Biotechnology is the use of biological systems, such

Biotechnology is the use of biological systems, such

Biotechnology is the use of biological systems, such as microorganisms, whole cells or their molecules, to solve problems or to make useful products. Tools of Biotechnology 1. Bioprocessing technology Using whole living cells or components of

them to manufacture desired products. Most common whole cells used are yeast and bacteria (one-celled organisms). Most common components are enzymes (proteins that catalyze chemical reactions). Microbial fermentation Cells isolated from animals and plants also are used to produce desired products. Tools of Biotechnology 2. Genetic engineering

The technique of removing, modifying or adding genes to a DNA molecule to change the information it contains. Is known more specifically as recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. The product of rDNA technology is known as a genetically modified organism, or GMO. Example: Gene for human insulin inserted into E.coli bacteria that make human insulin (a biopharmaceutical).

Practical Applications of Biotechnology 1. Agricultural applications Better crops Improved animal health 2. Medical and health care applications New tests New vaccines New medicines 3. Chemical and environmental applications

Better manufacturing processes Improved consumer products Practical Applications of Biotechnology 1a. Agricultural applications: improve crops Improve crop yields by introducing genes that confer resistance to insects, tolerance to herbicides and resistance to environmental stresses (drought, heat, cold). Create disease- and insect-resistant trees to

help meet demand for wood products. Practical Applications of Biotechnology 1b. Agricultural applications: improve animal health Better detection of disease More nutritious feed New and more effective vaccines Improved treatments for diseases Practical Applications of Biotechnology

2. Medical and health care applications New diagnostic tests Example: new generation of home pregnancy and strep tests MANY new treatments for diseases and conditions Examples: diabetes, stroke, anemia, cystic fibrosis, growth deficiency, rheumatoid arthritis, hemophilia, hepatitis, genital warts, transplant rejection, leukemia and other cancers Practical Applications of Biotechnology

3. Chemical and environmental applications (industrial biotechnology) Produce enzymes used in laundry detergents Use genetically modified microorganisms that break down industrial waste Develop bio-based, biodegradable plastics Improve manufacturing that reduces the amount of waste products

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