Warm up K-W-L Chart What do you know about psychological disorders? What do you want to know about psychological disorders? Everyone stand up. Pick one from either column to share Psychological Disorders Chapter 14
Intro to psychological disorders Psychological disorders--behaviors or mental processes that are connected with various kinds of distress or severe impairment of functioning. Historic Views of Psychological Disorders In the past people believed that psychological disorders were caused by
possession by the Devil. People attributed unusual behavior and psychological disorders to demons. Famous sayings 6 characteristics of Psychological disorders They are unusual. They suggest faulty perception or interpretation of reality. Hearing voices, seeing things,
hallucinations, ideas of persecution. Hallucinations: perception in the absence of sensory stimulation; confused with reality They suggest severe personal distress. They are self-defeating. They are dangerous. The individuals behavior is socially unacceptable. Classifying Psychological Disorders
The most widely used classification scheme for psychological disorders is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM-V (current version) groups disorders on the basis of observable behaviors or symptoms. Classifying Psychological
Disorders Thomas Szasz believes that disorders are really just problems in living rather than disorders. Labeling people degrades them, encourages them to evade their personal and social responsibilities. Labeling people as sick accords too much power to health professionals. Troubled people need to be encouraged
to take greater responsibility for solving their own problems. Types of psychological disorders Psychological disorders are grouped into 6 categories: Anxiety Disorders Dissociative Disorders Somatoform disorders Mood Disorders Schizophrenia
Personality Disorders CONTROVERSY IN PSYCHOLOGY: Is a Gay Male or Lesbian Sexual Orientation A Psychological Disorder? Until 1973 a gay male or lesbian sexual orientation was considered to be a psychological disorder. A category for people who are distressed about their sexual orientation remains in place. Gay males and lesbians are more likely than
heterosexuals to experience feelings of anxiety and depression and they are more prone to suicide. CONTROVERSY IN PSYCHOLOGY: Is a Gay Male or Lesbian Sexual Orientation A Psychological Disorder? Bailey proposed interpretations of the issues surrounding homosexuality: Societal oppression causes the higher incidence of depression and suicidality. Homosexuality reflects a departure from
typical development. Sexual orientation reflects prenatal sex hormones. Homosexual people could reflect differences in lifestyle. Warm Up: 4/9 1. Many criteria have been suggested to differentiate normal and abnormal behavior. All of the following are included except a) behaviors that are rare. c)risk-taking behaviors.
b) behaviors that distort reality. d) behaviors that impair functioning. A factor that determines whether or not a behavior or feeling is evidence of a psychological disorder may be a) whether the behavior or feeling is pleasant. b) whether the behavior or feeling is appropriate to the situation. c)whether or not the behavior is legal. d) whether the behavior or feeling is appropriate to the norms of the dominant culture.
Whiteboard What are the 6 characteristics of psychological disorders? agenda As we get into psych disorders, we are going to cover different disorders within the six categories. Im going to try to be consistent in breaking it up into:
Description of the specific disorders Causes (either specific or overarching of the category) Treatment (either specific or overarching of the category) In addition, you will keep a worksheet used Anxiety Disorders Phobias, Panic Disorder, General Anxiety disorder
Anxiety Disorders Anxiety has psychological and physical features. Psychological features include: Worrying. Fear of the worst things happening. Fear of losing control. Nervousness.
Inability to relax. Anxiety Disorders Physical features include: Arousal of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system: Trembling. Sweating. Pounding heart. Elevated blood pressure.
Faintness. Anxiety is an appropriate Graphic Organizer Read the text/listen to the video. Write a 2- 3 sentence description and your diagnoses. Treatment and causes will be discussed Monday Phobias
Specific phobias are excessive, irrational fears of specific objects or situations, such as snakes or heights. Social phobias are persistent fears of scrutiny by others or of doing something that will be humiliating or embarrassing. Agoraphobia: fear of being
Panic Disorder Panic Disorder is an abrupt attack of acute anxiety that is not triggered by a specific object or situation. Symptoms include: Shortness of breath. Heavy sweating. Tremors. Pounding of heart. Many fear suffocation. Choking sensations.
Nausea. Numbness. Fear of going crazy or losing control. Symptoms may last minutes or hours. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder is persistent anxiety that cannot be attributed to a phobic object, situation or activity. It seems to be free-floating.
