passports, lottery tickets, concert tickets, works of art, valuable collectibles, ransom notes, etc. Collecting Exemplars
Handwriting samples lie OUTSIDE the protection of the 4th and 5th amendment. Suspects may NOT plead the 5th and the taking of handwriting samples DOES NOT constitute
unreasonable search and seizure. Known writings must: be adequate in number to show full range of natural variations.
contain some of the same words or phrases as the questioned document. be as similar to the questioned document as possible (type of paper, writing implement, ruled vs unruled paper, etc)
1. Line Quality Smooth vs shaky
2. Spacing of words and letters 3. Ratio of height, width, size of letters
4. Pen lifts and separations 5. Connecting strokes 6. Beginning and ending strokes 7. Unusual letter formation
8. Shading or pen pressure 9. Slant
10. Baseline habits 11. Flourishes or embellishments 12. Placement of diacritics
Comparing samples Methods of Forgery 1. Blind Forgery; forger uses his or her
own handwriting and does not attempt to copy an original. 2. Simulated Forgery; carefully copying a genuine signature. 3. Traced Forgery; tracing a genuine
signature onto a document. JonBenet Ramsey case Obliterations
the removal of writing by physical or chemical means.
Physical; erasures scraping ink off of the papers surface Chemical;
strong oxidizing agents like chlorine and sodium hypochlorite make ink colorless Detected with microscope, oblique lighting, UV or infrared light. Digital image
processing; Lightening, darkening, contrast, and filters
The Vinland Map Indentations Can be used to forge a signature.
Oblique lighting will enhance indentations while rubbing with a pencil can alter the evidence Electrostatic Detection Apparatus
Typing and Printing Wear and damage to a machine will result in individual characteristics of a typewriter.
Paper Raw material source Color Density
Watermarks Dyes or bleaches Fluorescence under UV light Thickness (use a micrometer)
Inks Chemical Composition; Use thin-layer chromotography Counterfeiting
Photocopiers and printers Photocopiers leave transitory
defect marks from debris on the glass, inner cover, etc
Printer model determination: Analysis of printer technology Analysis of type of ink used Fax Machines
Fax machinessame points of comparison as printers with the addition of the header, known as the TTI at the top of each page. TTI= transmitting terminal identifier Data base of TTI fonts maintained by the
American Society of Questioned Document Examiners Voice Examination Sound spectrograph
Spectrogram analysis Measures three parameters of speech: Time Frequency
Volume of different frequencies Howard Hughes case
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