S DNG T V LAO NG NNG THN

S DNG T V LAO NG NNG THN

S DNG T V LAO NG NNG THN TRONG GIAI ON HIN NAY Nghin cu trng hp ti x Cm Hong Cm Ging-Hi Dng V nh Tn1,2, Nguyn Th Thu Huyn2, V Quc Khnh2, Philippe LEBAILLY3 Khoa Chn nui v Nui trng Thy sn, Trng H NN H Ni 2 Trung tm Nghin cu Lin ngnh PTNT 3 Trng i hc Nng nghip Gembloux, B 1 T VN CHNH SCH MC TIU KT QU Quy m sx tng; Quyn s dng Nng cao hiu rung t qu s dng t; Dn in i tha Hiu qu s sx chuyn canh; Chuyn dch L;

Chuyn i mc dng lao ng; Thu nhp tng; Hiu qu s y nhanh tin ch s dng t S dng lao ng Tn dng dng vn. Hnh thnh vng trnh CNH-HH nng nghip, nng thn. T VN TNH TNH HI HI DNG X X Cm Cm Hong Hong IM NGHIN CU MIN BC VIT NAM

CM HONG: - Vng ng bng S. Hng - Din tch: 750 ha - Dn s: trn 7000 ngi - Sn xut nng nghip (la, chn nui, NTTS) MC TIU NGHIN CU nh gi tc ng ca DT v chuyn i MSDNN n hot ng sn xut nng nghip ca vng nghin cu; nh gi tc ng ca DT v chuyn i MSDNN n tnh hnh lao ng, thu nhp v vic lm ca h nng dn vng nghin cu; Tm hiu nhng vn ny sinh cn gii quyt do tc ng ca vic dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ch s dng t nng nghip. PHNG PHP NGHIN CU a. Thu thp s liu S liu th cp: Thu thp t cc bo co tnh hnh kinh t x hi hng nm ca UBND x Cm Hong. Phng vn cn b x. S liu s cp: c thu thp trn 200 h nng dn c chuyn i v khng chuyn i mc ch s dng t nng nghip theo 2 mc thi gian nm 2000 v 2007. b. Phn tch s liu M t thc trng dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ch s dng t nng nghip x t nm 1998 n nay. Phn tch tc ng ca dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ich s dng t nng nghip n i sng kinh t - x hi ca ngi dn x Cm Hong.

KT QU NGHIN CU 1. Thc trng dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ch s dng t nng nghip Cm Hong. 2. Lao ng, thu nhp v vic lm ca ngi lao ng. 3. Xu hng tm vic lm ca cc lao ng trong thi gian ti. 4. Mt s thch thc t ra sau dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ch s dng t Cm Hong. THC TRNG DN IN I THA CC H Cm Hong l mt trong nhng x u tin c chn lm m hnh th im tin hnh vn ng nng dn dn in i tha. Trc chuyn i, trung bnh 6,11 tha t canh tc/h (c bit 29 tha/h), vi din tch trung bnh 406 m2/tha. Sau chuyn i, trung bnh 2,23 tha/h (nhiu nht 5 tha/h), vi din tch trung bnh 1112 m2/tha.

Hot ng sn xut nng nghip thun tin hn do t ai tp trung, c bit l vic chuyn i mc ch s dng t t hiu qu rt r rt. CHUYN I MC CH S DNG T % so vi DT S h % so vi t Mc ch Nm s h ton chuyn (h) nng nghip s dng x i (ha) 2000 240 13,29 40,35 10,93 Ao - cy n qu 2003 750 40,43 158,62 24,93 Ao c, vn 2007 1010 53,81 174,64 42,99

Vn-aochung Quy trnh T lm Theo ch o ca UBND x Theo ch o ca UBND x Trc 2000: + Chuyn dch t do, khng theo quy hoch nh hng n khu vc trng la v gy kh khn cho vic xy dng c s h tng. + Mc ch: Lm ao kt hp vn cy n qu, vn tp. T 2001-2003: + Chuyn dch c s ch o ca UBND x + Mc ch: Lm ao kt hp vn cy n qu. T 2004 n nay: + Chuyn dch theo quy hoch ca UBND x + Mc ch: Xy dng m hnh VAC kt hp vi ao c lm ch o BIN NG T CHUYN I V T AO t ao t chuyn i 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2000 2003