Symptoms include: Autonomic nervous system overarousal. Feelings of dread and foreboding. Excessive vigilance. White Boards What is the difference between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and Panic Disorder? How is panic disorder different from phobias?
Descriptions Go to the stations to take your notes of each of the three anxiety disorders 3 minutes at each station. http://bestpractice.bmj.com/best-practice/ monograph/120/diagnosis/case-history.html http://www.alexismain.co.uk/?p=phobia.cas
e.study Video: https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Eg695yLlEM start at 1:20 Need to make g.o. Obsessive Compulsive disorder http://www.yo
utube.com/wat ch?v=x4sadYe LHKU What are obsessions/wh at are compulsions? What are obsessions and compulsions you see in the
video? Types of Anxiety Disorders: Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder. Obsessions: recurrent, anxiety provoking thoughts or images that seem irrational and disrupt daily life. Compulsions: are thoughts or
behaviors that tend to reduce the anxiety connected with obsessions. Examples? Stress Disorders- PTSD and Acute Stress disorder Types of Anxiety Disorders: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by a rapid heart rate and feelings of anxiety and helplessness that are
caused by a traumatic experience. Traumatic experiences include natural or man-made disasters, threats, or assault, or witnessing a death. The traumatic event is revisited in the form of intrusive memories, recurrent dreams, and flashbacks. Acute stress disorder is characterized by feelings of anxiety and helplessness that are caused by a traumatic event.
PTSD http://video.pbs.org/video/1218601697/ http://www.youtube.com/user/ VeteransMTC?v=SqjwV-lsVEs Figure 14.1 Sleep Problems Among Americans Before and After September 11, 2001 Insomnia is one of the symptoms of stress disorders. A poll by the National Sleep Foundation found that Americans had a greater frequency of sleep problems after the terrorist attacks of September 11.
Warm up: Monday, October 29 How would you diagnose the following three scenarios? 1. Jasmine experiences an extreme fear of bunnies. She cant see one, sometimes even an image of one, without experiencing psychological stress and worrying, sweating, and a pounding heart. 2. Bianca constantly feels uptight, paranoid, and nervous. It is rare she feels relaxed in the course of a day even though she consciously knows that there is nothing to worry about. 3. Max experiences strong symptoms of panic anytime from a
couple of times a week to a few times a year. Seemingly out of no where he becomes short of breath, has a pounding heart, and experiences extreme dread. Even when he isnt having an attack, the fear of another attack keeps him from enjoying his life fully. Warm up- in your worksheet 1) Hector is a veteran of WWII. He still has flashbacks of seeing people being killed and doesnt like to talk about his experiences there. He has irrational fears
about being shot still. 2) Leslie is always worried that she has left a hair straightener or curling iron on when she leaves her home. She must confirm it is off at least 4 times before leaving her house, and frequently turns around even once she has left, to make sure that nothing is on. 3) After being in a car accident, Brad has a fear of driving. The thought of driving is very stressful for a couple of weeks after the accident, and he has flashbacks. His symptoms are better within a month, and he is now able to drive again.
Why is this happening?: Psychological Views on causes of disorders Psychodynamic: Phobias symbolize conflicts originating in childhood. Generalized anxiety as persistent difficulty in repressing primitive impulses. Obsessions are explained as leakage of unconscious impulses. Learning theorists:
Phobias are conditioned fears that were acquired in childhood. Observational learning also plays a role. Cognitive theorists: Anxiety is maintained by thinking that one is in a terrible situation and helpless to change it. Why is this happening? Biological Views
on causes of disorders Biological Views. Anxiety tends to run in families. Twin studies show a higher concordance rate for anxiety disorders among identical twins than among fraternal twins. Mineka (2001) suggest that humans are genetically predisposed to fear stimuli that may have posed a threat to their ancestors. The brain may not be sensitive enough to GABA, a neurotransmitter that may help
calm anxiety reactions. Objective and DOL Objective DOL SWBAT: SWBAT answer 3 describe the
mc questions on different dissociative disorders SWBAT compare and contrast dissociative disorders to anxiety disorders Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative disorders are characterized by a separation of mental processes such as emotions, identity, memory, perception, or consciousness. In other words, one of these areas is not working correctly and causing significant distress within the individual Dissociative disorders Dsm descriptions
Case studies http://www.dsm5.or http://www.psychol g/ProposedRevision /Pages/proposedrev ision.aspx?rid=55# http://www.dsm5.or g/ProposedRevision /Pages/proposedrev
6 groups of three One person read the information outloud to the group One person write a summary on the whiteboards of the symptoms of the disorder One person writes a summary of the case study (/studies) involving the disorder. You will present these to the class.
