations,

passports, lottery tickets, concert tickets, works of art, valuable collectibles, ransom notes, etc. Collecting Exemplars

Handwriting samples lie OUTSIDE the protection of the 4th and 5th amendment. Suspects may NOT plead the 5th and the taking of handwriting samples DOES NOT constitute

unreasonable search and seizure. Known writings must: be adequate in number to show full range of natural variations.

contain some of the same words or phrases as the questioned document. be as similar to the questioned document as possible (type of paper, writing implement, ruled vs unruled paper, etc)

1. Line Quality Smooth vs shaky

2. Spacing of words and letters 3. Ratio of height, width, size of letters

4. Pen lifts and separations 5. Connecting strokes 6. Beginning and ending strokes 7. Unusual letter formation

8. Shading or pen pressure 9. Slant

10. Baseline habits 11. Flourishes or embellishments 12. Placement of diacritics

Comparing samples Methods of Forgery 1. Blind Forgery; forger uses his or her

own handwriting and does not attempt to copy an original. 2. Simulated Forgery; carefully copying a genuine signature. 3. Traced Forgery; tracing a genuine

signature onto a document. JonBenet Ramsey case Obliterations

the removal of writing by physical or chemical means.

Physical; erasures scraping ink off of the papers surface Chemical;

strong oxidizing agents like chlorine and sodium hypochlorite make ink colorless Detected with microscope, oblique lighting, UV or infrared light. Digital image

processing; Lightening, darkening, contrast, and filters

The Vinland Map Indentations Can be used to forge a signature.

Oblique lighting will enhance indentations while rubbing with a pencil can alter the evidence Electrostatic Detection Apparatus

Typing and Printing Wear and damage to a machine will result in individual characteristics of a typewriter.

Paper Raw material source Color Density

Watermarks Dyes or bleaches Fluorescence under UV light Thickness (use a micrometer)

Inks Chemical Composition; Use thin-layer chromotography Counterfeiting

Photocopiers and printers Photocopiers leave transitory

defect marks from debris on the glass, inner cover, etc

Printer model determination: Analysis of printer technology Analysis of type of ink used Fax Machines

Fax machinessame points of comparison as printers with the addition of the header, known as the TTI at the top of each page. TTI= transmitting terminal identifier Data base of TTI fonts maintained by the

American Society of Questioned Document Examiners Voice Examination Sound spectrograph

Spectrogram analysis Measures three parameters of speech: Time Frequency

Volume of different frequencies Howard Hughes case

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