2007 Nm Nm 2000, t ao chim 31,85% DT t chuyn i (ch yu l ao tn dng trong thn, x. G 2001-2003: DT ao tng ng k chim 58% tng DT t chuyn i Ao c c v tr quan trng trong h thng canh tc. Nm 2007: t ao chim 65,59% tng DT t chuyn i Phn ln t ao l t t chuyn i DT t chuyn i c a vo sn xut chuyn canh kh n nh nhm mang li hiu qu kinh t cao hn cho ngi dn. LAO NG, THU NHP V VIC LM CA H C cu cc nhm h Thu nhp theo nhm h v ngnh ngh Xu hng tm vic ca ngi lao ng trong thi gian ti. THAY I C CU NHM H T l (%) 2000 2007 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Nhm h Nhm h Nhm h Nhm h Nhm h Nhm h 1 2 3 4 5 6 1: h thun nng; 2: lao ng nng nghip v i lm thu; 3: lao ng nng nghip, cng nhn vin chc; 4: lao ng nng nghip v i xut khu lao ng; 5: lao ng lm nng nghip v tham gia t hai ngnh ngh khc tr ln; 6: h phi nng nghip T l gia cc nhm h c s thay i r rt nm 2000 so vi nm 2007: - Nm 2000: H thun nng chim cao nht (38,42%), h phi NN v h NN c ngi i XKL thp nht (2,46% v 1,97%). - Nm 2007: H c lao ng NN kt hp 2 ngnh ngh khac tr ln chim u th (38,92%) v thp nht l h thun nng & h phi NN (8,87% v 6,9%). - H c ngi i XKL tng kh mnh v thu nhp ca LXK cao hn rt nhiu so vi lao ng trong nc (i Loan, Malayxia, Hn Quc, Nga) THU NHP CA H NN KIM V PHI NN (nm 2007) 140 120 Triu ng/h/nm 2: LNN v lm thu; 114.37 93.63 100 79.61 80 4: LNN & XKL;

60 40 3: LNN & cng nhn vin chc; 47.25 5: LNN & tham gia t hai ngnh ngh khc tr ln; 38 20 6: h phi NN 0 Nhmh 2 Nhmh 3 Nhm h 4 Nhmh 5 Nhmh 6 Thu nhp c s khc nhau gia cc nhm h: H c ngi i XKL (nhm 5) c thu nhp cao nht: trung bnh t 114,5 triu ng/nm. H NN c lao ng lm thu c thu nhp thp nht (nhm 2): 38 triu ng/h/nm. H phi NN v h NN c t nht 3 ngh cng cho thu nhp kh: trung bnh t t 79,6 triu-93,63 triu ng/h/nm. THU NHP T NGNH NGH PHI NNG NGHIP Triu ng/ngi/nm

100 90 89.67 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 28.74 15.67 7.96 10 0 Bun bn, DV i lm Lm n XKL thu xa 14.73 16.31 Cng nhn Cng chc 11.7

Khc Tng t, thu nhp theo ngnh ngh phi NN cng c s sai khc rt r rt: Lao ng xut khu c thu nhp cao hn rt nhiu so vi cc lao ng khc: trung bnh 89,67 triu ng/ngi/nm. Lao ng i lm thu theo ma v c thu nhp thp nht. Phn ln h i lm vo ngy nng nhn, cng vic khng n nh v khng yu cu k nng cao. Trung bnh t 7,96 triu ng/ngi/nm. Cc ngh khc nh cng nhn, vin chc hay bun bn nh c thu nhp n nh hn v khng c s sai khc gia cc nhm ny. Trung bnh t 11,7 triu 16,31 triu ng/ngi/nm. HOT NG SN XUT CA H NNG NGHIP H chuyn i MSD (n=64) H khng chuyn i MSD (n=103) M hnh La (so) 4,45 LT (con) 8,23 La-CN (n=84) (110) (215) La-c 4,68 (n=48) (2,58) VAC 17,89 (630) (n=35) LN GC (con) (con)