Types of Dissociative Disorders: Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative amnesia characterized by the person suddenly being unable to recall important personal information. Think-Pair-Share How is dissociative amnesia different than other amnesias?
Dissociative Fugue characterized by the person abruptly leaving their home or place of work and traveling to another place, having lost all memory of their past. The new personality is often more outgoing than the less inhibited one. DSM-V-TR is considering making this a subcategory of dissociative amnesia
Types of Dissociative Disorders: Dissociative identity disorder (formerly termed multiple personality disorder) characterized by two or more identities or personalities, each with distinct traits and memories, occupying the same person. Each identity may or may not be aware of the others.
Warm Up In 1-2 sentences describe each of the following: Dissociative identity disorder Dissociative fugue Dissociative amnesia Close Reading: Is DID a real disorder? Annotate and summarize the position I
gave to you. Warm Up November 1, 2012 What is something interesting in this class you have learned? Theoretical Views: Dissociative Disorders Psychodynamic theory
explains this as massive repression. Learning theorists suggest that people have learned not to think about bad memories or disturbing impulses in order to avoid feelings of anxiety, guilt or shame. Somatoform Disorders Somatoform disorders are
characterized by physical problems in people, such as paralysis, pain, or a persistent belief that they have a serious disease. Yet no evidence of a physical abnormality can be found. Types of somatoform disorders: Conversion disorder characterized by a major
change in, or loss of, physical functioning although there are no medical findings to explain the loss of functioning. (ex: blindness, but no damage to optic nerve) The person is not faking they seem to be converting a source of stress into a Hypochondriasis characterized by people insisting that
they are suffering with a serious physical illness even though no medical evidence of illness can be found. They become preoccupied with minor physical sensations and continue to believe that they are ill despite the reassurance of physicians that they are healthy. TPS How is this different than conversion disorder?
Somatoform disorders: Causes Theoretical Views. There is research evidence that people who develop hypochondriasis are particularly sensitive to bodily sensations and tend to ruminate about them. CONTROVERSY IN PSYCHOLOGY:
Are somatoform disorders the special province of women? Hippocrates believed that hysteria was caused by a wandering uterus. Conversion disorders are not the special province of women. Psychodynamic view suggests that conversion disorders protect the individual from feelings of guilt, shame or from another source of stress.
DOL Mrs Tannings visits her GP every week. One time she is exhausted and fears a severe heart disorder, and another time she suspects a tumour in every possible part of her body. Warm Up A) what are the two somatoform diorders? B) When you are finished, write a
characteristic for boys, and a characteristic of girls on the board. Types of Mood Disorders Major depression the common cold of psychological problems. Characteristics include (write 5) Lack of energy. Loss of self-esteem. Difficulty concentrating.
Loss of interest in activities and other people. Pessimism, crying, and thoughts of suicide. Poor appetite and serious weight loss. Faulty perception including delusions of unworthiness, guilt for imagined wrong doings and possible hallucinations of strange bodily sensations. diary Look for symptoms of depression in this
diary: http://crankylucy.blogspot.com/ The Case of Women and Depression Women are about two times more likely to be diagnosed with depression than men. Low levels of estrogen have been suggested as a reason. Hormonal changes, menstrual cycle, and childbirth may contribute to depression in women.
