# Epicenters 1. The Themathematical mathematicalsolution solution for foreach

Epicenters

1. The
Themathematical
mathematicalsolution
solution for
foreach
eachsituation
situationisiscalculated
calculated as
as follows:
follows:
1.
Arrivaltime
timeof
ofS-wave
S-wave minus
minusP-wave
P-wavetimes
times22miles
milesper
persecond
second(speed
(speedof
of
Arrival
S-wave)times
times33miles
milesper
persecond
second(speed
(speed of
of P-waves)
P-waves) equals
equalsthe
the
S-wave)
distanceof
of epicenter
epicenterfrom
from seismograph.
seismograph.
distance
By doing
doingsome
someof
of the
thefixed
fixedcalculations
calculations first,
first, aashort
short version
version of
of
By
the previous
previous equation
equationwould
wouldbe::
be::
the
Arrivaltime
timeof
ofS-wave
S-wave minus
minusarrival
arrivaltime
timeof
ofP-wave
P-wavetimes
times 160
160
Arrival
equalsdistance
distanceto
toepicenter
epicenterfrom
from seismograph.
seismograph.
equals

By Jo Ann Byron

2.
2.

Hereare
aresome
somerepresentative
representativedata
datafor
forstudents
studentsto
touse
usefor
forpractice
practice
Here
P-waves S-waves
S-waves Distance
Distancefrom
from
P-waves
epicenter
epicenter
Hawaii 12:00
12:00
Hawaii
11:08
California10:43
10:43
California
Cuba
10:00
Cuba
10:00
Iceland 10:01
10:01
Iceland
Italy
10:02
Italy
10:02

3.
3.

Objective
Objective

Overview
Overview

Materials
Materials
and
and
Equipmen
Equipmen
tt
Teaching
Teaching
Suggestions
Suggestions

Time
Time

12:09
12:09
11:14
11:14
10:48
10:48
10:10.41
10:10.41
10:07.94
10:07.94
10:10.33
10:10.33

3240
miles
3240
miles
2160
miles
2160
miles
__________miles
miles
__________
__________miles
miles
__________
__________miles
miles
__________
__________miles
miles
__________

Useaaworld
worldmap
mapwith
withaa scale.
scale.Have
Havestudents
studentsdraw
drawcircles,
circles,to
to scale,
scale,
Use
aroundeach
eachof
of the
thelocations
locations given
given in
in the
thechart.
chart.The
of their
theircircles
circles
around
should be
beequal
equalto
to the
thecalculated
calculateddistance
distancefrom
fromthe
theearthquake
earthquake epicenter.
epicenter.
should
Thecommon
common point
pointdefined
definedby
by an
anoverlapping
overlappingof
ofcircles
circlesreveals
revealsthe
the
The
geographiclocation
locationof
ofthe
the epicenter
epicenter
geographic

Procedure
Procedure
ss

Assessme
Assessme
nt
nt

Safety
Safety Note
Note

Further
Further
Challenge
Challenge
ss

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