1,23 125,23 (12) (20200) - - 1,36 196,32 Ao (so) 1,71 La (so) 4,88 (12) (50500) (0,56) LN (con) 2,44 (23) (250600) - - - (37) 58,13

3,4 539,93 5,98 (38) (4067) 3,9 (0,32,7) (16) 3,26 LT (con) 40,43 - GC (con) 452,97 Ao (so) 4,36 (33100) (27) (2701100) (2,512) Nhn chung, nhm h c hot ng chuyn i c quy m sn xut ln hn nhiu so vi nhm h khng c hot ng chuyn i: La-CN: s ln tht XC h chuyn i gp 5 ln h khng chuyn i; ln ni gp 2 ln. S gia cm c nui kh ln 450 con-800 con/h/nm; La c: TB 4,36 so ao/h C (3-7 so) so vi 1,71 so ao/h khng chuyn i (0,3-2,7 so); VAC: hu ht DT la c chuyn lm trang tri v gia tri. DT ao kh ln: TB 6 so/h (2,5-12 so); Ln tht TB: 58 con/h/nm; ln ni: 3,4 con/h/nm; gia cm: 540 con/h/nm (270-1100 con).

HQKT CA CC M HNH SN XUT NNG NGHIP SAU CHUYN I VT: Triu ng/h/nm M hnh Tng chi Doanh thu Thu nhp 1. La - la - chn nui - 2 la-chn nui nh (n=30) 3,06 10,34 7,30 - 2 la-cy v ngCN nh (n=11) 3,32 11,31 7,99 - La - ln - gia cm (n=79) 18,43 32,59 14,16 2. La - C (n=47) 20,35 43,87

23,53 3. Vn - Ao Chung (n=35) 80,83 131,75 50,92 Nhm h 2 la-CN nh v 2 la-v ng-CN nh c mc u t thp TN thp hn nhiu so vi cc m hnh c CN ln. M hnh la-CN truyn thng u t gp 6 ln h chuyn la TN kh hn nhiu, TNB t 14 tr./nm (gp 2 ln chuyn la). M hnh la-c c trin khai nhiu Cm Hong do kinh ph u t khng ln v an ton cao TN TB t 23,53 tr./nm. Tng DT v TN ca m hnh VAC cao nht (131,75 tr./nm v 50,92 tr./nm) Mc u t ln, yu cu k thut cao. MONG MUN V XU HNG TM VIC CA LAO NG TRONG THI GIAN TI Phn ln L c mong mun i XKL (35%): tui t 25-35, cha c ngh nghip n nh, hy vng c thu nhp cao. Khc, 19.13 L mun lm cng nhn khong 20%: thu nhp cha cao nhng n nh, c c hi lm ngh ring v c o to trong cc cng ty, nh my Phn ln nhng ngi trung tui, khng c kh nng i ngh mun tip tc vi nng nghip

(11,48%). Cc lao ng mun lm vin chc v mt s ngh khc c t l ln lt 14,75% v 19,13%. Lm nng, 11.48 Vin chc, 14.75 XKL, 35.52 Cng nhn, 19.13 MT S THCH THC T RA Bng nh gi c s h tng ca ngi dn x Cm Hong Mc Mc (%) p ng nhu cu (%) Giao thng Tt hn 83,62 Nh c 3,95 Xu i 12,43 48,02

Cha 51,98 in, nc 83,62 15,25 1,13 41,24 58,76 Mi trng 41,24 27,12 31,64 47,23 52,77 T nn x hi 22,60 49,72 27,68 - -