Women are more likely to admit to depression. Why would women be more likely to admit depression? More socailly acceptbale Why would this be negative for men? Women are more likely to ruminate about stresses. The Case of Women and Depression: Why? A panel convened by the APA attributed most of the gender difference to the
greater stresses placed on women. Multiple demands including: Demands of childbearing. Child rearing. Financial support of the family. Women are more likely to have experienced physical and sexual abuse, poverty, single parenthood, and sexism. Women are more likely to help other people which heaps additional care Types of Mood Disorders:
Bipolar Disorder formerly known as manic-depressive disorder and is characterized by: Mood swings from ecstatic elation to deep depression. In the manic phase the person may show
excessive excitement, silliness, show poor judgment, destroying property and giving away expensive possessions. They are too restless to sit still or sleep restfully. Depression often includes sleeping more than usual and being lethargic. Individuals also tend to withdraw and experience irritability. Warm up: 4/17 Ms. Bishop felt she had canker sores in her mouth, and she could see them when she
looked in the mirror. She looked it up and found that these are caused by psychological stress. Is this a form of conversion disorder, why or why not? Theoretical Views Depression may be a reaction to losses and stress. We tend to be depressed by things we bring on ourselves. Psychological Views: Psychoanalysts suggest that anger is turned
inward. Bipolar disorder may be seen as the personality being dominated by the superego and then by the ego. Learning theorists suggest that depressed people behave as though they cannot obtain reinforcement. They have an external locus of control. Researchers have found links between depression and learned helplessness. Theoretical Views Cognitive factors contributing to
depression include making irrational demands on themselves. Depressed people tend to ruminate about feelings of depression. Attribution styles include: internal vs. external; stable vs. unstable; and global vs. specific. People who are depressed tend to think of their situation as
Theoretical Views Biological Factors. Depression is heritable. Genetic factors appear to be involved. Bipolar disorder may be connected with genetic material found on Chromosome 18. Depression research focuses on the underutilization of the
Warm up: Monday, Nov. 5 What do you think this picture is trying to tell? What is happening to the boy? Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a severe psychological disorder that touches every aspect of a persons life.
Characterized by disturbances in: thought and language. perception and attention. motor activity and mood. Schizophrenia symptoms Withdrawal and absorption in daydreams or fantasy. Jumbled speech. Delusions. Hallucinations.
Stupors: slow motor activity. Emotional responses that may be flat. video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bWaFqw 8XnpA Watch the first man as he shows symptoms of schizophrenia.
Types of Schizophrenia Paranoid type Disorganized type Catatonic type Paranoid Type have systematized delusions and frequently related auditory hallucinations. Usually the delusions are of grandeur and persecution including jealousy.
Video:third woman Disorganized Type (write 4) incoherence loosening of associations disorganized behavior disorganized delusions fragmentary delusions or hallucinations flat or highly inappropriate emotional responses
video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bWaFqw 8XnpA Disorganized speech Second man on video Catatonic type show striking impairment in motor
activity. Slowing of activity into a stupor that may suddenly change into an agitated phase. Waxy flexibility in which the person maintains positions into which he or she has been manipulated by others. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=CRQMDsw02Dw
ABC reports on schizophrenia http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=74vTftboC_A Theories of Schizophrenia Psychological views: Psychodynamic perspective (predict) suggests that the ego is overwhelmed by sexual or aggressive impulses from the id.
The person retreats (regresses) to an early phase of the oral stage. Learning theorists explain schizophrenia in terms of conditioning and observational learning. Inner fantasies become more reinforcing than social realities. Some researchers are interested in the
connections between psychosocial stressors and biological factors. Theories of Schizophrenia Biological Views: Schizophrenia appears to be a brain disorder. Size of the ventricles in the brain.
Activity levels in the brain. Brain chemistry. Smaller brains. Smaller prefrontal region of the cortex. Larger ventricles. Possible causes of Schizophrenia Heredity. Chromosome 1. Complications during pregnancy.
Birth during winter. Poor maternal nutrition. Atypical development of the central nervous system. People with schizophrenia may overutilize dopamine. They may have larger numbers of dopamine receptors. The multifactorial model suggests that genetic
factors create a predisposition toward schizophrenia. Then other factors contribute to the cause of the disorder. Figure 14.2 A Multifactorial Model of Schizophrenia According to the multifactorial model of schizophrenia, people with a genetic vulnerability to the disorder experience increased risk for schizophrenia when they encounter problems such as viral infections, birth complications, stress,and poor parenting. People without the genetic vulnerability would not develop schizophrenia despite such problems. DOL
Write a diary entry as if you are a person dealing with Schizophrenia. CONTROVERSY IN PSYCHOLOGY: Should we ban the insanity plea? The issue is competence to stand trial. MNaghten rule states that the accused did not understand what they were doing at the time of the act, did not realize it was wrong, or was succumbing to an irresistible impulse. Although the public estimates that the insanity defense is
used in about 37% of felony cases, it is actually raised in only 1%. People found not guilty by reason of insanity are institutionalized for indefinite terms.
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