C s h tng: tt hn trc y nhng cha p ng c nhu cu sx; Mi trng vn ha nng thn v t nn x hi c xu hng xu i, c bit l cc h c ngi LXK; nhim mi trng sng gia tng do s dng nhiu thuc BVTV, thiu khng gian cho chn nui quy m ln; Quyt nh hng sn xut theo hng t pht, cha c s quy hoch c th ca cc cp chnh quyn; nh hng ngh nghip cho cc L ca cc cp chnh quyn cn lng tng. KT LUN Tc ng ca chnh sch dn in i tha v chuyn i mc ch s dng t NN Cm Hong: S tha t canh tc gim cn 2,23 tha/h ; Quy m sn xut ca h chuyn i mc ch s dng t NN tng ln r rt so vi h khng chuyn i s u ln ni tng 2-2,5 ln, ln tht tng 3-5 ln, gia cm tng hn 3,6 ln, ao tng 1,4-2,6 ln) ; Mc thu nhp ca cc nhm h chnh lch kh cao: h NN t 28 tr./nm; h c LXK cao nht: 114,5 tr./nm; nhm h phi NN c thu nhp TB t t 29,9 93,6 tr./nm. Phn ln cao L tr mun i XKL hoc lm vic trong cc cng ty, nh my. Cc L trung tui kh c c hi i ngh nn mun gn b vi ngh nng. Mt s vn ny sinh: h tng c s cn yu km, cha p ng c yu cu cho cc h chuyn i (h thng ng giao thng, in), nhim mi trng do sn xut thm canh cao, vn L v vic lm cho ngi L do d tha L

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • International opportunities for Higher Education Date: in 12

    International opportunities for Higher Education Date: in 12

    Edulink. Towards a single integrated system. Education and Culture … in other words. STUDYING & LEARNING ABROAD. Key Action . 1. International creditmobility. Degreemobility/ joint Master degrees. Date: in 12 pts. All levels: Bachelor, Master, PhD& all disciplines.
  • Conference on Small and Medium Enterprises: Overcoming Growth

    Conference on Small and Medium Enterprises: Overcoming Growth

    What the Papers Proposes to Do Objective: "determine the feasibility of … a pooled data SME credit scoring tool" in Latin American countries Not intended to be a business proposition (not a "functioning product") But Fair Isaac stands to gain...
  • Environmental Issues Dear Minoo and environmental team here's

    Environmental Issues Dear Minoo and environmental team here's

    TUNDRA CLIMATE (E) TUNDRA BIOME Highland climates are cool to cold, found in mountains and high plateaus. Climates change rapidly on mountains, becoming colder the higher the altitude gets. The climate of a highland area is closely related to the...
  • Biochemistry 530 Seminar course  Requirement for Graduation (all

    Biochemistry 530 Seminar course Requirement for Graduation (all

    Evaluation of BIOC 530 and BMBDG seminar speakers 65% 35% Course evaluation For BMBDG seminars, provide your name, year of study, date and seminar title (presenter) at the top of the page. For each speaker, write a single paragraph of...
  • nameher e namehere Month Year 121 Month Year

    nameher e namehere Month Year 121 Month Year

    Paste Picture Here. message goes here. This should be a sentence or two and possibly include a # that is relevant. message goes here. This should be a sentence or two and possibly include a # that is relevant. message...
  • Buddhism - Bloomer High School

    Buddhism - Bloomer High School

    Four Noble Truths The cause of suffering is desire. Four Noble Truths The solution is to eliminate desire Four Noble Truths To reach nirvana, one must follow the Eightfold Path. Eightfold Path Nirvana Escape from the cycle of rebirth. Buddha...
  • Product Overview - Planning

    Product Overview - Planning

    Product Studio is a tool used within Microsoft to track bugs, features, and defects. The Product Studio example solution should enable teams at Microsoft to monitor the status of these bugs and features by individual contributor. The solution must utilize...
  • Sam Hall - unideb.hu

    Sam Hall - unideb.hu

    Actors and Writers as Liars? The notablestlier is become the best Poet; he that can make the most notorious lie, and disguise falshood in such sort, that he maiepassevnperceaued, is held the best writer.. Anthony Munday [?] A second and...